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Full text of "A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence"

Special Edition 



I'ifH j'tmnttutum 



The Prapher (P&UH) says; 



"If ANah wants to do good for a person , 
He makes him understand the religion. 




r. Salih Al-Fawzan 



Profeasor of Islamic Jurisprudence, 

Member of the Board of Senior Ulema & Member 

of the Permanent Committee for Fatwa and Research 



Bismi Allahi Alrrahmani Alrraheemi 

In the name of Allah, the most 
Beneficent, the most Merciful 



A SUMMARY OF 




(j^dJI ^^aitili 



Volume 1 



DrSalih Al-Fawzan 

Professor of tslarrile Jurisprudence, 
Member of the Board of Senior Uletna & Membor 
of the Permanent Committal for Fatwa and Research 




Al- Mai man Publishing House 
Saudi Arabia, P.O.Box 90020, Riyadh 11 61 3 



AI-Mulakhkhas At-F iqhi, First Edition 
by Professor Salih Al-Fawzan 

Copyright © 2005, Al-M-aiman Publishing House, All rights reserved. 



Translated by Al- Arabia for Information Technology, Cairo. 
49th Noobar St. h Bab Al-Loq, 2nd Floor, City Mall Building. 

Tel: +202 7949370 
Fax: +202 7962730 

Published by Al-Maiman Publishing House, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. 
P. G.B: 90020 Riyadh 11613 

Riyadh: Tel: + 966 t 4627336 - 4645594 - 4645581 - 4026194 
Fax: + 96ft I 4612163 - 2300587 



To arrange bulk purchase discounts or book distribu tori outside Saudi Arabia, please 
contacE Al-Maiman Publishing House at the above address. For information on translated! 
books, please contact Al- Arabia at the above addresser mfo@arabia-it.com. 



Copyright ^ 2005 by Al-Maiman Publishing House. All rights reserved, 

No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any 
means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission 
of the publisher. 

This book was composed with Adobe Tn Design CS 



In the Name of A IJah, the fcnhrdv Merciful, the Especially Merciful 



CONTENTS 



English Islamic Library 
Editorial Staff 
Acknowledgement 
Translator's Preface 
Introduction 



■■■■■■■ + ->4 ritr- 



I: PURIFICATION 

Chapter 1 Purification and Water,. 



Chapter 2 
Chapter Z 

Chapter 4 
Chapter 5 

Chapter 6 
Chapter 7 
Chapter 8 
Chapter 9 
Chapter 10 
Chapter 1 1 
Chapter 12 
Chapter 13 



Disbelievers' Pots and Clothes 

Things Ritual Impurity Prohibits Doing 

Etiquette of Answering Cali of Nature.... 

Siwak and Acts of Natural Disposition 

Ablution ,..,„... , , LJJi .„ 

Way of Performing Ablution 

Wiping over the Khuffe 

Things Nullifying Ablution 

Ritual Bathing , „...„„ 

Tayammum (Dry Ablution) „ 

Removal of Impurity. ,. , 

Menstruation and Postnatal Bleeding 



Page 

vii 

be 

vi 

xiii 
1 



9 
15 
19 

25 
29 

35 
41 
47 
53 

59 
63 
fi9 
75 



CONTENTS ^ iv 

II: PRAYER 

Chapter 1 Obligation of the Five Prayers 87 

Chapter 2 Prayer Call (Adrian) and Immediate Prayer 

Call ([qamah) . 93 

Chapter 3 Prayer Conditions 97 

Chapter 4 Etiquette of Heading for Mosque 113 

Chapter 5 Prayer: Integral Parts, Obi igatory Practices and 

Acts of the Sunnah J 19 

Chapter 6 Manner of Prayer. 129 

Chapter 7 Prayer: Detestable Acts , 135 

Chapters Prayer: Desirable and Permissible Acts 139 

Chapter9 Prostration of Forge tfulness.. 1*3 

Chapter 10 Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah) Hollowing Prayer. 149 

Chapter 11 Voluntary Prayer, , — -.., *••> 157 

Chapter 12 Witr Prayer. 159 

Chapter 13 Tarawlh Prayer, , 163 

Chapter 14 Sunnah llatibah: Prayers Performed along with 

Obligatory Prayers . ..,...„ 167 

Chapter 15 Duha (Forenoon) Prayer, 173 

Chapter i& Prostration of Recitation 175 

Chapter 17 Non-regular Supererogatory Prayer. .>., 179 

Chapter 13 Times When Prayer is Forbidden 1&5 

Chapter 19 Congregational Prayer. ... 189 

Chapter 20 The Latecomer to Congregational Prayer. 203 

Chapter 21 Women's Attendance in Mosques 209 

Chapter 22 Imamate (in Prayer) 215 

Chapter 23 Invalid Imamate 221 

Chapter 24 Duties of the Imam 227 



Chapter 25 
Chapter 26 
Chapter 27 
Chapter 28 

Chapter 29 
Chapter 30 

III: ZAKAH 

Chapter 1 
Chapter 2 
Chapter 3 
Chapter 4 
Chapter 5 
Chapter 6 
Chapter 7 
Chapter 3 
Chapter 9 

IV: FASTING 

Chapter 1 
Chapter 2 
Chapter 3 
Chapter 4 
Chapter 5 

V: HAJJ 

Chapter 1 
Chapter 2 
Chapter 3 
Chapter 4 



A Summary oi Islamic Jurisprudence 

Prayer of Those Having Legal Excuses, .... 233 

Jumu'ah (Friday) Prayer.-,, 247 

Two Feasts ("Ids) Prayer . 265 

Ectipse Prayer ,„„„.„...., 281 

Rain Frayer 287 

Death and Burial 293 

Zakahr Legality and Virtue ,.,,„„ 319 

Zakah: Grazing AnimaEs and Livestock. „...., 325 

Zakah: Grains, Fruits, Honey, Minerals and Rikaz 335 

Zakah: Gold and Silver. 341 

Zakah: Trade Goods., 347 

Zakatu I - Fitr ( Fast- b reaki ng Zaka h) 35 1 

Giving Zakah..,,,.,..,....,...... . ... 357 

Entitled Recipients of Zakah 361 

Desirable Charity. 369 

Fast i n g Ra mad an r O bl i gatio n and Tl m i ng 375 

Beginning and End nfa Failing Day. 381 

Things Nullifying Fasting.......... 387 

Making up for Missed Days of Ramadan 391 

breaking the Past; Illness or Old Age 395 

The Obligation ofH^jj (Pilgrimage) 403 

Womeiiij Hajj & Performing It on Someones Behalf..... 4 1 1 

Virtues of Hajj and Its Preparations 415 

Mlqatsofriajj , 417 



CONTENTS 




vi 


Chapter 5 


How to Assume Ihram.,,... . t . t . 


421 


Chapter 6 


Acts Prohibited during Ihram 


427 


Chapter 7 


Rites of Tar wiy ah and 'Arafah Days 


437 


Chapters 


Acts on Musdalifahand Mina 


443 


Chapters 


Days of Tashriq and Farewell law&f, ..,.,., 


453 


Chapter 10 


Sacrificial Animals (Hadyand Udhiyah ).......... 


459 


Chapter 11 


' Aqiqah (Sacrificial Animal for the Newborn) 


463 


VI: JIHAD 






Chapter 1 


Jihad (Fighting in the Cause of Allah) 


471 


APPENDICES 






Glossary............ 




481 


Name Judex 




489 






493 


Quranic Verse Index- ----—— - - - 


499 


Hadith Index 




503 


Transliteration Systeir 




527 



ENGLISH ISLAMIC LIBRARY 

English Islamic Library: A series in English covering central 
arid various issues in Creed, Jurisprudence and Islamic Sciences by 
authors who have expert knowledge in their fields. It targets both the Muslims 

and the non-Muslims in the west as well as those who study Islamic Sciences in 
English in Arab countries- Tt also targets those who are engaged in propagating 
Islam in the West. 



IN THIS SERIES: 

1. Concise Commentary on the Book ofTawfald: Sheikh professor 
Salih Al-Fawzan 

2. A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence (Volume one); Sheikh 
professor Sjmfr Al-Fawzan 

3. A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence (Volume two); Sheikh 

professor Salih Al-Fawzan 

4. Guide to Sound Creed: Sheikh professor Salih Al-Fawzan 

5. A Brief Account of the Prophet Biography: Sheikh Muhammad 

Ibn h Abdul- Wahhab 

6. Allah's Insightful Signs: lawftq Ulwan 

7. The Way of the Travelers: An Explanatory Book on Islamic 
Jurisprudence! Sheikh Abdur- Rahman As-Sa'di 

8. Exonerating the Great Imams from Blame: Imam Ibn Taymiyah 

9. Universality of Islam; Imam Ibn Taymiyah 

10. Ibn TaymiyaKs Collection ofFatwas (Volumes 21 & 22 & 23) 









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r.o-M "M 



EDITORIAL STAFF 



MAIN EDITORS 

■ Dr. Atha Es*Sayyed Attia 

* Dr. Muhammad Yaliya 

■ Dr, Fahad M. AUMalik, KFSC Saudi Arabia 

REVISERS 

■ Mahmoud Yoi\\y Muhammad 

■ Rahaa El-Din Ibrahim 



NATIVE EDITOR 

■ Umm Alidulliih 



CONTR IBUTING.. 

■ Muhammad Abdul-Muncim AJi 

■ Hani Mahmoud Abdul Fatlah 



DESIGN AND TECH NO LO <i Y_ 

■ Graphic Designer; Muhammad SjlIiVj 

■ Layout: Mokhrar ' Itwany 



SHAR I AND ARABIC CONSULTANTS 

• Sheikh Hatem Aniiu Ali 

" Hamada Lbeid Ahmed 

* Muhammad Nusah Mo^ahed 



About the Author 



Sheikh Salih Al-Fawzan (bom in 1935) has obtained a PhD in Islamic 
Jurisprudence and has a long history in teaching jurisprudence. 

He is a member of many academic institutions including the board of 
Senior Ulema, the Permanent Commit lee for Fatwa and Research, the fclamic 

Academy of Muslim World League, the Committee of Supervising Du' ah, and 
many other scholastic bodies. 

He has written more than sixty published works covering Muslim Creed, 
Islamic Jurisprudence and Muslims Conduct, 












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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, our Lord Who facilitated translating 

and completing this invaluable bonk. Tti the course of translating this invaluable 
book into English, we find ourselves indebted to in ore people than we can 
possibly nominate here, without their help, this book would have never come 
to the light. At the outset, we deeply appreciate and tVitink sheikh professor 
£alih Al-Fawzan forgiving us exclusive permission to translate and publish his 
books as well as his follow-up with the different stages of publishing the books. 
May Allah give him success in this Worldly Life and Hereafter. 

We are pleased to have the opportunity to express our gratitude and 
profound thanks to Di. Muhammad MaJhmud GhalL professor of Linguistics 
and the ex -dean of Faculty of Languages and Translation, Al-Azhar University, 
for the great help and moral support he rendered us when we started the 
process of translation, 

We would also like to extend our gratitude and deep appreciation to Dr, 
Muhammad Muhammad Abu Layla, professor of Islamic Studies in English 

and Head of English Department, Faculty of Languages and Translation, for 
his penetrating advice and inspiration throughout the process of translation, 
Moreover, we are beholden to heartily thank Dr. Ahmad Zakl Hammad, 
professor of Islamic Studies in English, Faculty of Languages and Translation 
for providing us wilh invaluable suggestions and important insights on 
translation, 

In addition, we extend our thanks to Dr. Muhammad Yahya, professor 
of Literary Criticism at Faculty of Arts, Cairo University, for his editorial 
assistance. Thanks are also due to Dr. 4 Attia Es-Sayyed 'Attia, lecturer in 
ELT and Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Education, Al-Azhar University for 
having professionally edited this work and others. His pertinent comments 
and valuable touches at the final stage of writing the book added much to the 
final version of the book, Finally yet importantly, we thank Umm Abdullah, 
the native editor, who exerted great efforts in editing the book, and with whose 
final touches she made it more appealing to the target audience. 

Publisher 
SulaLman A, Almaiman 



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Translator's Preface 



This book is an English translation of sheikh professor £alih Al-Fawzans 
( ^nrtU (j-a**tti l j4 Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence': Dar Al- 1 Asiniah, 
2001 (ISBN:3%7/2i). Our main aim in providing (he English translation is 
propagating the true Da' wah that derives from Allah's Book and His Messc tigers 
Sunn ah. This is a duty that every Muslim should cherish, Allah says: "And let 
there be (arising] from you a nation inviting to [all that is} good, enjoining 
what is right and forbidding what is wrong f and those will be the successful" 
(Alu Tmran: 104), With this in mind, this translated work is. then, a humble 
response 10 our realization of a great responsibility lo give the English speaking 
reader access to rich Islamic Jurisprudence Literature that simply focuses on 
the rules of jurisprudence and their proofs from the Quran, Sunnah and line 
practice of the Righteous Saiaf in addition to the opinions of the scholars of 
jurisprudence on controversial issues as well as die proofs they quote in support 
of their opinions. In doing so, we have left no stone unturned to make sure 
that the final copy of a translated book meets a specific high quality standard 
that would convey the same meaning intended by the aitthoa' and expressed in 
the original source text. In effect, we have tried to set a balance between the 
originality of thought and the nature of the style of language. 

To attain this aim. our work (in this book and others) exhibits certain 
distinctive features, namely, the process of translation, the style, the attention 
paid to the sodolinguistie aspects (i.e., transliteration, glossary and endnotes). 
We touch upon these features in the following section, 

1. PROCESS 

Before reaching the publisher, our work goes through a developmental 
process to guarantee that the final version of the translated book is as perfect 
as can be. 

In effect, this process commences with the first-hand translation, which 
is done by some very carefully chosen translators who are native-speakers 
of Arabic and have a native-like command of the target language. The main 
principle that governs the translation process is that the translator is after 
integrity. With integrity as the main target, the translators would not be 
tempted to impose their own ideas on the text nor would they gloss over the 
difficult paragraphs instead of taking the trouble to find out what is really 
meant. Translators would do their best to convey boih ihe content and spirit 
of the original. 



TFanslaroi's Pic Rice xjv 

The next step of the process is undertaken by a reviser who has a high 
profile in translating religious texts and is aware of the traps that one might 
fall into. In addition, he has a thorough religious background knowledge that 

enables him to delect Any unintended error in conveying the meaning. 

The revised version is then submitted to a picky editor who is well -versed 
in the target language and has substantial knowledge of Islamic Sciences, 

Finally, the edited version is handed over to a native-speaker of English 
who is knowledgeable in Islamic Sciences to make sure that the translation is 
readable and meaningful to the target audience, 

2.STYLE 

A natural outgrowth of the processes adopted in translation is the style 
the final version has come out in. The intended meaning of the author has 
been conveyed in a style that is authentic and as close to the original as 
possible. It really sounds authentic: So natural that the work does not read 
like a translation, but at\ indigenous piece of writing. The translation version 
is marked by remarkable variety and richness as well as tremendous skill at 
writing within formal religious genre, Moreover, attempts have been made to 
have it simple, clear and appealing to the target audience, 

3.ATTENTION TO SOCIOLINGUISTIC ASPECTS 

As a way to fill up the gap caused by soeioiinguishc differences between 

the two languages (source language and target language), our work includes 
some additional features (i.e., transliteration, glossary and endnotes) that 
would guarantee better understanding of the concepts and ideas that might 
confuse the English speaking reader due to the lack of schemata in this field. 

A- TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM 

In the process of translation, we made a serious attempt to limit the use of 
transliterated Arabic terms (see table in p. X) to the following two situations: 

i) There is no English expression that can reflect the same meaning 
as the original term. 

ii) The Arabic term is of such importance that it is essential to 
familiarize the reader with it. 

B-GLOSSARY 

At the end of the book, we have included a glossary defining common 
Arabic terms that fulfill the above criteria. Included in the glossary also are 
terms that need further explanation. 



xv A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence 

C-ENDNOTES 

In the endnotes, we have given clear and concise explanations of the terms 
that are not clear or understandable to die target reader due to the sociolinguistic 
differences in addition to the commentaries written by the author himself 
Furthermore, each hadiih mentioned in the test of the book is ascribed in the 
endnotes to the book it is quoted from, 

D-INDICES 

To facilitate the process- of going through the book and save the reader's 
time, we have included two indices, namely, subject index and name index. So, 

if the reader is looking tor sped fie information or a given name, s/he would go 
directly to the hides to find the page number, 

4. QUR'AN TRANSLATION 

The Quran is Allah's exact words. These words can never ever be exactly 

translated into other languages because of, among Other things, possible 
misinterpretations and limited human understanding. What is followed in 
the book is to translate the meanings as understood by Muslim scholars. We 
solely depended on the 'Translation of the Meaning of the Qur"an\ translated 
by Saheeh International - Riyadh and published by Abulqasim Publishing 
House. When a verse is cited, the English interpretation is given between 
quotation marks " ..." in indented, bold, and italicized format. The location 
of the Quranic verse, the name of the sura is given below to the verse as it is 
illustrated in the example below: 

"And We sent not before you any messenger except that We 
revealed to him that the*? is no deity except Me, so warship Me," 

(Al-Anbya: 25) 

5. HADITH TRANSLATION 

Similarly, when we cite a hadfih* we mention the book of hadfth it is 
quoted from in addition to its number in the book. Further, the translation of 

Prophetic hadith is represented in an indented format, italicized and between 
quotation marks ".. " as it is illustrated in the example below: 

"Do not drink in gold or silver vessels nor eat in similar bowls 
(i.e. bowls made of gold or silver), for they belong to them (the 
disbelievers) in this world and to us in the Hereafter" 



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INTRODUCTION 



All praise be to Allah, the Lard of the Worlds, and peace be upon our 
Prophet Muhammad, the Sea! of prophets, and upon his household, his Com- 
panions, and whoever follows their example with good conduct until the Day 
of Recompense. 

To commence, this is a brief account of juristic issues, in which views are 
provided with proofs from the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) and the Quran. 
1 have previously delivered the content of this book in the form of sermons 
broadcast on radio, and I have been repeatedly asked by the audience to 
redeliver them, and to publish them as a treatise, for the sake of continuous 
benefit Jf Allah wills. In fact, I never intended this book to be published when it 
was under preparation, but in response to the wish of many people, I reviewed 
it, arranged its contents, and presented it to be published. And here it is now, 
gentle reader, between your hands; whatever correctness and benefit you find 
therein are out of the Grace of Allah, Alone, and whatever mistakes you find 
are mine, and I seek the forgiveness of Allah for them, 



i\ Suimmiy t>(-" Ejilitmic Jurisprudence 



This treatise is an abstract of a book entitled Ar-Rawdul-Murbi" fi Sharh 
Zadul-Mustaqm* including its footnotes, written by Sheikh Alxlur -Uahman 
Ibn Muhammad Ibti Qasim (may Allah have mercy on him), bearing in mind 

that I added some remarks, when necessary. 

I ask Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, to gu ide us all to useful knowledge 
and righteous deeds. May Allah confer peace and blessings upon our Prophet 
Muhammad, his household, and his Companions. 

The Virtues of Understanding Religion 

All praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, and peace be upon our Prophet 
Muhammad, and upon his household, his Companions, and whoever follows 
their example with good conduct until the Day of Recompense. 

To commence, understanding the religion is considered one of the best 
deeds, and a sign of goodness. The Prophet (PBUH) says; 

If Allah wants to do good for a person, He makes him understand 
the religion ."' 

This is because comprehending the religion leads to useful knowledge 

upon which righteous deeds depend. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"It is He Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the 
religion of truth.." (Quran: Al-Fath: 28) 

"Guidance" here refers to useful knowledge, and ^the religion of truth" is 
that which leads to righteous deeds. Besides, Allah commanded the Prophet 

(PBUH) to invoke him for more knowledge; Allah, Exalted be He, said: 

".., And say, 'My Lord, increase me in knowledge' w 

(Quran: Ta ha; 114) 

Al-Jfciiifiz Ibn Hajar comments that the aforesaid Quranic verse," „And 
say, 'My Lord, increase me in knowledge' " is a clear indication of the merit and 

excellence of knowledge, for Allah never commanded 1 lis Prophet (PBUH) to 
invoke Him for more of anything other than knowledge 1 . The Prophet (PBUH) 
used to refer to the assemblies wherein useful knowledge is taught as "The 
Gardens of Paradise" and he (PBUH) stated that "Men of knowledge are the 
inheritors of prophets" 



InirodunLon. 



There is no doubt that before one starts doing something one should know 
how to perform it in the best way, so as to perform it well to harvest its desired 
fruits. Likewise, it is by no means reasonable that one starts worshipping one's 
Lord - the way through which one's salvation from Hellfire and admittance to 
Paradise are gained - without having due knowledge. 

As such, people are divided into three categories regarding knowledge 

and deeds: 

The first category is represented in those who combine useful knowledge 
along with righteous deeds. Those are the ones whom Allah has guided 
to the straight path; the path of those upon whom Allah has bestowed 
favor of the prophets, the steadfast affirm ers of truth, the martyrs and 
the righteous, and excellent indeed are these as companions. 

The second category is represented in those who learn useful knowledge 
but do not act accordingly. Those are the ones who have evoked Allah's 
anger, like the Jews and whoever follows their footsteps. 

The third category is represented in those who act without having 
knowledge. Those are the ones who are astray, namely the Christians 

and their likes. 

These three categories are mentioned in the Sura of Al-Fatihah (the 
Opening Chapter of the Quran), which we recite in every rakah (unit of 
prayer) of Our prayers: 

"Guide us to the straight path - the path of those upon whom 
You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] 
anger or of those wh o are astray" (Q u r'an; Al - Fatihah : 6- 7 ) 

In his interpretation of the aforesaid verses of the Sura a( Al- Fatihah, 
Sheikh Muhammad Ibo n Abdul -Wahhab (may Allah have mercy on him) 
has stated: 

"The scholars meant in the verse that reads, 'those who have evoked 
(Allans) anger 1 are those who do not act in accordance with their 
knowledge, and '. ..those who are astray' are the ones who act without 
knowledge. The former is the quality of the. Jews, while the latter is 
that of the Christians. Some ignorant people mistakenly believe that 
those two qualities are restricted to the jews and the Christians, 
forgetting thai Allah commands them to recite the above-mentioned 
Quranic invocation seeking refuge with Him from being one of the 



A Siiimniirj' £»(■ l-staink Jurisprudence 



people oj these two qualities. Ghry be to Allah 1 . How do those ignorant 
people think that they are safe front these qualities, though they are 
taught and commanded by Allah to keep on invoking Him (through 
the aforesaid verses) seeking His refuge against them?! Are they not 
aware that they thus assume evil about Allah?!'"'' 

This shows the wisdom behind the obligation of reciting this great Sum 
(i.e., Al-Fatihah) in every rak'ah of our prayers (whether obligatory or 
supererogatory), it is because this sura contains many great secrets, among 
them is trie great Quranic invocation that reads, "Guide us to the straight path - 
the path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked 
[Your] anger or of those who are astray." (Quran: Al-Fatihah: 6-7) Through this 
invocation, we ask Allah to guide us to follow the conduct and the way of the 
people who have useful knowledge and perform righteous deeds, which is the 
way to salvation in both this world and the 1 lereafler, We also invoke Him to 
safeguard us from the pathway of the ones astray, who have neglected either 
the righteous deeds or the itseful knowledge. 

Thus, we could argue that useful knowledge is that derived from the 
Qur'an and the Stmwh (Prophetic Tradition), it is gained by means of deep 
understanding and comprehension of both, which can be achieved through 
the help of religious instructors or scholars. This can also be achieved through 
the books of exegesis of the Quran and those of Hadith, as well as the books 
of jurisprudence and those of Arabic y ram mar - the language in which the 
Quran has been revealed. Such books are the best means of comprehending 
the Quran and the Sunmth. 

So as to perform the acts of worship so perfectly, you should, dear Muslim 
brother, learn what leads to the perfection of your performance of these 
various acts of worship, such as Prayer, Tasting and Hajj (Pilgrimage), You 
should also be aware of the rulings on Zakah as well as the rulings on the 
dealings that concern you, so as to make use of what Allah has made lawful 
for you and avoid what He has made unlawful, You should observe this to 
ensure that the money you earn and the food you eat are lawfully obtained, in 
order to be one of those whose supplications are granted by Allah. In fact, you 
have to know about all these matters, and this could be easily achieved, Allah 
willing, provided that you have resolute determination and sincere intention. 
So, be keen on reading useful relevant books, and keep in touch with religious 
scholars to ask them about whatever ruling you are in doubt about and to be 
acquainted with the rulings of your religion. 



Introduction 



In addition, you should take an interest in attending religious symposiums 
and lectures delivered at mosques and the like, listening to the broadcast 
religious programs, and reading religious magazines and p unheal ions. If you 
concern yourself with such good activities, your religious knowledge will 
increase, and your insight will be enlightened. 

Also, do not forget, dear brother, that knowledge increases and grows when 
it is practically applied. Thus, if your deeds are according to your knowledge, 
Allah surely will increase your knowledge. This corresponds with the maxim 
stating, "He whose deeds are done in accordance with his knowledge, Allah 
will bestow upon him the knowledge of that which he has no knowledge 
about." This is confirmed by the Glorious Quranic verse that reads: 

". . . And fear Allah. And Allah teaches you. And Allah is Knowing 
of all things." (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 282) 

Tn fact, the worthiest thing to spend your time on is seeking knowledge, 
for which the people of good judgment compete. It is through knowledge that 
hearts maintain living and deeds are purified. 

Allah, Exalted be Mis Words and Glorified he His Attributes, praises the 
scholars who act in accordance with their knowledge, and states their elevated 
degrees, as He mentions in His Glorious Book, the Quran: 

"... Sity, 'Are those who know equal to those who do not know?' 
Only they will remember (who tircj people of understanding," 

(Quran: Az-Zumar: 9) 

Allah, Exalted be He, also says: 

"... A f/ali will raise those who have believed among you and 
those who were given knowledge, by degrees. And Allah is 
Acquainted with what you do." (Qur h an: Al-Mujadilah: 1 1) 

So, Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, shows the merit of those given 
knowledge along with faith, and tells us that lie is Acquainted wiih and 
Aware of what we do. Thus, Allah shows us the necessity of combining both 
knowledge and righteous deeds, and tells us that both have to be out of one's 
sincere faith and fear of Him, Glorified be He. 

In accordance with the Quranic duty of cooperating in righteousness 
and piety, we will - if Allah wills - provide you, gentle reader, through this 
book with some information of the juristic inheritance which our scholars 
extracted and wrote down in their books. We will provide you with what can 
be easily understood, so that it can benefit you and help you in gaining more 
useful knowledge. 



A SuiTimjirjr of Islamic Jurisprudence 



Finally we invoke Allah to bestow useful knowledge upon all of us T and to 
guide us to the righteous deeds. We also invoke Him, Glorified and Exalted be He, 
to make us see the truth as it really is, and guide us to follow it, and to see falsehood 
as it really is, and grant us the ability to avoid it, He is Hearing and Responsive, 



Endnotes 

1 Al-LSnkharJ (71), Muslim (2386). 
2Ses Faihul-BeriWW) 

3 See fbn Ghan nam's Tcirikh Ntycf. 

4 Zaktlh is an annual expenditure for the benefit of the Muslim community, primarily to 
help the pour, required from those Muslims who have excess wealth. Paying Zak&h is one 
of tlie five main pillars of Islam (for more elaboration, refer to the chapter on Zakah). 





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Purification and Water 



Prayer is the second pillar of Islam, after rhe Two Testifications of Fairh L . 
Prayer is what distinguishes Muslims from disbelievers; it is the cornerstone of 
Islam , and it is the first thing one is questioned about when called to account 
(on the Day of Judgment). Therefore, if it is correctly performed and (thus) 
accepted (by Allah), all one's good deeds will be accepted, but if rejected, so 
will be all ones deeds. 

Prayer is mentioned in many different contexts in the Glorious Quran, 
stressing its various virtues; sometimes Allah commands establishing it 
regularly, and sometimes He demonstrates its merits; at times, Allah shows 
the reward for establishing it, and at other limes He associates it with patience, 
enjoining seeking His help through both (patience and prayer) in adversity. 
Hence, prayer has been made the comfort of the eyes of Allah's Messenger 
(PBUH) in this world, as it is the ornament of prophets, the sign of righteous 
servants, and the connection between servants and the Lord of the Worlds. 
Prayer, in addition, prevents immorality and wrongdoing. 



10 J: PURIFICATION 



Prayer is not deemed valid unless the one performing it is in a state of both 
minor and major ritual purity, as much as possible. The means of purification 
for prayer is either water (in ablution) or clean earth (in tayammum* i.e., dry 
ablution) in case water is unavailable. Due to the above, fnqihs 1 (may Allah have 
mercy on l hem) used to start their books with handling the issue of purification. 
Since Prayer is at the head of the Pillars of Islam, following the Two Testifications 
of Kaith, it is appropriate to start with handling its prerequisites, among which 
is purification, the key 10 prayer as mentioned in ike foliuwing hadith: "The 
key to prayer is purification" This is because a state of minor ritual impurity is 
like a padlock that hinders one from performing prayer. But once one performs 
ablution, that padlock is unlocked, as purification is the 'key' to prayer. Thus, 
purity is one of the most central conditions of prayer; a condition is to he fulfilled 
before performing the action stipulating it. 

Linguistically!, purity means cleanliness and purification from all matters 

and spiritual impurities. Jurisprudential^, purity means the removal of 
ritual impurity as well as the impure objects. The removal of ritual impurity 
can be achieved by using water with the intention of purification. In case of 
major ritual impurity, one uses water and washes one's whole body. Yet, one 
only washes the four parts of ablution in case of minor ritual impurity. One 
can use the substitute for water (namely clean earth) if water is unavailable 
or one is unable to use it (i.e. one can perform tayammum instead). We will, 
Allah willing, elaborate on how to purify oneself from both minor and major 
ritual impurity. 

Let us now point out the qualities of the water used for purification, and 
those of the w r ater that is not. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

" ,. And We send down from the skypttre water" 

[Quran: Al-Furqan: 48) 
Allah also says: 

".., And sent down upon you front the sky, rain by which to 
purify you..." (Quran: Al-Atlftl: II) 

Pure water is that which is originally pure and can be used as a means of 
purification. It is also that water which has not undergone any change (i.e. it 
retains its original characteristics), whether it is sent from the sky such as rain, 
snow or hail water, running water, such as the water of rivers, springs, welis and 
seas, or distil led water. This is the proper kind uf water to be used for removing 
ritual or physical impurity. However, it is indisputable that if the characteristics 
of such water change due to an impure material, it is impermissible to use it for 



Chapter!: Purification and Wanrr j] 

purification. Yet, if it is just a slight change and is caused by a pure material, 
it is permissible to be used as a purifier, according to the preponderant of the 
two opinions maintained by scholars in this regard. 

Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah states: 

"There are many cases in which the characteristics of little, or much 
water are affected by pure objects, such as potash, soap, lote tree 
leaves, dust, dough, and suchlike things that may change water. For 
example, water might be put In a pot containing traces of lote tree 
leaves that would affect its characteristics, though the water would 
not be completely changed in this case. Scholars hold two well-known 
opinions regarding such cases" 

Ibn Taymiyah then mentions those two opinions with the arguments they 

are based on. He supports the opinion maintaining that it is permissible to use 
such water for purification, saying: 

"In fact, this is the sound opinion, for Allah says, '\.. But if you are 
ill or an a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving 
himself or you have contacted women and do not find water, then 
seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and hands with it..." 
(Qur'an: Al-Ma'idah: 6) Wafer here is an indefinite noun in a 
negative phrase, which, in Arabic, implies that 'water' in the above- 
mentioned verse includes every thing referred to as 'water' in general, 
with no distinction between different kinds of water"' 

That is to say, Allah has made clean earth 1 the substitute for water (as a 
purifier) in case water is unavailable or one is unable to use it. The way clean 

earth is used for purification has been pointed out by the Prophet (PBUH) 
through the Sutmah (Prophetic Tradition) - which will be dealt with, Allah 
willing, in a special chapter. So, decreeing such a substitute for water (i.e. clean 
earth) is a kind of divine mercy and a way by which Allah makes things easier 
For His servants. Allah, Exalted be He, says; 

" . . And if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the 
place of relieving himself or you have contacted women [i.e. had 
sexual intercourse] and find no water, then seek clean earth and 
wipe over your faces find your hands [with it}. Indeed, Allah is 
e ver Pu rdon ing and Forgiving." ( Qur a n : A n -Ni sa : 43 ) 



12 I: PURIFICATION 

Ibn Hubayrah states: 

"Muslim scholars uniformly agree that purification with -water is 
obligatory for whoever is obliged to perform prayer, provided water 
is available; in case water is unavailable, one should use its substitute 
(i.e. dean earth), in accordance with the Quranic verse in which Allah, 
Exalted be He, says, '.., And find no water, then seek clean earth...' 
(Quran: An-Nisa : 43), and, f ... And sent down upon you from the 
sky, rain by which to purify you,,.' (Quran: Al-Anfal: 11)" 

This shows the greatness of Islam, the religion of purity, and both physical 
and spiritual cleanliness, It also shows the loftiness of prayer which one cannot 
enter upon without being in two states of purity. The first is the spiritual purity 
from polytheism, by means of testifying the Oneness of Allah and worshipping 
Him sincerely and devoutly. The second is the physical purity from ritual 
and tangible impurities, which is performed by means of water or its legal 
substitutes. We should also know that provided water is still in its original 
state, mixed with nothing else, it is deemed pure as scholars uniformly agree. 
They also agree that if any of its three basic characteristics - odor, taste, and 
color - change due to any impure object, then water is deemed impure and it 
is impermissible to use it as a means of purification. Yet, some scholars differ 
regarding the purity of water when any of its characteristics has changed due 
to a pure object - such as tree leaves {like lote tree leaves), soap, potash, or 
suchlike pure materials - provided that such a material is not predominant in 
the resulting mixture. In fact, the sound opinion is that the resulting water is 
still deemed pure, and it is permissible I o use it as a means of purification from 
both ritual and tangible impurity 

Due to the above, we can state that water is divided into two categories: 

1- Pure water, which can be used as a purifier, whether it is in its 

original state, or mixed with a pure object provided it is not prevalent 
enough to change the composition of water or turn it into another 
object. 

2- Impure water, which cannot be used for purification from either ritual 

or tangible impurity. It is also the- water any of whose characteristics 
(odor, taste, or color) has changed due to an impure object. And Allah, 
Exalted be He, knows best. 



Oiapter t: [hirincarion and Water 13 

Endnotes 

1 The Two Testifications uf I'aillr, Saying, "1 testify that there is no deity but Allah and 
that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." 

2 Faqih: A scholar of Islamic Jurisprudence, 

3 Ahmad (10US) [1/151], AbLiDawiid(6L) [1/42], At-Tirmidhi (3) [1/8] and Ibn Majah 
(275) [1/177]. 

4 Tayammum: Performing dry ablution with clean earth (when water is unavailable or 
one cannot use it). 

5 See Majmuul-Fat&wA [21/24,25] and [21/331 ]. 



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Disbelievers* Pots and Clothes 



Pots could be made of iron, wood, leather or the like. The original ruling 

is the permissibility of using such pots. That is to say, it is permissible to use 

every pure pat, except two types; 

1- Pots made of gold or silver, and the pots having anything related 
to gold or silver, such as being inJaid or plated "with gold or silver, 
or anything of the kind that makes pots connected with them. The 
exceptional case here is Ehe pots inlaid with little silver for the sake 
of repairing them. 

The legal proof of the prohibition of using gold and silver pots is the 
following kadith related by the Group of Compilers of Hadltti: 

"Do not drink in gold or silver vesseb nor eat in similar bowk (i.e. 
bowh made of gold or silver), for they belong to them (the disbelievers) 
in this world and to us in the Hereafter." 2 



\ 

IS 1: PURIFICATION 

In another hadith, the Prophet (PBUH) also says: 

"He who drinks in silver vessels is only filling Iris abdomen with HeUfire?' 

When something is legally prohibited to use, the prohibition is 

applicable whether this thing is used partially or totally. Therefore, 
it is prohibited to use pots inlaid or plated with gold or silver or 
containing anything related to these two materials, excluding 
the case of a pot inlaid with a little silver, which is permissible as 
mentioned above; this is illustrated in the hadith related by Al- 
Bukharj, on the authority of Anaa Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased 
with him), who said; 

"The cup of Allah's Messenger (PBUH) got broken, and he fixed if. 
with a silver wire at the (place, of the) crack?* 

An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"Muslim scholars uniformly agree that it is prohibited to eat or drink in 
such pots or even to use them in purposes related to eating or drinking"' 

This prohibition of using or keeping golden or silver objects applies 
to both males and females, as the addressee of this prohibition is 
generalized (i,c. the prohibition applies to both sexes), There is nothing 
specified for a certain sex in this concern, except for the permissibility 
for women to tnake use of both silver and gold for purposes of 
adornment for their husbands, 

On the Other hand, it is permissible to use the utensils of disbelievers 
unless one knows that they are impure. In this case, one can use them 
only after washing them. 

2- The hides of dead animals: It is prohibited to use them unless they are 
tanned. Yet, scholars differ regarding whether it is permissible to use 
them after tanning or not. The sound opinion, which is maintained 
by the majority of scholars, is that it is permissible to use the hides 
of dead animals after tanning, due to the many sahih (authentic) 
hadfths indicating that. This is because their impurity is temporary, 
so it is removed by tanning, The Prophet (PBUH) said that the hides 
of dead animals: 

"... Are purified by water and qarz (leaves of a kind of tree which in 
used for tanning)" 



Chapter 2; Disbelieve™ Pbts and Clorhuv 

He (PBUH) uEso said: 

"Tanning is the purifying means for hides.' 1 "' 

As for (he clothes of disbelievers, it is permissible (y wear them unless 
they are known to he impure. This is because the original ruling on 
their clothes is that they are pure, and they cannot be deemed impure 
out of mere suspicion. Likewise, it is permissible to use whatever is 
weaved or dyed by the disbelievers, for the Prophet (PBUH) and his 
Companions used to wear clothes weaved and dyed by disbelievers. 
And Allah, Exalted be He, knows best. 



Endnotes 

1 "Ihc Group of Compilers of Widith art Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Ablt D;uvud, At- 
TLi-midhi, Ail -Masai, and Ibu Mftjah. 

2 Al-Bukhari <S«3) [10/119], Muslim (5361) [7/2611, Ahmad (23356) |5/491], Abu 
Davnid (3723) [4/73], At-Tirmidhl (1883) J4/299], An-Nasai (5316) [4/5351 and Ibn 
Mala h (3414) |4/77|. 

3 Al-Ruklwi (5634) [10/119], Muslim (5353) [7/254]. 

4 Ai-Bukhari (3109) [ 6/255). 

5 $et Al-Majni6 ' [1/306J and 77j^ Expounding of Muslim's Sahib. [7/255J. 

6 Sakih (authentic) hndlth is a hadlth whose chain of transmission has been transmitted 
by truly pious persons who have been biown for their uprightness and exactitude; 
such ■a.hadhh is free from eccentricity -mil blemish. 

1 Muslitn (813) [2/279] and Ahmad (252!) [t/346j. 



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CHAPTER 



Things Ritual Impurity 
Prohibits Doing 



There arc some deeds which Muslims are prohibited to perform unless 
they are in a state of purity, due to the greatness and the loftiness of these 
deeds. What follows is a discussion of these deeds accompanied with the 
related proofs, so as to familiarize the reader with such deeds and not to 
perform any of them unless he/she is in the proper state of purity. Fur- 
thermore, there are deeds that one in a state of ritual impurity, be it major 
or minor, is prohibited to do. On the other hand, there are some deeds 
specifically prohibited only for those in a state of major ritual impurity. 

Deeds Prohibited for One in a State of Minor or Major Ritual Impurity 

1- Touching the Glorious Book of the Qui- Yin 

It is prohibited for one in a state of (minor or major) ritual impurity to 
touch the Glorious Book of the Qur'^n unless with something that presents 
direct contact, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 



21) 1: PURIFICATION 

"None touch it except the purified..." (Quran: Al-Waqrah: 79) 

That is, it is prohibited to touch ir unless by those purified from minor and 
major ritual impurity, according to the opinion that the words "the purified" 
in the verse refer to human beings. However, there are sume exegetes who state 
that the words the purified 1 in die aforesaid verse refer to the noble angels. 
Even if the verse is interpreted thai the words 'the purified 1 refer to the angels, 
they also refer to human beings by implication. To illustrate, it was mentioned 
in the letter sent by Allah's Messenger (PBUH) to the people of Yemen, as 
narrated by " Amr Ibrt llazm, that: 

"No one should touch the Book of the Quran unless they are pure!' 

(Related by An -Nasal and other compilers aiHadith with a continuous 
chain of transmitters) 

III addition, Ibn Ahdul-Barr said: 

"This hndith is more likely to be a mutawatir (continuously recurrent) 

faadith~ as it is commonly accepted by scholars" 

Shaykhul-Islam (Ibn Taymiyah) stales that the prohibition of touching 
the Book of the Quran while being in a state of (major or minor) ritual 
impurity is Agreed upon by the Pour Imams' '. Ibn Hub ay rah also states in 
his book entitled Ai-lfsah [Enunciation), "They (i.e.. the Four Imams) agree 
that it is impermissible for one in a state of ritual impurity to touch the Book of 
the Quran." However, one in a state of ritual impurity is allowed to hold the 
Book of the Quran in a cover or <i bag so as not to touch it directly. Similarly, 
one in such a state of impurity is allowed to read or browse through the Book 
without touching it. 

2- Offering Prayer (neither Obligatory nor Supererogatory Prayers) 

Scholars uniformly agree that it is impermissible for one in a state of 
minor or major ritual impurity to perform prayer at all* be it obligatory or 
supererogatory, provided one is able to purify oneself, This is. because Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"O you who have believed, when you rise to (perform] prayer, 
wash your faces ami yOnr forearms lo the elbows and wipe over 
your heads and wash your feet to the ankles. And if you are in a 
state ofjanabah, then purify yourselves,." 

{Quran: Al-Maidah: 6) 



Chapter 3: Things Ritual Impurity Prohibits Doing 2] 

Besides, the Prophet (PBUH) said, as related by Muslim and other compilers 
of Hadith: 

"Allah docs not accept a prayer without purification.."' 

He (PBUH) also said: 

"Allah does not accept the prayer of anyone, of you if he passes 

wind, urine, or stool until he performs the ablution (anew)"" 

The above hadith shows that it is impermissible for one to pray while 
being in a state of impurity, provided one is abb to purify oneself. Thus, the 
prayer offered by one in a state of impurity is invalid, whether it is performed 

in such a state while one is aware of the ruling or not, and whether one 
performs it inattentively or intentionally, If one is aware of the ruling and 
offers prayer intentionally, one is regarded as a sinner who has 10 undergo 
discretionary punishment. But if one is unaware of it, and offers prayer 
inattentively, one in this case is not regarded as a sinner, yet one's prayer is 
deemed invalid, 

3- Performing Tawafi Circumambulating the Kabah) 

It is impermissible for one in a state of minor or major ritual impurity to 
perforin tawaf, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Tawafis (considered) a prayer; the difference is that Allah made it 
lawful to speak during it."'' 

The Prophet (PBUH) used to perform ablution before performing tawaf". 
It was also authentically narrated that lie (PBUH) forbade a menstruating 
woman to perform tmvaf unless she purified herself' 3 . All the above shows 
that one in a state of minor or major ritual impurity is prohibited to perform 
tawn/ until one purifies oneself. 

Among the proofs that one in a state of major ritual impurity is prohibited 
to perform tawafis the following Quranic verse; 

**0 you who have believed^ do not approach prayer while you are 
intoxicated until you know what you are saying vr in a state of 
jauAbah, except those passing through fa place of prayer], until 
you have washed {your whole body]..." (Qur^an: An-Nisa h : 43) 
The verse means that one should never enter a mosque while being in a state 
of major ritual impurity except for those who are passing through it on their 



22 I: PURIFICATION 

way. Since one 3n a state of jannbnh is prohibited to stay in a mosque, then, 

with greater reason, one in the same slate is prohibited to perform taw&f. 

In a nutshell, the above-mentioned deeds are prohibited to be performed 
by one in a state of ritual impurity, whether minor or major. 

Deeds Prohibited for One in a State of 
Major Ritual Impurity in Particular 

As far the deeds specifically prohibited for one in a state of major ritual 
impurity, they are as follows: 

1- Reciting the Qur'an 

One in a state of major ritual impurity is prohibited to recite the Quran 
according to the following hadith related by At-Tirmidhi and other compilers of 
Hadith on the authority of ' Ali Ibn Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him): 

"Nothing prevented him (I.e. the Prophet, PBUH) from (reciting) the 
Quran other than being in a state ofjanabah (major ritual impurity)!' 1 

The wording of At-Tirmidru of the aforesaid kadith is as follows: 

"He (PBUH) used to recite, the Quran for us unless he was in a state 
ofjanabah" 

This proves that it is prohibited for the person in a state of major ritual 
impurity to recite the Quran. The same ruling applies to both menstruating 
woman and a woman in a state of postnatal bleeding. Yet, some scholars, 
such as Shaykhul- Islam (Ibn Taymiyah), maintain l hat it is permissible for a 
menstruating woman to recite the Quran for fear of forgetting it n . 

It is permissible for one in a state of major ritual impurity to use the wording 
of the Quran with no intention of recitation, rather as a way of remembrance 

of Allah, such as saying: 

"Jn the Name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful" 

(Quran: Al-Fatihah: I) 



And: 



"All praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds." 

(Quran: Al-1-atihah: 2 J 



Chapter 3: Things Ritual Fin purity Prohibits Doing 23 

There are many other examples of that. This is illustrated in the following 
hadith narrated by ' A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her): 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used to mention Allah in all his conditions.^ 

2- Staying at a Mosque 

It is prohibited for one in whatever state of major ritual impurity, be it 
jantibah, menstruation or postnatal bleeding, to stay in a mosque unless one 
performs ablution, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"O you who have believed, do not approach prayer white you are 
intoxicated until you know what you are saying or in a state of 
janabah, except those passing through [a plate of prayer], until 
you have washed [your whole body],.." (Quran: An-Nisa: 43) 
This means that One in a state of major ritual impurity is prohibited to enter 
a mosque to stay therein. In addition, in the hadith related by Abu Dawud, 
on the authority of 'A'ishah, and graded as sahjh (authentic) hadith by Ibn 
Khuzaymah, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"I do not deem the mosque lawful for a menstruating woman or for 
a person who is in a state ofjanabah?" 

However, if one in a state of major ritual impurity performs ablution, it is 
permissible for one then to stay at the mosque, as ' A£a' reported: 

"J saw some of the Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) staying at 
the mosque while being in a state afjanabah only after performing 
the (ordinary) ablution performed for prayer. * 

The significance of performing ablution here, though one is tn a state of 
janubah* is lessening the state of jan&bah so as to make it permissible to stay 
at the mosque. Likewise, it is permissible for one in a state afjanabah to pass 
through the mosque without staying therein, for Allah says: 

"... Except those passing through [a place of prayer],," 

(Qur'an: An-Nisa': 43) 

That is, one in such a state is only allowed to pass through it for the sake 
of mere passing. 

Whenever there is an exceptional case of a certain prohibition, it is deemed 
permissible. So T being a passerby is the exceptional case of the general ruling 
stated by the hadith of the Prophet (PBUH) that goes: 



24 Ij_PUkl]-K:AT10N 

"I do not make the mosque lawful for a menstruating woman or for 
a person who is in janabah." 

Similarly, it is prohibited for the one in a state of major ritual impurity, 
without even being in a state of ablution, lo be present at the place of performing 
the Feast Cld) Prayer. Yet, it is perm Lis ib[e for one to pass through it, for the 
Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"Menstrua ting womei > sh o u Id keep away fro m th e place ofperforn i ing 

Ml* 

prayer. 

Endnotes 

1 Malik (297) [p. 196j,Ad-Diraquini(433)fl/i29|,Al-Bayhaq1(«9) [1/141), Al-Hakim 
{6122) (3/5951 and Ad-Darimf (2183) (2/602]. 

2 MulawtUir (continuously recurrent) hmlrth is a hadlth reported by a large number of 
narrators whose agreement upon telling a lie is inconceivable (this condition must be 
met in the entire chair from the beginning to the end). 

3 See A f- Ta tn h hi [ 1 7/ 33 8, 339 ] . 

4 J he hour [mams are bnam Abu Hanifab. Imam Malik, imam Ash-Shari'i,and Imam Ahmad, 

5 Sec Ibn Taymiyahs Majmti ' ul-FatawA 1 2 1/266], 

Sjanabah; A state of major ritual impurity related to sexual discharge. 

7 Muslim (536) [2/99]. 

a Al-Rukhari (6954) [12/411] and Muslim (15 3ft) [2/39], 

9 At-Tirmidhi[961) [3/293!. 
lflAl-Bukhart(1614J [3/627] and Muslim (2991) [4/444], 

11 Al-Bukhari (294) [!/519| and Muslim {2910) [4/351], 

12 Ahmad (627) fl/lGl], Abu Dawud (229) [1/1141, At-Tirmidhl (146) [1/673], An -Nasal 
(26fi) 1 1/158| and Ibn Majab (594) [ 1/3311. 

13 See Ibn TaymiyalA Ma j mil 'ul-Faiawii |26/ 179]. 

14 Muslim (824) [2/390], 

15 Abu Dawud(232) [S/l E6|, Ibn Khuznyniah (1327) (2/2841 and Ibn Majali (645) [1/358J. 

10 AL-Bukliiiri {97 A) |2/597[ and Muslim (2051) (3/4 1 sj. 



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. ft 







Etiquette of Answering 
Call of Nature 



It will not escape you, my dear render - may Allah grant you, me and all 
Muslims success - that Islam is a perfect, unique, integral religion. There is 
nothing required for our worldly and religious lives that is not clearly pointed 
out in Islam. Even the etiquette to' be observed upon answering the call of 
nature is pointed out, 50 that man - whom Allah has honored over animals 
- becomes, distinguished from animals in this concern with such proprieties. 
Islam is the religion of cleanliness and purity. Therefore, there are Tskmic 
etiquettes to be observed on entering the bathroom, while answering the call 
of nature, and on leaving it. 

Upon entering the bathroom, it is desiraMe for a Muslim to say, "In the 
Name of Allah, I seek refuge with Allah from all offensive and wicked things 
(evil deeds and evil spirits) " stepping in with his left leg. When leaving, it is 

desirable to step out with the right leg invoking, "1 seek Your forgiveness. Praise 
be to Allah, Who removed hartnfrom me and gave me health" 



26 I: PURIFICATION 

This is because the right (hand or leg) is used for whatever is related To 

honor and beautification, whereas- the left is used for whatever is related to 
removing impurities and the like, 

In case one has to answer the call of nature out of doors, (at a place not 
prepared for that purpose), it is desirable for cine to do so away from people, 
screening oneself behind a wall, a tree, or the like. In addition, while answering 
thecal! of nature out of doors, one is prohibited to lace or turn one's back towards 
the qiblah ' ". Rather, one should move eastward or westward to avoid feeing or 
turning ones back towards the qiblah, as the Prophet {PBUH) has forbidden 
both lo be done while answering the call of nature. On the other hand, one must 
be cautious of splashing one's urine least it might soil ones body or clothes. 
Hence, one is recommended to select a smooth ground when having to urinate 
out of doors, so as to avoid being soiled by the scatter of one's urine, 

Besides, while answering the call of nature, it is impermissible for one to 
touch one's stool and urine exits with one's right hand. It is also impermissible 
lo answer the call of nature at a public road or at a place used by people as a 
shelter, or in a source of water used by people. This is because the Prophet 
(PBUH) has forbidden doing so,' as such deeds cause harm to people. 

On the other hand, one should never enter a bath while having something 

(like a pap en a document, or anything else) containing the Name of Allah, 
Exalted and Ever- Majestic he He, or any Qur'anic verses, If one fears that one 
may lose them (that paper or document) when they arc left outside the bath 
until one finishes, it is permissible for one to enter the bath while having them, 
provided that they are covered. 

Moreover, one is not allowed to speak while answering the call of nature, 
because it is mentioned in a hadtth that Allah hates such a deed '. One is also 
prohibited to recite the Qur'an in a bath or while answering the call of nature. 

When one finishes answering the call of nature, one must perform istinja,' 
istijmdr? or their substitutes. In fact, it is better to combine both istinjA* and 
istijmar when cleaning ones stool and urine exits following defecation or 
urination, yet performing either is sufficient. During istijmar, one should 

clean one's stool and urine exits with stones or what may substitute for them, 

such as a coarse paper, a rag, or the like, ensuring the cleanness and dryness of 
the stool and urine exits; one must clean them thrice or more, if necessary. It 
is impermissible to perform i$Iijtn£r using bones or dung, because the Prophet 
(PBUH) has forbidden that , One should also remove any trace of impurity 
and dry it; least any impurity remains oil ones Stool and urine exits, or soils 
one's clothes or other parts of the body. 



Chapter'): Etiquette oi AnsviTring C.!,jl oi N;Uiii'l: 



Some faqlhs (scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence) maintain that istinja 
or istijmar is one of the conditions of the validity of ablution that must be 

performed before it (in case of answering the call of nature). According to 
this opinion, ablution is invalid if it is performed without being preceded by 

istinja 7 or istijmar after answering the call of nature. This ruling is based on a 
hadith narrated on the authority of Al-Miqd&d stating: 

"One should wash ones penis and then perform ablution" 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

Imam An-Nawawi states that it is an act of thcSunnah (Prophetic Tradition) 
to perform istinja before ablution, so as to avoid auy controversy or suspicion, 
and to ensure the validity of one's ablution. 

Therefore, one must purify oneself from urine, as negligence in this 

regard is one of the reasons for the torture in the grave. To illustrate, Abu 
Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allahs Messenger 
(PBUH) said: 

"Purify yourselves from urine for most of the punishment in the 
grave is because of it" 9 

Gentle reader, you should be aware that the perfection of purification 
leads to the easiness and perfection of performing acts of worship, and the 
full abidance by their integral parts. I mim Ahmad (may Allah have mercy 
on him) narrated on the authority of one of the Prophet's Companions that 
when lie (PBUH) was leading the pen pie in the Subh (Morning) Prayer and 
reciting the Sura of Ar-Rum (the Byzantines)" 1 he was not certain ahout what 
he recited. So, when he (PBUH) finished prayer, he said: 

"The Quran becomes dubious to us because some of you perform 
prayer with us without performing ablution properly, so whoever 
witnesses the prayer with us should perform ablution properly'' 

Allah has also praised the people of Quba 1 Mosque because of the perfection 
of their purification, saying: 

".„ Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah 
loves those who purify themselves." (Qur'an: At-Tawbah: 108) 

Al-Bazzar related that when those people of Quba were asked about the 
way they purify themselves, they replied saying, "We. use water after using 
stones" (i.e,, they perform istijmar followed by istinja) . 



2B [; PURIFICATION 

In this connection, it might be worth Mentioning that some people 
mistakenly believe thai htinja is an integral part of ablution. They think 
that one has to start with istiiya whenever one desires to perform ablution, 
even if one has previously performed it (i.e. htinja) after answering the call 
of nature. This is completely wrong; istinja is not part of ablution, but it is 
jus! one of its requirements - as previously mentioned - and is performed 
only after answering the call of nature, Thus, one does not have to perform it 
unnecessarily before ablution, without a reason such as answering the call of 
nature and the impurity of ones stool and urine exits. 

To sum up, we would like to state that our religion, Islam, is the religion 
of purity and cleanliness; the religion uf the best standards of behavior and 
the noblest of manners. It stresses and clarifies whatever issues Muslims may 
need, and whatever principles that may rectify their lives. There is nothing 
that benefits Muslims unless it is stated, stressed and enjoined in Islam, so 
praise be to Allah for all Mis graces. We invoke Allah to make us steadfast in 
establishing and observing this great religion, grasping its rulings, abiding by 
its teachings, faithfully, sincerely and devoutly, so that Allah may accept our 
good deeds. 

Endnotes 



1 The qibinh; Hie direction of prayer, namely towards the Ka l bah. 

2 Al-flukhari (1 44} [1/322] and Muslim (fi08) [2/148], 

3 Abu Dawud (26) [1/27) and Ibn Map!) [328) [ \t2i)8\, 

4 Ahmad (1 1296) [3/45], Abu Dawud (15) [1/23] and Ibn Majah (342) [1/2151. 

5 fct'mjA'-. Cleaning one's stool and urine exits after defecation or urination with water. 

6 tstijthdr. Cleaning one's stool and urine exits after defecation or urination with stones 
or whiit may substitute for them. 

7 Muslim ((505) [2/144] <ind(607) [2/148]. 

K Ai-Bukhari (ZS9) 1 1/4921 :md Muslim (693) [2/203], 

9This/!(irfj'f.'j was narrated by Ad-DaraqulnujutdAl-Hafiz states that its chain of transmission 
is authentic, and there are witnesses to the incident of this hadith, and that its urigin is 
stated in the Two Sa/rrJis (the Two Authentic Books of Al-EUikhari and Muslim), Ad- 
Daraqutni (458) [1/136], Al-Bukban (218) [1/420] and Muslim (675) [2/191|. 

10 Chapter No, 30 of the Quran. 

[[ Ahmad (15855) [3/616]. 

12 Ibn Majah {i55) and (357) [1/222, 224]. See also N^b Ar-Rfyilh [1/218-21$]. 



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CHAPTER 




E^?l¥:5i 



. ■ : ,/;.ji.^.M:.'."' *iv, >, 



Siwflfc (Tooth-Stick) and Acts 
of Natural Disposition 



h A'ishah, Mother of the Believers, {may Allah be pleased with her) narrated 
that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Siw&k (tooth-stick) is a way of purifying the mouth and satisfying 
the Lord" 

(Related by Imam Ahmad and other compilers of Uadtih)^ 

It is reported in the Two 3«&ffes that Abti Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased 
with him) narrated that Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said: 

"Five (practices) arc of the natural disposition: circumcision, istihjdad, 
cutting the moustache short, removing the hair of the armpits, and 
clipping the nails" 
It is also stated as a marfu (traceable) fotdith* in the Two Sd&ffis That Ibn 
"Umai (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said 

"Cut the moustaches short and have the beard grow"* 



30 1: PURIFICATION 

Due to the aforesaid Jyrcftffr s as well as other related hadiths stressing the same 
points, faqihs (scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence) derived some rulings among 
which is the preference of using siwak, which is a kind of stick used in brushing 
the teeth and gum in order to remove yellowness and Lin desirable smell 

It is stated that using siwak is one of the practices of Allah's messengers'; 
Prophet Abraham (PBUH) was the first to use siwak. Prophet Muhammad 
(PBUH) has pointed out that siwak is a means of "purifying the mouth" i.e. it is 
a mouth cleaner that removes bad odor and the like. He (PBUH) lias also stated 

that siwak is a way of "satisfying the Lord" i.e. using stwdk is an act that pleases 
and satisfies the Lord, Blessed and Exalted be He r 

There are more than one hundred hadiths stressing the desirability of using 
siwak. This indicates that using siwak is a stressed act of the Sunnah (Prophetic 
Tradition) enjoined and made desirable by the Lawgiver of Shan 'ah . iwak has 
great benefits and virtues, the greatest and most comprehensive of which is that 
stated in the following hadith: 

"Siwak is a way of purifying the mouth and satisfying the Lord!' 
Brushing the teeth with siwdk is to be done with a soft tooth-stick of an 
ardk or olive tree, with a dry date -a talk, or with suchlike tooth-stick that does 
not crumble or hurt the mouth. Moreover, using siwak is an act of the Sunnah 
to be observed at all times, even when one is in a state of fasting, according 
to the sound opinion in this regard, and it is a stressed act of the Sunnah at 
specific times. To illustrate, using siwak is stressed when performing ablution, 
for the Proph et ( PB U H ) said: 

"But for my j'cdr that it would be hard for my followers, I would have 
ordered them to use siwdk on every performance of ablution ."* 

Thus, during ablution, siwak is to be used when rinsing ones mouth with 
water to ensure the purity and cleanness of the mouth. 

Using siwak is also a stressed act of the Sunnah to be observed when 
standing for prayer, whether it is an obligatory prayer or a supererogatory 
one. This is because we are commanded upon any act of worship to be in a 
perfect state of spiritual and physical purity befitting the honor and glory of 

worshipping Allah. Moreover, using siwak is also stressed on whenever the 
smell of the mouth changes due to eating or the like. Furthermore, using siwak 
is a stressed act of the Sunnah to be observed upon reciting the Ever-Glorious 
Qur'an, so as to dean and purify the mouth to be worthy of reciting the Words 
of Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He. 



Chapter !>: Sneak (Tomli-Srick) and Acrs of Natural Qispoiiiion 31 

The way siwak is used is by rubbing the gum and teeth starting from the 
right side of the mouth (and then moving towards the left), and one should 
hold siwak with the left hand. 

Among the merits presented by Islam, the True Religion, are the acts of 
natural disposition mentioned in the aforesaid hadith. They are called the acts of 
natural disposition as they are observed by those who adhere to innate, natural 
acts of purity upon which Allah has created atl His servants, urged them to 
observe them, and desired such acts to be ohserved by them. Allah, Glory be to 
Him, desires such acts of natural disposition to be observed by His servants so 
that they attain the most perfect, honorable, dignified qualities, and combine 
the best appearance with the best manners. These acts of natural disposition 
are the old, inherent acts and practices of purification observed by all prophets 
and unanimously agreed upon by all Heavenly Laws, These acts are- 

1- I&tihdadi htihdad means shaving the pubic hair. This act, in Arabic, is 
called 'istihdad 1 because it is derived from the word Tyicfof, i.e. the razor 
used for shaving hair. Removing such hair is a way of beaut iflcat ion as 
well as purification. Also, one is free either to remove it by shaving or 
anything else. 

2- Circumcision: Tt is the removal of the loose foreskin covering a male's 
penis. It is preferable to be done during childhood, as the wound would 
heal faster, and in order to let the child grow in the healthiest way. 
Among the numerous virtues of circumcision is to purify the organ 
from the impurities caused by the foreskin. 

3- Cutting the moustache short: Cutting the moustache too short is a 
way of beautification, purification, and avoidance of imitating the 
polythcists. There are many hadtths stressing the act of cutting the 
moustache too short as well as growing the beard and beautifying it, 
as the beard is a sign of mannish beauty and is among the features 
of manhood. Ironically, many people reversed this matter; they 
would leave their moustaches and shave their beards, cut them 
short, or depilate parts of them, This is regarded as excess iven ess in 
contradicting the? acts of the Simnah (Prophetic Tradition), as well 
as an imitation of the enemies of Allah and His Messenger (i.e. the 
polytheists and the disbelievers) In addition, shaving the beard and 
growing the moustache is also a way of abandoning the features of 
manhood and gallantry and adopting those of women and low men. 
Such a meaning is what the poet intended when he composed: 

Man at times of moral affliction 
May see what is ugly as perfection. 



32 I: PURIFICATION 



Another poet says; 

No wonder tkat women have masculinized 

But men feminized is the real wonder. 

4- Clipping the nails: Clipping the nails is among the qualities of 
natural disposition, as it is a way of beaut ification, a means of removing 
dirt beneath the fingernails, and avoiding being just like beasts. 
Unfortunately, this act of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) is being 
violated by some reckless youth and light-headed women, as they leave 
their nails without clipping, out of blind imitation of the polytheists 
and contradicting, by this, the honorable Prophetic Tradition, 

5- Removing the hair of the armpits: This is also among the acts 
of natural disposition, It can be done through plucking, shaving, etc, 
as a way of purification, and getting rid of the increasing bad odor 
associated with the presence of such hair. 

Those acts, dear gentle reader, are enjoined in the religion of Islam, due 
to the beautification, purification, and cleanliness they involve. Therefore, 
Muslims who adhere to such acts would attain the most favorable and perfect 
appearance, manner, and condition, contrary to the path of the polytheists 
and their practices. Such practices are also enjoined in Islam as a means of 
distinguishing between males and females so that each could have a distinct 
character befitting his or her nature and role in life. However, many of those 
straying people, who really wrong themselves, prefer imitating the strange 
traditions and fashions that agree with neither the Islamic religion nor the 
Muslim character rather than following the guidance of Allah's Messenger 
(PBUH), Moreover, they take the wicked, low people from both the East 
and West as examples to be followed. They, thus, exchange that which is 
better for that which is worse, that which is good for that which is evil, and 
that which is perfect for that which is imperfect. In this way, such people 
wrong themselves as well a? their Muslim community, a& they innovate bad 
acts and practices contrary to the Sunnah. Therefore, they shall bear the 
burdens (i.e. the sins) of their own innovation in religion, as well as the 
burdens of those who would follow their innovation. There is neither might 
nor power except in Allah. 

We invoke Allah to guide Muslims to what may benefit them and lead them 
to the righteous deeds. O Allah, bestow upon them sincerity and devotion 
to Your Ever-Honorable, Ever-Glorious Countenance, and adherence to the 
Sunnah of Your Prophet (PBUH). 



Chapter 5: Siwak ('loot h-Si kit) ;!iid Acis li T M:i i u r;i I Dispusitiun 33 

Endnotes 



1 Ahmad (241%) [6/57] and (7) [1/5], An-Nanai (5) [I /J 7], lbn Majab (289) [l/lttfl, 
Al-Bukhari [4/202]. 

2 The Two Sahihy. Tine Two Authentic Books of Al-Rgkhari and Muslim. 

3 Isrihdad: Shaving the puhic hair. 

4 Ai-ftukhari (58*9) 110/4121 and Muslim (597) |2/I40]. 

5 Murfii* (t rateable ) heuiith is whatever word, deed, approva I or attribute wliidi is traced directly 
back to the Prophet (P&UH) with a connected or disconnected chain of transmission. 

6 AL-Bukriari (5893) 1 10/43 El and Muslim (599) 12/142]. 

7 Ahmad (23470) [5/421] and At-Tirmidhi (1081) [3/391], 

8'lhe Lawgiver of Shtiri'tth (Islamic Law) is Allah, Exalted be Hei the term can also refer 
to the Prophet (PBUH) as he never ordained but what was revealed to him by Allah, 

9 Ahmad (9910} [2/607] and (10676); see also Al-Uukhari (7240) [13/276] and Muslim 
(588) [2/135], 









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Ablution 



Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"0 you who have believed, when you rise to {perform} prayer, 
wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over 
your heads and wash your feet to the ankles..." 

(Qur'an: Al-Ma'idah: 6) 

This verse states that performing ablution whenever rising to prayer 

is obligatory, and tells US which organs should be washed and those which 
should be wiped during ablution, and specifies what part of them should be 
washed or wiped. Then, the Prophet (PBUH), through his sayings {hadiths) 

and practices, has clearly shown the way ablution is to be performed. 

Every Muslim should know that ablution has certain conditions, obligatory 
acts, and practices of the Suntrnh to be observed while performing it. Both 
conditions and obligatory acts must be fulfilled as much as possible in order to 



36 I: PURIFICATION 

ensure the validity of ablution. As for the acts of the Sutsnah related to ablution, 
they are considered complement a ry practices that guarantee the perfection of 
ablution. Observing these acts of the Sitnnah during ablution increases one's 
reward, yet abandoning them does not affect the validity of ahlution. 

The Conditions of Ablution 

There are eight conditions of ablution: 

1- Being a Muslim 

2- Being mentally sound 

3- Having discretion 

4- Having the intention of performing ablution 

According to the aforementioned four conditions, ablution is invalid if 
performed by a disbeliever, an insane person, a young child who does 
not distinguish (between right and wrong)* or one who does not have 
the intention of ablution (upon performing it}, such as performing it as 
a way of refreshment in a hot weather, or as a means of cleaning ones 
body organs or removing certain impurities or the like, 

5- Using pure water: Water used for performing ablution must be pure, 
SO impure water is inadequate for performing ablution, 

6- Using legally-obtained water: If the water used for ablution is 
unlawfully acquired, or taken by force, ablution will not be valid. 

7- Being preceded by istinj&'at: istijm&r(when necessary as previously 

mentioned). 

8- Removing what may prevent water from reaching skin of the 
ablution organs: That is, the one performing ablution has to remove 
anything covering the organs of ablution, such as mud, dough, wax, 
accumulated dirt, thick paint, etc., in order to allow water to reach the 
skin of the organ directly without hindrance. 

The Obligatory Acts of Ablution 

There are six obligatory acts, related to the organs of ablution: 

1 -Washing the whole face: Washing the whole face involves rinsing 
the mouth and the nose with water. Accordingly, one's ablution is void 
if one washes one's face without rinsing 'both' the mouth and the nose 



Chapter (r. Ablutiun ■--, 

with water. This is because the month and the nose belong to the face, 
and Allah, Exalted be He, says {regarding ablution), "..Wash your 
faces..." (Qur'kn: Al-Ma'idah: 6) Thus, Allah commands washing the 
whole face during ablution, so whoever disregards washing any pari 
of the face is considered to be disobedient to the Command of Allah, 
Exalted be He. Moreover, the Prophet (PEUH) used to rinse his mouth 
and nose with water while performing ablution. 

2 -Washing the forearms including the elbows: Allah, Exalted 
be He, says, "...And your forearms to the elbows..." (Quran; Al- 
Ma'idah: 6), i.e. washing them including the elbows, as [he Prophet 
(PBUH) used to do according to a.hadith narrated in this regard '. It 
is also stated in another hadtth that the Prophet (PBUH) "...washed 
his hands (during ablution) until he reached the upper arm$? fl This 
indicates that the elbows are included when washing the arms 
during ablution. 

3- Wiping over the whole head: Wiping over the head includes the 
ears, for Allah, Exalted be He, says, "...And wipe over your heads..." 
(Qur^n: Al-Ma'idah: 6) Moreover, the Prophet [PBUH) said, "The ears 
are treated as part of the. head:' ( Related by Ibn Majah, Ad-Daraqutni, 
and other compilers of HadHh)'' Therefore, it is incorrect to abandon 
wiping over the ears, for it is insufficient to wipe over one part of the 
head and neglect anothei during ablution, 

4-Washing the feet including the ankles: During ablution, the feet 
must be washed including the ankles, for Allah, Exalted be He, says, 
"...And wash your feet to the tinkles..." (Qur'an: Al-Maidah: 6) Here, 
the preposition 'to 1 means with according io the hadtths pointing out 
how ablution is performed, and through which it is stated that the 
whole feet must be washed 'including* the ankles, 

5 -Sequence: The decreed sequence has to be observed while performing 
ablution. To clarify, one begins with washing the face, followed by the 
hands, then wipes over the head, and finally washes the feet, as dearly- 
shown in the verse; Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, 
wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over 
your heads and wash your feet to the ankles..." 

(Quran; Al-Ma'idah: 6) 



38 I: PURIFICATION 

The Prophet (PBUH) used to follow that order while performing 
ablution, saying: 

"This is an ablution without which Allah does not accept any prayer?* 

This is as related by Abu DaVud unci other compilers of Hadith. 

6-$uccession: This means to wash the organs successively without any 

interval between washing two organs, i.e. the organs must be washed 
successively without pause, as much as possible. 

These are the obligatory acts of ablution that must be fulfilled as commanded 
by Allah in His Ever- Glorious Book, the Quran. 

Scholars disagree concerning the ruling on tasmiyak upon starting 
ablution; they differ whether it is an act of the Sutinah or an obligatory practice 
of ablution. At any rate, according to all Muslim scholars, it is permissible to 
start ablution with tasniiyah and it should not he abandoned. 

The reason - Allah knows best - behind specifying those four organs for 
ablution (i.e. the face, hands, head, and the feet) may be because they are the 
commonest bodily parts related to sins, so their physical purification may be 
an indication of spiritual purification (from the sins committed by them). 
The Prophet (PBUH) has stated that whenever a Muslim washes one of these 
organs (during ablution), the misdeeds committed through it are remitted, 
and that such misdeeds fall and vanish with the flow of the water used for 
washing that organ, until the last drop of it. In addition, the Prophet (PBUH) 
enjoined saying the Two Testifications of Faith following washing these organs 
(i.e. following ablution) as a sign of combining both physical and spiritual 
purity. The physical purity is achieved through washing those organs in the 
way prescribed by Allah in His Ever- Glorious Book, I he Qur*an. As for the 
spiritual purity, it is achieved by uttering the Two Testifications of Faith thai 
purify one from polytheism and disbelief. 

In the last part of the aforesaid verse related to ablution, Allah, Exalted be 
He, says: 

"...Allah does not intend to make difficulty for you t but He 
intends to purify you and complete His favor upon you that you 
may be grateful." (Quran: Al-Maidah: 6) 

Thus, gentle reader, every Muslim has to know that Allah has decreed 
ablution in order to purify them from sins, and to complete His favor upon 



Chapter 6: Ablution 39 

them. Likewise, if you contemplate the opening of the same verse, "Oyou who 
have believed..." you will find that it is a generous, gentle call through which 

Allah, Glorified be He, addresses those who have faith, as they are the ones 
who will listen to, obey, abide by and benefit from what Allah says and enjoins. 

That was why the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"No one keeps being in a state of ablution except the believer"* 
The Acts of the Sunnah to fit Observed during Ablution 

Whatever acts done in addition to the above-mentioned obligatory acts of 
ablution art* deemed desirable; he who observes the in will be rewarded and 
there will be no blame upon him who refrains from observing them. Hence, 
scholars call such acts as the acts of the Sunnah to be observed during ablution, 
or the desirable practices of ablution. 

Those acts are as follows: 

1- Using siwak (tooth-stick) during ablution: The virtues and the 

way of using siwak have been previously clarified. In particular, siw&k 
is to be used while rinsing the mouth with water during ablution, 
in order to ensure the cleanness of the mouth and to be ready for 
worshipping Allah, reciting His Ever-Glorious Book, Quran, and 
invoking Him, Almighty and Ever-Majestic be He. 

2- Starting ablution with washing the hands three times, before 
washing the lace, as enjoined in various hadiths. This is also because 
the hands are Ihe means through which one dips out water and washes 
the other organs, so washing the hands is regarded as insurance and a 
prerequisite for the purity of all the other parts of ablution. 

3- Starting with rinsing the mouth and the nose before washing 
the face, as stated in various hadiths. When one is not in a state 
of fasting, one should rinse them inside and out (making water 
spread ail through the mouth, and sniffing water when rinsing 
the nose}. 

4- Inserting one's wet fingers into one's (thick) beard, ensuring 
that water reaches all its parts, and washing ones fingers and toes well, 
especially between them. 

5- Starting with the right organs before the left (as in washing the 

hands and the feet}. 



40 I: PURIFICATION 

6- Washing the face, hands and feet up to three limes instead of once* 

Thus, we have tackled the conditions b the obligatory acts, and the acts of 
xhcSutwaii to lie observed during ablution. So, you T gentle reader, should learn 

them, and keep observing them whenever you perform ablution to ensure the 
legal perfection and validity of your ablution as well as the reward for it 

We ask Allah to grain us all more beneficial knowledge and guide us to the 
righteous deeds. 

Endnotes 

1 Ad-Daraqutni (268) [i/861 and Al-Bayhaqi Q56) [1/93). 

2 Muslim (246). 

3 Abu Diiwiid (134) [1/72), AMirmidhi (37) [1/53K Tbn Majab (444) [1/262] and Ad- 
Daraquini(J5J)|l/I"»[. 

4 Ibn Majah (419) [1/250], Abu YaMa (5598} and Ad-Daraqutni (257) [1/63], 

5 Tasmiyah: Saying "Bismilldh" (i.e. in the Name of Allah). 

6 Ahmad (22429) f 5/3 55] and Ibn Majah (278) [ 1/178). 



Way of Performing Ablution 



Since you are now acquainted with the conditions, the obligatory acts, 
and the acts of the Sunnah to be observed during ablution, then you are 
aware of the proper way ablution is performed, which is an application of 
the above-mentioned rulings. Put differently, the perfect way of performing 
ablution is achieved by observing these conditions, obligatory acts, and acts 
of the Sunnah, which are derived from the texts oi Shan ah (Islamic Law), 
So, every Muslim has to spare no effort in observing them once he knew 
them, Allah willing. 

The Way of Performing Ablution 

1 -Intention: To intend performing ablution for the acts of worship for 
which ablution is required, such as prayer and the like 

2-Tismiyah: To say "Bismiltih" (i.e. In the Name of Allah) 

3 -To wash the hands three times 



42 I: PURIFICATION 

4-To rinse the mouth three times and then to rinse the nose three 

times (by sniffing water and then blowing it out using the left hand) 

S-To wash the face three times, from the upper part of the forehead 

(the beginning of the normal hairline) to the lower parts of the 
jaws lengthwise, and from one ear to the other width wise (without 
washing the ears, as they are treated as part of the head, not the face, as 

previously mentioned). The beard, as well, must be washed; if the hair 
of the beard is not thick, one has to wash it internally and externally. 
But if it is thick, it has to be washed from the outside, and it is desirable 

to insert wet fingers washing it internally, as mentioned above, 

6-To wash the hands up to the elbows three times; each hand is to be 

washed from the upper parts of the fingers and nails to the beginning 
of the upper arm, Moreover, one has to remove whatever sticks to the 
hands or the fingernails {such as dough, mud or thick paint) before 
washing them, so as to allow water to reach such parts. 

7-To wipe over the whole head only once, including the ears, with 
wet hands (provided the water used for wiping over them is fresh one, 
unlike that remaining from washing hands). The proper way of wiping 
over the head is to be by putting one's wet hands on the upper part of 
the forehead and let them pass backwards till they reach one's nape, 
then return them forwards to the starting point. After that, one is to 
insert ones two wet forefingers in the holes of the ears while wiping 
over their outer parts with one's two thumbs. 

8-To wash the feet three times including the ankles. As for one 

whose hand or foot is amputated, such one is to wash what is left of the 
arm or (he feet. To clarify, if the arm is amputated from the joint of the 
elbow, one is to wash the front part of die upper arm, and if the foot is 
amputated from ankles, one is to wash the tip of the (amputated) leg; 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"So fear Allah as much as you are able ..." 

(Quran: At-Taghabum 16) 

Similarly, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If I command you to do something, then do (of) it as much as you can n[ 

Accordingly, if a person washes what is left of an amputated limb, it 
will be sufficient as one thus does what one can. 



Chapter 7; Way of Performing Ablimon jj 

9- After finishing performing ablution, in accordance with the 
above staled form, one may raise one's sight towards the heaven and 
invoke Allah with some of the invocations of the Prophet (PBUH) in 
this regard, such as saying: 

7 testify that there is no deity but Allah. Alone, with no partner, and 
1 testify that Muhammad is Hi$ Servant and His Messenger. O Allah! 
Make me among those who are constantly repentant, and make me 
among those who purify themselves" 

Or Saying; 

"Exalted are You, O Allah, and ail praise be to You. I testify that there is no 
deity but You. I ask You for forgiveness and turn to You in repentance"' 

The reason behind mentioning dhikr' and invocation following 
ablution is to combine both physical and spiritual purity, for ablution 
is a means of physical purity, whereas dhikr and invocation (implying 
monotheism and repentance) are signs of spiritual purity. In this 
way, one becomes in the most perfect slate of purity (combining 
both physical and spiritual purity), and becomes pure enough to be 
admitted to stand before Allah (in prayer), imploring Him humbly 
and submissively. 

By the way, it is all right to dry ones organs with a towel or the like after 
ablution. 

Every Muslim has to know that ablution should be performed perfectly, 

ensuring that water reaches all parts of the organs washed during ablution, 
without negligence. To illustrate, when the Prophet (PBUH) saw a man who 
had left a spot on his foot, as small as a fingernail, unwashed (after ablution), 
he (PBUH) said to him, "Go back and perform ablution welt"* Moreover, some 
of the Prophets Companions reported that when the Prophet (PBUH) saw a 
man offering prayer while there was on the back of his foot a small part equal 
to the space of a dirham (an Arab coin) which was not washed, i.e. water did 
not reach it, he (PBUH) commanded him to re -perform both ablution and 
prayer ', In addition, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Woe to the heels (if not washed during ablution) from the Fire!" 

This is because one might be SO reluctant concerning washing them that 
one washes them carelessly and water can hardly reach one's ankles during 
ablution and some spots remain unwashed, which causes them to be tortured 
in the Hellfire, Furthermore, in the hadtth rotated by Abu Dawud and other 
compilers ofHadith, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 



44 I: PURll-lCA'I'JON 

"The prayer of any of you is not complete until he performs ablution 
perfectly, as Allah, Exalted be He, has ordered him. He should wash 
his face and hands up to the elbows, wipe over his head and (wash) 
his feet up to the ankles..!' 

However, Muslims should know Thai the perfection of ablution is not to 
use a lot of water, but it means to let water reach all parts of the organ being 
washed. fti fact, mere over-use of water is regarded as prohibited wastefulness 
of water. Also, one may pour water wasteful ly during ablution without 
performing it perfectly; the perfection of ablution with little water is exactly 
what is legally enjoined. Tt is stared in the Two Sahflis that the Prophet (PBUH) 
used to perform ablution with one mttdd* and to take a bath with one ga "' up 
to five mudds . 

The Prophet (PBUH) also forbade wastefulness of water; once he (PBUH) 
passed by Sa'd while the latter was performing ablution and said to him: 

"Why are you wasting all this water?" $a \isaid, "Is there wastefulness 
even in performing ablution?" The Prophet (PBUH) replied, "Yes, 
even if you were performing it from a river of running water" 

This hadith was related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah, and supported by other 
narrations ". The Prophet ( PBL 1 H ) also stated that there would be some people 
of the Muslim nation who would exceed the limits in purification, i,e, who 
would purify themselves excessively, waste fully and having unsubstantiated 
doubt l3 ,He (PBUH) also arid: 

"There is a demon of ablution called Al-Walhan, so be on your 
guard against insinuation in ablution." 

Excessiveness in pouring water, which is considered wastefulness, leads to 
other illegal, detestable consequences, such as: 

Incomplete purification: One may depend on using water in abundance 
during ablution and so does not make sure that water reaches all parts 
of the organs, Consequently, some spots may remain unwashed while 
one is unaware. Hence, ones ablution becomes incomplete and thus 
one performs prayer without purification. 

Excessiveness ill worship: Ablution is an act of worship, and if any act 

of worship is excessively performed* it becomes void. 



Chapter 7: Way of Performing Abluiinn 45 

Insinuation in purification: One may get insinuation and be doubtful 
concerning purification due to excess) venes.s in using water while 
performing ablution. 

In fact , the best way to avoid the aforesaid consequences is to follow in the 
Prophets footsteps and abide by his Sitrmah, for the most cvij of (religious) 
matters ilre those newly innovated. May Allah guide us all to that which He 
likes and to what pleases Him, 

To sum up, you have, dear gentle reader, to be keen to ensure that your 
ablution and all the other acts of worship arc legally and perfectly observed, 
with neither excessiveness nor negligence, for both extremes are dispraised, 
and moderation is the best of all matters. .Negligence in acts of worship makes 
them imperfect, and excess! veness makes them subject to religious innovations; 
following the example of the Prophet (PbUH) and abiding by his Surtrtah is- the 
optimum way to perform acts of worship with due perfection. Q Allah, make 
us know what is right and guide us to follow it, make us know what is wrong 
and guide us to avoid it, and do not make tiling's obscure for us, lest we may 

go astray. 
Endnotes 



1 Al-Bukhari (7288) |! 3/308 1 and Muslim (6066) [8/ 108], 

2 At-Tirmidhi (55) [1/77], Muslim (552) [2/112], Aba Dawud (169) [1/89], An-Nasa'i 
(148) JI/eOOJ and Ibn Majah (470) [1/273], 

3 Sec Ebtius-Siiiini's 'Anml At-Yaivm miS-Laybli, p.2l, 

4 Dhikr. Invocations implying remembrance of mid mentioning Allah, 

5 Muslim (575) [2/126]. 

6 Abu Dawud (175) [1/92], 

7 Al-Bufchari(J65l [1/350], (6(1) ] 1/1 89], and Muslim (572) [2/125], (569) [2/123], 

8 Abfl Dawud {358} [1/376], An-Nasa 1 ! (1135) [1/574], Ibn Majah (460) f 1/268]; see also 
At-Tlmiidhi (302) [2/101], 

9 Mudd: A standard measure that equals 543 grams, 
L Sdi "": A standard measure that equals 2 \ 72 grams. 

M AI.Rukhari(20l) 1 1/398] and Muslim (735) [2/233]. 
i 2 Ahmad (7062) (2/291 1 and Ibn Majah (425) [ i /254| . 
13 Ahmad (16778} [4/l23| a ltd Abu DiwQti (96) 1 1/59], 
i4 At-Tirmtdhi (57) [1/84] and lbil Majah (421) 1 1/252], 









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Wiping over the Khuffs 



Islam is a religion of easiness and simplicity, not difficulty and strictness; 
it decrees Suitable rulings for C&ch case, which ensure fulfilling legal purposes 
and duties with no difficulty. 

This applies to the rulings on ablution decreed by Allah. To illustrate, 
sometimes there is something covering the organs washed during ablution 
which is hard to remove and maybe needed as a means of protection, either 
for the feet {such as khuffs and the like), or for the head (such as turbans and 
the like), or for protecting wounds or the like (such as splints, bandages, etc. It 
is deemed permissible for the one performing ablution to just wipe over such 
coverings instead of removing them and washing what is underneath. This 
is the easiness made by Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, for His servants, 
relieving them from difficulty and strictness. 

As for the permissibility of wiping over the khujfo (and their likes, such as 
socks) during ablution, instead of removing them and washing underneath, it 



4fi I: PURIFICATION 

is stated in many mutawdtir, 2 sahiti hadiths that the Prophet (PBUH) used to 
wipe over them whether at home or on a journey; he (PBUH) enjoined doing 
the same. 

As regards the legal proofs of the permissibility of wiping over the khujf$ s 
Al-Hasan said, "J was told by seventy of the Companions of Allah's Messenger 
(PBUH) that he used to wipe over his khuffs (with his wet hands during ablution)" * 
Moreover, An-NawawJ said, "The permissibility of wiping over the khuffs was 
reported by innumerable Companions'' Tm&m Ahmad also said, "There is not 
a shadow of doubt in my mind concerning the legality of wiping over the khuffs, 
as there are forty hadiths of the Prophet (PBUH) indicating its permissibility" 5 
In addition* Ibnul-MuMrak and others stated that there was no disagreement 
among the Companions concerning the permissibility of wiping over the 
khuffs during ablution . Likewise, Ibnul-Mutldhir and others reported the 
scholars' consensus on the permissibility of such an act during ablution '.In 
addition, the Adherents of the Sunnah and Muslim Community unanimously 
agree on its permissibility, unlike those innovators in religion who do not 
deem it permissible. 

Wiping over the Khuffs during Ablution 

This act is permitted and observing it is better than taking off the khuffs and 
washing the feet, as the former is a sign of making use of the legal permission 
made by Allah, Almighty and Ever-Majestic be He, following the example 
of the Prophet (PBUH), and contradicting the religious innovators. Wiping 
over the khuffs is a spiritual removal of the impurities underneath. Also* the 
Prophet (PBUH) never changed the condition of his feet to perform ablution; 
if he (PBUH) was wearing two khuffs, he used to wipe over them, and if not, he 
used to wash his feet. Therefore, it is impermissible to put on khuffs just before 
ablution in order to wipe over them while performing ablution. 

The Duration of the Validity of Wiping over 
the Khuffs without Taking Them off 

It is permissible for a resident fie. not a traveler) to keep wearing khuffs 
and wipe over them during ablution for a period of one day and night. As 
for a traveler whose journey legally allows shortening prayer (i.e. when the 
destination is far enough), the period of permissibility is three days and nights, 
according to the hadith related by Imam Muslim, which states that the Prophet 
(PBUH) specified three days (during which one can wipe over his khuffs) for 



Chapter 3: Wiping over Khiffi 

a traveler and one day and night for a resident*. For both (the resident and 
the traveler), the period of permissibility {of wiping over the khuffs) starts 
from the time of being in a state of ritual impurity (caused by passing urine, 
stool or wind) after wearing the khuffs, as ritual impurity necessitates ablution 
(for prayer). Still, some scholars view that the duration begins from the first 
ablution after being in a stale of ritual impurity 

The Conditions of Wiping over the Khuffs, the Socks, and the Like 

1- To be in a state of ritual purity (i.e. a stare of ablution) upon wearing 
them, for it is stated in (be Two Sahihs' and other books ofHadith that 
the Prophet (PBUH) said to the one who wanted to help him (i.e. the 
Prophet) in taking his khuffs off to perform ablution: 

"Leave them as I had put them after performing ablution!' 1( ' 

It is also narrated that Sal wan Ibn * Assal said: 

"We are commanded (by the Prophet) to wipe over the khuffs if we put 
them on while being in a state of ritual purity (i.e, after performing 
ablution)." 

Thus, it is quite obvious that the ruling is dependent on being in a 
state of ritual purity when putting the khuffs on, so if one is in a state 
of ritual impurity when putting them on, it is impermissible for one 
to wipe over them, 

2- The khuffs must be lawfully acquired, gotten, and made. To clarify if 
they are taken by force, or made of silk (for men), it is impermissible 
to wipe over them during ablution. In a word, a legal permission is not 
applied to what is already illegal. 

3- The khuffs and their likes must completely cover the feet up to the 
ankles. One cannot wipe over them unless they are thick enough and 
covering the parts of the feet which are to be washed. Thus, if they are 
too short to cover the feet up to the ankles, or are not thick enough to 
conceal underneath, it is impermissible to wipe over them. 

Since it is permissible to wipe over the khuffs, it is permissible to wipe over 
any foot coverings, such as socks made of wool or suchlike material, which 
are thick enough to cover underneath. That is due to the fact that the Prophet 
(PBUH) wiped over his socks and his shoes while performing ablution, as 



^ L: PURIFICATION 

stated in the kadith related by Ahmad and other compilers of HaditK and 
deemed sahib, (authentic) by At-Tirmidhi ' : . Wiping over such things during 
ablution is valid until the legal period of permission ends regardless of the 
frequency of taking them o ff and putting them on. 

As regards the turban, it is permissible to wipe over it on two conditions. 
The first is that the turban must be covering the area of the head which is 
traditionally covered. The second condition is that the turban must he wrapped 
round the lower jaw up to the head, one or more than one turn, or to be with 
a back tail. It is stated in many faadhhs related by more than one of the Imams 
that the Prophet (PBUH) wiped over his turban during ablution. To illustrate, 
'Ulnar Ibnul-Khafiah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 

"He who is not purified by wiping over the turban (i.e. does not 
deem it sufficient for wiping over the head), then may Allah not 
purify him" 

It is worth mentioning that it is permissible to wipe over the khuffs and 

turbans only in case of purification from the state of minor ritual impurity, but 
not major ritual impurity (e.g. janahah); one has to take off ones khuffe and 
turban and wash underneath in the latter case. 

As for splints, bandages, and the like, it is permissible to wipe over them 
during ablution (without removing them), Moreover, one is permitted to wipe 
over plasters that cover wounds; all such coverings are permitted To be wiped 
over provided they cover only the injured area or the necessary parts which 
need to be covered for treatment, However, if the splint, the bandage, or the 
like, covers more than the injured area unnecessarily, the unnecessary parts 
must be removed. In addition, it is permissible to wipe over splints in both 
states of ritual impurity (minor and major ritual impurity), and there is no 
fixed period for the permissibility of wiping over them. In other words, it is 
permissible to wipe over the splint until it is removed or the broken limb heals. 
In a nutshell, the permissibility of wiping over the splint during purification is 
dependent on the necessity of the cover. 

The proof of the permissibility of wiping over the splint is the following 
kadith narrated by Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him); he reported: 

"Once, we were on a journey and one of us was injured in his 

head by a stone. Then that man had a wet dream, so he asked his 
companions saying, 7s it permissible for me to perform tayammum 



Chapter 8: Wiping over Khitjfli 



51 



(dry ablution with dean earth)?' They answered him saying, 'We 
do not see any legal permission for you as you are tible to use water! 
So, the man had a ritual hath after which he died. When we came 
to Allah's Messenger (PBUH), we told him about this. He (PBUH) 
said, 'They killed him; may Allah hi!! them! Why did they not ask 
when being ignorant, for inquiry is the aire for ignorance? It would 
have been sufficient for him to perform tayammum (instead of 
ablution) and to bandage his wound with a piece of cloth over and 
then to wipe over it (the piece of doth).' " 

(Related by Abu Dawud and Jbn Majah, and deemed sahib (authen- 
tic) by Ibnus-Sakan) 

The Areas to Be Wiped over 

Wiping is to be applied to the upper part of the khuffs or the socks. As for 
the turban, most of it should be wiped over, especially its folds. However, the 

splint lias to be wholly wiped over. 

The Way Wiping over the Khuffs is Performed 

Wi pi ng over t he kh ujfs ( du r i n g ab lu tio n ) i s to be by p a ss i ng on e s wet fi n gers 
from ones toes towards ones leg. The right root is to be wiped over with the 
right hand, and vice versa. Also, one should open ones fingers during wiping, 
and should not repeat wiping. May Allah guide us all to useful knowledge and 
righteous deeds. 

Endnotes 



] Khuffs: Ualher socks or shoes or their Like. 

1 MwfrJH'dfrr (continuously recurrent) hadith is a hfidith reported by a large number of 

narrators whose agreement upon telling a lie is inconceivable {ihLs con Jit km must be 

met in me entire chain from the beginning tu the end). 

3 Stihih (authentic) hadUh is a hadlth whvst chain of transmission has been transmit Ltd 
by truly pious persons who haw been known for their uprightness and exactitude; 
such s kadHh is fret from eccentricity and. blemish. 

4 See thnut-Mimdhirs Al-Awm (1/430, 433], Az-ZayEa'is Nasb Ar-Myah 1 1/162], and 
IblULl-Mulaqqinji>lf-/ , fi}irt fiefnmud "Urndul Af-A^kHni [J/615|. 

5 SeeAtl'tdm Befawffid "Umdat At-Ahkam [1/615], 

6 See AMwsa/ 1 1/434]. 



52 



T: PURIFICATION 



7 Ibid. 

8 Muslim (637) [2/167], 

9 The Two Sahihs: The Two Authentic Books of Al-liiikhari and Muslim. 

10 Al-Bukhirl (206) [1/404] and Muslim (630) (2/162). 

11 Ahmad (1*011) [4/240]. 

12 Ahmad (18167) 14/343], Abu DaWud (159) [1/85], At-Tirmidhi [99) [1/167) and Ibn 
Majah (559) f 1/341 J. 

13 Abu Dawdd{336) [1/172]; sec aiso Abu Dawud (337) [1/172] and Ibn Majah (572) [1/3211 




Things Nullifying Ablution 



Given that you have become now aware of how ablution is performed, what 
its conditions are, and what its obligatory practices and acts of the Sunnah are, 
you need now to know what causes ablution to be nullified. Tn this way, you 
will avoid performing an act of worship (such as prayer) while your ablution 
is null, and so will be the act of worship performed in that state. Every Muslim 
should know that there are things that nuJJify ablution and that it becomes 
completely null if any of them is done; in this case, one has to re-perform 
ablution to do any act of worship necessitating ablution. 

The things nullifying ablution (any of which makes it invalid) are certain 
matters identified by the Lawgiver 1 to be affecting the validity of ablution. 

The Things Nullifying Ablution are of Two Types 

1- Direct nullifiers: They are the matters Chat cause the nullification of 
ablution directly such as urine, stool, and whatever comes out of the 
anus and the sexual organ. 



54 I: PURIFICATION 

2- Indirect nullifiers: They are [he matters that cause nullification 
of ablution indirectly, or makes the validity of ablution suspicious. 
Such mailers include unconsciousness or similar states like sleeping, 

fainting, insanity, eic. The reason is that if one is in a state of un con- 
sciousness , one becomes u nibble to feel what comes out of ones body 
or what one does. Thus, doubt in such cases is regarded as an actual 
nullifying factor. 

For more clarification, we can classify the things nullifying 
ablution as follows; 

1) Whatever comes Out of the stool and urine exits, such as stool, wind* 
urine, sperm, pre -seminal fluid, and unusual menstrual blood. Stool 
and urine are among the direct things nullifying ablution, according 
to the religious lexts and juristic consensus, as when Allah, Exalled be 
He, revealed the cases that obligate ablution He said: 

"... Or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself ..T 

(Quran: AL-Maidah: 6) 

As for sperm and pre- seminal fluid, they nullify ablution according to 
the sahih (authentic) hadiths reported in Ihis regard, and the juristic 
consensus reported by Ibnul-Mund hi r and others . 

As regards istiheidah,' it nullifies ablution according to the hadith 
reported by Fatimah bint Abu Hubaysh mentioning that ^shc was 
afflicted with istihddah> and when she asked the Prophet (PBUH) 
about its ruling, he (PBUH) said to her: 

"Perform ablution and then (you can) offer prayer, for it h (due only 
to) a vein!' 

This hadith was related by Abu Dawud and Ad-Daraquini, who said 
that all the transmitters of that hadith were trustworthy. 

Likewise, breaking wind nullifies ablution according to the sahih 
(authentic) hadiths narrated in this regard, as well as the juristic 
consensus. For example, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Allah will not accept the prayer of anyone of you if he passes urine, 
stool or breaks wind until he performs ablution* 



Chapter?: Things Nullifying Ablution « 

Also, he (PBUH} said regarding ones uncertainty whether one had 
broken wind or not: 

"One should not leave prayer (to re-perform ablution) unless one hears 
sound (of breaking wind) or smelts something"' 

As for what comes out of one's body other than urine, stool, and the 
aforesaid secretions, such as blood, vomit, nosebleed and the like, 
scholars disagree whether such things nullify ablution or not. Yet, the 
preponderant opinion is that it does not nullify ablution, However, if 
one re -performs ablution in this case to avoid such a juristic disagree- 
ment, it will be better. 

2) Among the things nullifying ablution is mental unconsciousness either 
due to insanity or due to sleeping, fainting and the like. Thus, the 
ablution of one in such a state is deemed null, as there is suspicion in 
this case that something has come out of one's body (such as a drop of 
urine, wind, or the like) while one is unaware. Still, dozing is regarded 
as an exceptional case (i.e. it does not nullify ablution) as the Prophet's 
Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) used to doze while 
waiting for prayer at the mosque . In a word, only deep sleeping causes 
the nullification of ablution according to the ample legal proofs, 

3) Eating meat of camels, little or much, is also one of the things nullifying 
ablution, according to the explicit sahth (authentic) hjtdlth of Allans 
Messenger (PBUH) in this regard , Imam Ahmad (may Allah have 
mercy on him) said that there are two iah.lt (authentic) hadhhs ascribed 
to Allah's Messenger (PBTJH) in this connection. Still, eating any lawful 
meat other than that of camels does not cause ablution to be null 

There are some other issues on which scholars disagree whether they nullify 
ablution or not, such as touching one's penis, touching a woman lustfully", 
washing the body of a deceased person, and apostasy Some scholars view that 
each of the above-mentioned matters causes ihe nullification of ablution, while 
others maintain that it does not. The issue is still controversial and subject to 
analogical deduction, yet re- performing ablution in such cases so as to avoid 
that juristic disagreement will be better. 

There is still an important issue in this regard that should be clarified, 
namely the case when one is certain about the validity of ones ablution, then 
one suspects that any of the things nullifying ablution has taken place; what 






% h PURIFICATION 

should one do in this case? 1e is stated that the Prophet (PBUH), in the hadtth 
related by Imam Muslim nn the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be 
pleased with him), said: 

"If any one of you feels any flatulence (while being in a state of ablution) 
and is doubtful whether anything (like wind) has issued from him or 
not, he should not leave the mosque (to re-perform ablution) unless 
he hears a sound (of breaking wind) or perceives a smell" 

This honorable hadtth, as well as similar ones that state the same 
meaning, indicates that if one who is certain about ones purity then 

doubts it, one should deem oneself pure (despite one's suspicion) and act 
accordingly. This is because the original ruling is that one is still in a state 
of purity, as purity is ceTtain in this case, and the nullification of ablution 
here is based on mere suspicion. Thus, certainty is not to be eliminated 
because of suspicion. This is, in fact, a great generic ruling to be applied in 
all cases; namely, the original ruling is to remain applicable until otherwise 
is verified. By contrast, if one is certain about the nullification of one's 
ablution and suspects its validity, one has to re-perform ablution, as the 
original case here is ones minor ritual impurity, which is not abrogated 
due to mere suspicion. 

O Muslim reader, you should keep yourself pure and verify your ablution 
whenever you stand for prayer, and care for the validity of your ablution as 
much as you can, for prayer without valid ablution is invalid. You should 
also beware of insinuation and Satan's whispers that cause you co doubt the 
validity of your ablution, making yon in a state of douht and confusion. 
Therefore, you should seek refuge with Allah from the evils and pay his 
insinuations no attention. Moreover, you should ask the people of juristic 
knowledge about whatever confuses you of the issues of purification and 
purity, in order to be certain about your purity. You should also care for 
the purity of your clothes so as to verify the validity of your prayer and 
the perfection of the acts of worship you perform, for Allah, Glorified and 
Exalted be He, says: 

"... Indeed, Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and 
loves those who purify themselves" (Qur'an: Al-Eaqarah: 222) 

May Allah guide us all to useful knowledge and righteous deeds. 



Chapier 9: Things Nn llitying AhLiLiion 57 

Endnotes 

] The Lawgiver ofSharVah (Islamic Law) is Allah, Esalletl be He; the term can also refer 

to the Prophet (PRUH) as he never ordained but what was revealed to him by Allah. 
2$teAl'Awsttf[Ul3$]. 

3 IstillAliah'- Vaginal bleeding other than menstruation. 

4 Abu Diwild (286) [1/143], An -Nasal (360) [1/203] and Ad-Daraqulni (778} [1/2131. 

5 Al-Bukhari (137) [1/312] and Muslim (802) [2/272]. 

6 Muslim (833) [2/2 96 1 . 

7 Muslim (800) [1/271]; see also Ahmad (18495) [4/4901, Abu Dawud (184) [1/961, At- 
Tirmidhl(81) IW122] and Ibn Majab (494) [1/283]. 

8 Muslim (803) [2/272]. 




CHAPTER 




Ritual Bathing 



You have already been introduced to the rulings on ablution, which is a 
means of purification from minor ritual impurity (caused by passing wind, 
excrement or urine), and the things nullifying it. So, the focus is now given 
to highlighting the rulings on purification from major ritual impurity, be it 
janabah, 1 menstruation, or postnatal bleeding. This kind of purification is 
called ritual bathing, during which one washes ones whole body in a specific 
way on which we will elaborate tin below. The legal proof that ritual bathing is 
obligatory in such cases is that Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"...And if you are in a state ofjanabah, then purify yourselves,.." 

(Qur'an: Al-Ma'idah: 6) 

It is said that ritual bathing from jan&bah was practiced by the 
disbelievers during the }&hiliyyah (Pre-Jslamic Period of Ignorance), 
and it was among the remaining teachings of the religion revealed to 
Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) (PBUH), 



<& ^_^_ „__ . I: PURIFICATION 

There are six cases in which performing a ritual bath is obligatory for 
A Muslim: 

Ejaculation by a man or a woman, being awake or asleep, provided 

that it is associated with sexual pleasure in case of wakefulness, if not, 
owing to an illness or inability to control it, then a ritual bathing is nnf 
obligatory. However, it is absolutely obligatory for one to take a ritual 
bath if one ejaculates while being asleep, which is called wet dreaming, 
as one in this case is unconscious and may not feel any pleasure. On 
the other hand, if one wakes up and find's the traces of ejaculation, it is 
obligatory for one to take a ritual bath then, but if there is no trace of 
ejaculation, ritual bathing is not obligatory. 

Inserting a man's penis into a woman's vulva, even if without ejac- 
ulation, as it is stated in a hadsth related by imam Muslim that the 
Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"When anyone sits amidst four parts, (of the woman) and the circum- 
cised parts (of the genitals) touch each other, a ritual bath becomes 

obligatory (for bath)" 2 

Thus, sexual intercourse, even if without ejaculation, obligates ritual 
bathing for both the man and the woman according to the aforesaid 

hadith as well as the consensus of Muslim scholars. 

Embracing Islam; when a disbeliever embraces Islam, for the Prophet 

(PBUH) commanded some of ihe new converts to Islam to perform ritual 
bathing following declaring their Islam'. However, many scholars view 
that it is desirable, not obligatory for a new convert to take a ritual bath 
as the Prophet (PBUH) has never been reported to have commanded 
every new convert to do so. So, the ruling here is that it is regarded as 
desirable according to reconciliation between the various legal proofs in 
this regard; and Allah knows best. 

Death is the fourth case that necessitates ritual bathing (i.e. washing the 
body of the deceased) except for martyrs (see rulings on funerals). 

Menstruation and postnatal bleeding me the fifth and the sixth cases 
in which ritual bathing is obligatory (for women), for the Prophet 
(PBUH) said to a woman: 



Chapter 10: KkuaJ Bulling. £,] 

"$o> when your menstruation period begjns,give up performing prayer, 
and when it ends, wash off the blood (i.e. take a ritual bath) and then 
perform prayer," 

Moreover, Allah commands men not to approach their wives in 
case they are in a state of menstruation until "... they have purified 
themselves..." {Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 222). i.e. through ritual bathing 
following the menstrual period. 

The Way a Complete Ritual Bath is Taken 

• Having the intention to take a ritual bath 

• Beginning with tasmiyah 

• Washing one's hands thrice 

• Washing one's genital 

• Performing full ablution 

■ Washing one's head; pouring water over the head thrice so that it 
thoroughly reaches one's scalp 

• Pouring water over one's whole body and rubbing it with one's hands, 

making sure that water reaches all parts of the body 

The menstruating or the woman in a state of postnatal bleeding has to 
undo her hair braids or pigtails when taking a ritual bath. However, a woman 
in a state of janabah does not have to undo her hair braids to have a ritual 
bath, as it does not affect the validity of her ritual bathing in this case. This is 
because janabah is a frequent state, and undoing hair braids every now and 
then might cause her difficulty. Still, it is obligatory for a woman in that state 
(of janabah) to make water reach her scalp. 

In general, it is obligatory for one performing ritual bathing, a man or a 
woman, to ensure that water thoroughly reaches one's scalp, and to wash the 
hidden body parts well, such as the skin of the neck, the skin of the armpits, 
the navel, and the back parts of the knees. Moreover, if one wears a ring, 
a wrist watch, or the like, one has to move it to let water reach underneath. 
Thus, one has to perform ritual bathing so perfectly, verifying that there is 
not a single body part but water has reached* for the Prophet (PBUH) said in 
a kaditk related by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi: 

"There isjandbah under every single hair, so wash the hair well and 
cleanse the skin" 



63 I: PURIFICATION 

Moreover, one should by no means use water wasteful]}' while taking a ritual 
bath. Rather, one should use little water provided ritual bathing is performed 
properly and perfectly as prescribed in Shan ah. Muslims should follow the 
example of the Prophet (PBUH) and rationalize their use of water during 

purification, for he (PBUH) used to perform ablution with one mudd and to 
take a bath with one #T '. Also, it is obligatory for a Muslim to screen himself 
while taking a bath tor it is impermissible to take a bath naked while being seen 
by people, as stated in the htufith in which the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"Verily, A link is Modest ami He likes modesty mid veiling, so when 
anyone of you takes a bath, he should screen himself (so as not to 
be seen by others)." 

(Related by Abu Dawud and An-Nasai)*. 

Taking a ritual bath to purify oneself from the state of major ritual impurity 
is one of the trusts between a servant and his Lord, so one should be keen on 
fulfilling this obligation properly and observing its rulings carefully, so as to 
perform it legally and perfectly. If one is uncertain about any of the rulings 
on ritual bathing, one should consult scholars; shyness should never prevent 
one from doing so, for Allah Himself (as stated in the Quran) is not shy of the 
truth. If shyness prevents a Muslim from asking about his religious affairs, it 
is then regarded as a condemned kind of shyness and cowardice whispered by 
Satan to keep him away from learning the religious rulings necessary for him 
and fulfilling the obligations of bis religion perfectly. 

Purity is a serious issue, and being negligent regarding it is a grave legal 
mistake, for it is a condition of the correctness of prayer which is the pillar of 
Islam. We ask Allah to bestow upon us, as well as all Muslims, insight into His 
religion, and to gram us sincerity in our words and deeds. 

Endotes 

1 fanAbflh: A state of major ritual impurity rental to sexual discharge. 

2 Muslim (763) [3/265] ■> see also Al-Bukhir? (291) [ 1/51 2] and Muslim (781) [2/261 ]. 

3 Abfi Dawud (355) [1/1 SO], At-Tirmidhi (604) [2/502 J and An-Nasa'i (J 88) [1/1 !8k 

4 A]-BukharT (228) and Muslim (333). 

5 Tastniyah: Saying "Biimilffif (i.e. In the Name of Allah), 

6 Abu Dawud (24S) [l/126|. At-Tirmidhi (10) [1/178) and [h n Majah (597) ||/332|. 

7 Al-Bukhari (201) and Muslim (325). 

8 Atmad (17935) [4/306). Abu Dawud (4012) [4/196] and An -Nasal (404) [1/216]. 




Tayam mum (Dry Ablution) 



Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, lias decreed purification for prayer 
from both states of minor and major ritual impurity by using pure water, 
which He sends down from the sky Purification with water (when being in 
either states of ritual impurity) is obligatory for a Muslim as long as water is 
available. However, in some cases, either water is unavailable or one is unable 
to use it due to a legal excuse, for that Allah, out of His grace and mercy, 
has kindly provided a substitute for it, namely tayammum with clean earth, to 
make things easy for His servants and to spare them difficulty. 

Allah, Exalted be He, in His Precise, Glorious Book, the Qur'an, says; 

"Oyou who have believed, when you rise to {perform} prayer^ 
-wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over 
your heads and wash your feet to the ankles. And if you are in 
a state ofjanabah, then purify yourselves. But if you are ill or 
on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving 



_£* T: PURIKK^TIQN 

himself or you have contacted women and do not find water, 
then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and hands with 
it, Allah does not intend to make difficulty far you, but He 
intends to purify you and complete His favor upon you that 
you may be grateful:' ( Qur an: Al ■ Ma idah: 6) 

Linguistically, the word tayammum' in Arabic means intention, and legally 
(according to the Islamic rules) it means wiping over the face and hands 
with dean earth in a specific way, Tayammum is stated in the Noble Quran, 
prescribed in the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition), and approved by consensus. 
Tayammum is a privilege which Allah, out of His grace and mercy, has specified 
for the purity of the nation of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in order to make 
things easy for them. In the Two Sahihs, it is rdated that the Prophet (PBUH) 
said: 

"I have been granted (by Allah) five (things) which were not granted 
to anyone else before me (and they are) (l) Allah made me victori- 
ous by awe (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one 
month's journey (2) The earth has been made for me (and for my 
followers) a masjld (a mosque or a clean place for prayer) and a 
means of purification, so anyone of my followers can pray anywhere 
whenever the time of a prayer is due. ."' 

Tayammum is a substitute for purification with water in case one is legally 
unable Tu use it. Purification with tayammum also enables a Muslim to perform 
all the acts of worship that require ablution with water, such as prayer, tawaf 
(circumambulating the Ka bah), reciting the Noble Quran, etc. This is because 
tayammum has been decreed by Allah us a legal substitute for purification with 
water. The Prophet (PBUH) also said: 

" ..And its clean earth has been made (by Allah) as a purifying means 
for us.." 

The Cases in which Tayammum Substitutes 
for Purification with Water 

1- Unavailability of water; when one finds no water, whether one is at 
home or on a journey; Allah, Exalted be He, says: 
"... And do not find water, then seek clean earth ..." 

(Qur'Sn: Al-Ma'idah; 6) 



CKapwrlli JayamtmiiH (Dry Ablucion) {-* 

2 Availability of water but insufficient; when the available water is enough 
only for drinking, cooking, and such necessities, and purification with 
water might cause it to run out when it is needed to quench the thirst 
of one, ones family, people, animals, etc, 

3- Probability of harm; when purification with water might cause harm 
due to an illness, or cause the delay of one's recovery, or the like, for 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"...But if you are ill... then seek dean earth..." 

(Qur'in; Al-Ma'idah: 6) 

4- Inability to use water due to illness; when one is unable to use water 
due to an illness that prevents one from moving to get water and 
there is nobody to help him perform ablution, so one fears to miss 
performing prayer at its due time. 

5- The fear of catching cold; when one fears the harm of catching cold if 
one purifies oneself with water, provided one is unable to heat it, for 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

",,.And do nut kilt yourselves [or one another],*" 

(Quran; An-Nisa': 29) 

In any of the aforementioned cases, one can perform tayammum (instead 
of ablution with water) and offer prayer. In addition, if water is enough only 
to wash some of the organs of ablution, one can use it and then perform 
tayammum for the rest of the organs; Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

^Sofear Allah as much as you are able.." 

(Quran: At- Taghabun: 16) 

Moreover, if there is a wound that hurts if it is washed or wiped over, one 
can perform tayammum for that wound, and continue performing ordinary 
ablution (with water) for the rest of the organs, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"♦.. And do not kill yourselves (or one another]... 1 ' 

(Qur'an: An-Nisa: 29) 

However, if wiping over the bandage of the wound with water does not hurt 
or cause any harm, it is sufficient for one to wipe over that bandage instead of 
wiping over it with clean earth (i.e. tayammum). 



66 



1: PURIFICATION 



It is permissible to perform tayammum with dean earth, saline earth, 
sand, and suchlike pure earthy stuff, according to the preponderant of the two 
juristic opinion^ in this regard, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

" . . Then seek dean earth. . " ( Qu r' an: A I - Ma idah : 6) 

When it was time for prayer, the Prophet (PSUH) and his Companions 
used to perform tayammum wherever they performed prayer (when water was 
unavailable), using earth or anything of the kind; they never took clean earth 
with them everywhere to use it (for performing tayammum) in case they did 
not find water. 

How to Perform Tayammum 

When performing tayammum, one strikes the earth with one's hands 
while parting one's fingers. Then one wipes over ones face with the palm of 
one's hands, and wipes over the hands with the palms of one's hands, provided 
both the fiace and the hands are wholly wiped over. It is permissible to strike 
the earth twice, wiping over the face after the first strike and over the hands 
after the other. However, the former way of performing tayammum is the one 
authentically narrated to have been observed by the Prophet (PBUH) . 

Things Nullifying Tayammum 

*> Whatever minor ritual impurity nullifies ablution (such as stool, 

urine, wind, etc) nullifies tayammum. 

»> Whatever major ritual impurity necessitates ritual bathing (such as 
jan&bah, menstruation, and postanal bleeding) nullifies tayammum. 
The ruling here is that the substitute act (i.e. tayammum) takes the 
same rulings on the original act (i.e. ablution and ritual bathing). 

♦ When water is found (in case tayammum is performed because of Jack 
of water) 

+> When there is no longer a legal excuse such as illness and the like. 

If one finds neit her water nor earth , or is unable to u se either, it is permissible 
for one then to perform prayer with neither ablution nor tayammum, for Allah 
"does not charge a soul except with that within its capacity"; one also is not 
legally required to re-perform such a prayer for one, thus, (by adopting easiness) 
acts in accordance with Allans Commands, as Allah, Exalted be He t says: 



Chapter] I: Tayctmmitm (Dry Ablution) r-i 

"So fear Allah as much as you are able,," 

(Quran: At-Taghabun: 16) 

Furthermore, the Prophet (PRUH) said: 

"If I command you to do something, thm do of it as much as you canf 

Thus, we have explained to you, gentle reader a summary ol Ike rulings 
on tayammum, and if you are doubtful about any of them or any of her rulings, 
you have urgently to consult men of religious knowledge; you should never 
neglect any religious issues, especially ihose related to prayer, the pillar of 
Islam, for the issue is really serious. 

May Allah, guide us all to felicity and righteousness regarding our words 
and deeds, making our righteous deeds sincerely done for His Sake, and in 
devotion to His Honorable Face! May Allah grant our invocation, for He is 
verily the Hearing and Responsive! 

Endnotes 



1 Tayammum: Performing dry ablution with clean earth (when water is unavailable or 
one cannnt use it). 

2 Al-Bukhari (33S) [1/565] and Muslim (1163) [3/6], 

3 Muslim (] 1(55) |3/7]. 

4 Al-Buklwi (338) f 1/574] and Muslim (818) [2/284]. 

3 Al-Bukhari (72*8) 1 13/308] and Muslim (606ft) [8/ 1 08). 



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Removal of Impurity 



As a Muslim is legally required To be pure from minor and major ritual 
impurities in order to perform prayer, he is also commanded to purify his 
body, clothes and remove am/ spot of impurity Allah says: 

"Aitdyottr clothing purify," (Quran: Al~Muddaththir: 4) 

The Prophet (PBUH) commanded a woman to wash the menstrual biood 
from her garment .With this in mind, it is our duty to shed more light on this 
issue, namely the removal of impurity illustrating the most important related 
rulings, hoping that it may benefit Muslims. Faqlhs (may Allah have mercy on 
them) used to specify a separate chapter in their volumes entitled "A Chapter 
on the Removal oflmpurity" i.e. the removal of the impurities that afflict pure 
objects, such as clothes, utensils, sheets, floors, etc. Water is the basic means 
used for the removal of impurity, as it is the original means of purification, as 
described by Allah Who says: 



70 hPURIFKAHON 

"... And sent down upon you from the sky, rain by which to 
purify you..." (Quran: Al-Anfai: 11) 

Kinds of Impure Objects That Must be Removed 

Impurity may be linked to the ground, the floor, or what is connected to 
them, such as walla, water basins, rocks, etc. In such a case, it is sufficient to 
remove such impurity by washing it only once, i.e. to pour water once until it 
covers the impure object, as the Prophet (PBUH) ordered to pour a bucket of 
water over the urine of the Bedouin who hud urinated in the mosque". Such an 
impurity is naturally removed when covered with rainwater or floods. So long 
as the impure object is removed by pouring water, or by rainwater or floods, 
it is sufficient to deem the area concerned pure. On the other hand, impurity 
may not be related to the ground, the floor, or what is- connected to them, such 
as the impurity caused by dogs, swine, or what is related to them. In this case, 
the impure object must be washed seven times, one of them with earth, for the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When a dog licks a utensil belonging to anyone of you, let him wash 
it seven times, the first of them with earth."' 

(Related by Muslim and other compilers afHadith) 

Still, this ruling is not restricted to utensils; it is also applicable to clothes, 
sheets, and the like. If the impure object is related to neither dogs nor swine, 
such as urine, stool, blood, and the like, it has to he washed, rubbed, and 
wrung out until it is completely removed, leaving neither sign nor color. 

Tti general, things washed can be divided into three categories: 

1. Squeezable things such as clothes, so they must be wrung out after 
washing. 

2. Unsqueezable things such as leather and the like, so they have to be 

overturned during washing, 

3. Things that can neither be wrung out nor overturned; such things have 

to be washed, scrubbed and then pressed with a heavy object until 
most of their water dries. 

When the filthy area on one's body, clothes, a small place of prayer, or the 
like, cannot be located, the whole suspected area has to be washed until it is 
certain that impurity has been removed. Still, if the impure area itself cannot 

be identified, the whole object has to be washed. 



Cliapter 12: Removal af Impurity -.-, 

As for a pure material soiled with urine of an infant, it is sufficient to purify it 
with sprinkling water, not washing it, as stated in the hadith narrated on the authority 
of Umin Qays Bint Mihs.an (may Allah be pleased with her). She narrated; 

7 brought my baby son (who had not started eating ordinary food 

then) to Adah's Messenger (PBUH) who took him and made him 
sit in his lap. The child urinated on the garment of the Prophet 
(PBUH), so he (PBUH) asked for water and sprinkled it over the 
soiled area without washing it." 

However, if the child is old enough to eat ordinary food, the ruling on 
his/her urine is regarded as that of grown-ups. In such cases, urine is to be 
removed by washing as in the case of other kinds of impurity 

There are three kinds of impure objects: 

. Major impure objects, such as those caused by dogs and the like 

- Minor impure objects, such as the urine of infants (who have not yet 
started eating ordinary food) 

# Moderate impure objects, which include all other impure objects. 

At this point, there must be distinction between pure and impure urine 
and manure of animals. Those of legally edible animals, such as camels, cows, 
sheep and the like,, are pure, according to a hadith related by Al-BukharJ and 
Muslim stating that the Prophet (PBUH) gave permission to the people of 
Uraynah to take the urine and milk of the camels of charity as medicine*. This 
hadith implies that the urine of camels is pure, for it is impermissible to take an 
impure object as medicine. Some may argue that the Prophet permitted taking 
or drinking such urine as medicine only in case of necessity. To this, we say that 
the Prophet (PBUH) never enjoined washing the trace of the urine of camels 
before performing prayer, which shows that he did not deem it impure. It is 
also stated in a sahih (authentic) hadith tbat the Prophet (PBUH), before the 
Prophet's Mosque was built, would perform prayer at sheepfolds f ' and would 
command his Companions to perform prayer in such folds,' though they had 
been surely urinated in. 

Shaykhul -Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"Purity is the original ruling on all kinds of manure except for those 
which are ruled out. . ." 



72 I: PURIFICATION 

The Jef Cover of legally edible animals is pure and so is the leftover of 
cats, according to the hadith narrated on the authority of Abu Qatadah, who 
reported that the Prophet {PBUH) said about cats: 

"it (i.e. a cat) is not impure; it is one of those (male or female domestic 
animals) which go round among you" 

(Related by At-Tirmidhi, who deems it siihih (authentic), and other 
compilers of Hadith) 

In the hadith at hand, the Prophet (PBUH) resembled cats to servants who 
go round among their masters waiting for their orders. Thus, deeming cats 
pure as stated in the hadith is a way of relieving Muslims from strictness and 
difficulty Some scholars maintain the same ruling on legally inedible animals 
smaller than cats, such as birds and the like. They view that the leftover of 
such small animals (or birds) is as pure as that of cats. On the other hand, the 
manure, urine, and the remaining food of any legally inedible animals other 
than cats and their likes are impure. 

Thus, taking care of physical and moral purity is central in a Muslim's 
life. Moral purity requires monotheism and devotion to Allah, in both 
words and deeds. As for physical purity, it includes purifyi ng oneself from 
major and minor ritual impurities, as well as purification from all kinds 
of tangible impurities. This is because our religion, Islam, is. the religion 
of purity, cleanness, and purification from both physical and spiritual 
filthiness. A Muslim must always observe purity and cleanness, for the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Purification is half of faith." 

So, a Muslim must concern himself with purity and avoid all kinds of 
impurity; Allah's Messenger (PBUH) has stated that the commonest reason 
for the torture in the grave is one's being soiled with urine without purifying 
oneself . Hence, if you are soiled with impurity, you must hasten to purify 
yourself in order to keep yourself pure, especially when you want to perform 
prayer. Always check your state of purity, and when you want to enter a 
mosque, for example, you should check the cleanness of your shoes; if ynti find 
something filthy, you have to remove it and clean your shoes, and do not ever 
enter a mosque with filthy shoes, May Allah guide us all to whatever pleases 
Him of words and deeds. 



Chapter 1 2: Removal of] in purity 7? 

Endnotes 

1 Al-Riikhari (227) f 1/430] and Muslim (673) [3/ 1 90). 

2 Al-Bukhari (6A25) [10/552] and Muslim (657) [2/181]. 

3 Muslim (649) [2/175]; sec also Al-Bukhari ( 1 72) 1 1/359], 

4 Al-Bukhari (223) j 1/425] and Muslim (663) [2/1851. 

5 A]-liukhari(233) 1 1/436] and Muslim (4329} | ft/1 54], 

6 A]-Bukhari(234) (1/444) and Muslim (1 174) [3/11]. 

7 Muslim (800) [2/271]; set also Vayd Al-Qndir (4/415) and As-Silstfoh Ad-Dti 'i/ah (2902). 
SSeelbufayniiyalls Majmii'ui-Faian'a (20/339), (21/40, 74, 75, 534, 587, 613) and (25/239). 

See also Al-Ikhtiyarat Al-'Hmiyyah p.41. 

9 Abu Dawucl (75) [1/49], At-Tirmidhi (92) (1/153), An-Nasa'i (68) \ 1/581 and Ibn 
Majah(367) [1/228]. 

10 Muslim (533) [2/95]. 

11 A I -Hakim (657) 1 1/280] and Ad-Dar^ulni (460) [1/136]. 






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CHAPTER 



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Menstruation and Postnatal Bleeding 



First: Menstruation 

Allah, Exalted be Tie, says; 

"And they ask you about menstruation. Say, 'It is harm, so keep 
away from wives during menstruation. Atui do not approach them 
until they are pure. And when they have purified themselves, then 
come to them from where Allah has ordained for you. Indeed, 
Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those 
who purify themselves' "' ( Q u r an : A I - B aqarah : 22 2 ) 

Menstruation is the flow of a type of natural blood from the womb at 
specific times. This blood is habitually discharged every month for sis or seven 
days, and the period Gin be more or less I h an that. In other words, a woman's 
monthly period can be longer or shorter depending on the different nature of 
each woman as predetermined by Allah, 



7& 1= PURIFICATION 

Rulings Stated in the Noble Qur'an and the Sunnah 
Concerning Menstruation 

It is prohibited for a menstruating woman either to perform prayer or observe 
fasting, as the Prophet (PBUH) said to Fajimah Bint Abu Hubaysh; 

"Give up prayer when your menstrual period begins"' 

Thus, the prayer and fasting of a menstruating woman are deemed invalid, 
as the Prophet (PBUH) has prohibited that,* and the Prophet's prohibition 
means it is invalid to perform what lie has prohibited. Therefore, a woman 
who performs such acts of worship in that state of impurity is considered to be 
disobedient to AUah and His Messenger (PBUH). 

When the menstrual period is over, a woman has to make up for the missed 
days of fasting according to the juristic consensus, without making up for the 

prayers she has missed. ' A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: 

"Wh en we m enst runted du ring th e life of A liah's Messenger (PBUH), 
we used to be commanded (by Allah's Messenger) to make up for 
the missed days of fasting, but we were noi ordered to make up for 
the missed prayers" 
{Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

Jt is impermissible for a menstruating woman to make [awaf (circumam- 
bulating the Kabah), to recite the Noble Qur'an, or to stay in a mosque. In 
addition, it is prohibited for her husband to have sexual intercourse with her 
until her period is over and she takes a ritual bath. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And they ask you about menstruation. Say, 'It is harm, so keep 
away from wives during menstruation. And do not approach 
them until they are pure. And when they have purified themselves, 
then come to them from where Allah has ordained for you..." 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 222) 

The phrase "...keep away from wives during menstruation" means not to 
have sexual intercourse with them within that period. The Prophet (PBUH) 
also said: 

"You can do everything (with your wives during menstruation) 
except sexual intercourse (or copulation' as in another version)"* 

(Related by the Croup of Compilers of /faiif/i except Al-Bukhart) 

It is permissible for the husband of a menstruating woman to enjoy her by 
kissing, touching, and the like, except for having sexual intercourse with hen 



Chaptei- L3: Mniscruacion and Postnatal Weeding ;.'? 

It is impermissible for the husband of a menstruating woman 10 divorce 
her before her menstrual period is over, rts Allah says: 

"O Prophet* when you [Muslims] divorce women t divorce them 
at [the eomtnencetttettt of] their waiting period* , " 

(Quran: Al-Talaq: 1) 

That is, when they become pure (from menstruation, sexual intercourse, 
etc.). Also, the Prophet (PBUH) ordered a man who had divorced his wife 
during her menstrual period to take her back and to divorce her (if he insisted) 
when her period was over. 

Once the menstrual blood Stops discharging, a woman becomes pure and 
her menstrual period is deemed over. She must then take a ritual bath, after 
which she is allowed to do whatever acts of worship which were prohibited for 
her during menstruation. After blood stops discharging, a woman does not 
have to be concerned about any secretion or yellowish discharge, as indicated 
in the hadith narrated on the authority of Umm 'Atiyyah (may Allah be 
pleased with her) who said: 

"We never considered yellowish discharge as a thing of importance 
(as menstruation)" 

This hadith is related by Al-Bukhari and other compilers of Hadith, and it 

is deemed a marfti ' (Traceable) hadith, for the Prophet (PBUH) has approved 
of its content. 

N.B. 

if the discharge of a woman in a state of menstruation or postnatal bleeding 
stops before sunset, it is obligatory for her to perform both the Zuhr (Noon) 
and the 'Asr (Afternoon) Prayers of the same day, and if the discharge stops 
before dawn, it is obligatory for her to perform both the Maghrib (Sunset) and 
the Ishd' (Night) Prayers of the same night. This is because the time of prayer 
for the latter is a permissible time of prayer for the former in case of a legal 
excuse. Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah {may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"So, the majority of scholars, such as Malik, Ash-Sh&jVi, and Ahmad 
view that if a menstruating woman's discharge stops at the end of 
daytime* it is obligatory for her to combine performing both theZuhr 
and the 'Air Prayers of the same day, and if the discharge stops at the 
end of the night, it is obligatory for her to combine performing both the 



78 lil'UKEHCATION 

Maghrib and "Isha Prayers of the same night. This is because there 
is a legal common specified time for every two successive prayers to 
be combined due to a legal excuse. To clarify if a woman's discharge 
stops at the end of the day, it is obligatory for her to perform the 
Zuhr Prayer before the 'Asr Prayer, for it is still a permissible time 
to perform the Zuhr Prayer, le. she is still at the specified period of 
the Zuhr Prayer. Likewise, if that was at the end of the night, it is 
obligatory for her to perform the Maghrib and the 'I$h&' Prayers, as 
she is still at the specified time of the Maghrib Prayer, This ruling was 
narrated on the authority of 'Abdur-Rahman, Abu Hurayrah, and 
Ibn 'Abbas" 6 

If a woman starts discharging before she can perform an obligatory prayer 
at its specific lime, the preponderant opinion is that she is not required to 
make up for such a prayer after her discharge stops. In this respect, Shaykhul- 
Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"The opinion oftheHanafi and MAliki Schools is the most cogent, as 
they maintain that a woman is not required to make up for such a 
missed prayer after her discharge stops. This is because making up for 
such a prayer necessitates a new legal command, and there is none in 
this case. Her delay of prayer is based on a legal excuse, so she is not 
to blame, as the delay is not out of negligence. If a Muslim oversleeps 
or forgets to perform a prayer at Us due time, though it is not out 
of negligence, the time of prayer starts for him when he gets up or 
remembers, and thus his prayer is not considered a way of making up 
far a missed one."' 

Second: IstihAdah 

Istihjidah is an irregular vaginal bleeding other than menstruation, 

caused by a vein called in Arabic AI-'Adhil' The case of mustah&dah* is 
so confusing, for the blood of menstruation resembles that of istihadah. 
The question here is: Since the mustahadah is legally considered pure, how 
can she distinguish between menstruation and bleeding of istihadah when 
her bleeding continues all the time? How can she distinguish then between 
menstruation and istihadah, bearing in mind that she is legally and ritually 
deemed pure in the latter case? 



Chapter 13: McnsmiLirion .md Postnatal RUxiiing 79 

in fact, there are ihree cases of the mustahfidah: 

1- When a woman used to have a stable, regular menstrual period (i,e h 
having certain duration of menstrual period) before she bad istihadah. 
In such a case, a woman can distinguish between both states relying 
on her stable menstrual period, (i.e. the bleeding that contradicts the 
tin ration of her menstrual period is regarded as that of istihadah). 
Thus, such a woman can wait until her usual period ends, then deem 
any other bleeding as istihadah, as the Prophet (PBUH) said to Umm 
£Iab!bah in this regard: 

"Remain away (from prayer) equal (to the length of time) that your 
menstrual period used to prevent you. After that (after the period of 
usual courses), bathe yourself and perform prayer" 

(Related by Imam Muslim) 

Moreover, the Prophet (PBUH) said to Pali malt Bint Abu Hubaysh: 

"This (i.e. istihadah) is from a blood vein, not (usual) menstruation. So, 
when your real menstrual period begins, give up performing prayer" 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

2- When a woman does not have a regular menstrual period, but her 
bleeding is always distinguishable; sometimes she bleeds malodorous, 
thick, and black blood (i.e. having the characteristics of menstruation 
blood), and some other times she bleeds red blood which is neither 
thick nor malodorous. Such a woman is to consider the former kind 
of blood as that of her menstrual period, during which she gives up 
prayer and fasting, regards the other kind of blood as that of istihadah, 
the period in which she can perform prayer and observe fasting, for 
she is considered ritual ly pure in this case. The Prophet (PBUH) said 
to Paiimah Bint Abu Hubaysh: 

"When the menstruation blood comes, it is black blood that can be 
recognized. So, when that comes, give up performing prayer, but when 
a different type of blood comes, you can perform ablution and perform 
prayer. . ." 

This hadith is related by Abu D&wudand An-Nasa't, and deemed sahih 
(authentic) by Ibn Hibban and Al -Hakim . Tt stares that the ruling 
depends on the judgment and the recognition of the woman herself 



SO I: PURIFICATION 



3-When a woman has neither a regular menstrual period nor a 
distinguishable kind of blood (e.g., the perplexed woman). Such a 
woman must follow the prevalent womanly menstrual period (i.e, 
average of six or seven days a month) and deem whatever discharge 
after this period as istifaadah; the Prophet (PBUH) said to ijamnah 
Bint Jahsh: 

"This (i.e. istihadah) is a strike (i.e, harm) caused by Satan, so you 
should count six or seven days for menstruation, then you should 
take a ritual bath. If you see that you have purified yourself, then 
perform prayer for twenty four or twenty three days and fast for this 

will be sufficient for you. So, you should do as women do during their 
menstrual period." 

This hadhh is related by the Five Compilers oiHadith^ and deemed 
SflbJk (authentic) by Ar-Tirmidhi 11 . 

To sum up, we can say: 

• A woman with a stable, regular menstrual period distinguishes istihadah 

according to her habit. 

« A woman with a distinguishable blood depends on her own judgment 
and her ability to distinguish between her menstruation and istika&h. 

* A woman that has neither (a regular period nor distinguishable blood) 

is to consider six or seven days a month and then take a ritual path. 

These aforementioned rulings combine the three rules stated by the 
Prophet (PBUH) concerning a woman in a state of istihAdah. 

Shaykhul-Isiam Ifcm Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"There are six distinctive features between menstruation and istihadah. 
The first is the regular* stable menstrual period, which is the most cogent 
reliable distinctive sign (between menstruation and istihadah), as any 
discharge other than that of menstruation is regarded as istihadah The 
second is the distinguishable blood: the malodorous, thick, and black 
blood is considered with greater reason as menstruation blood, rather 
titan the red one. The third distinction is to follow the prevalent womanly 
menstrual period, as the original juristic ride is that the ruling on the 
individual follows that on the majority. These three cases are stated in the 
Sunnah and by means of legal consideration, , " u 



ChapUT 13: Mcjisrru:itiwi ==iiid Posmaral Rk-edin** 01 
^ ^ " J 

Then he (Ibn Taymiyah) mentioned the remaining three cases and in his 

conclusion he said: 

"... The most valid opinion is to abide by the first (three) cases as they 
were stated in the Sunnah, and to reject the others,"** 

Obligatory Acts to be Observed by a Mustahadah 
in Case She is Deemed Ritually Pure 

1) She has to take a ritual bath when her estimated period for menstruation 
ends, as mentioned above. 

2} She has to wash her vulva upon every performance of prayer, put a piece 
of cotton or the like in there to prevent bleeding, tie it well so as not to 
fall, and perform ablution for every prayer. About a woman in a state of 
istihadaK the Prophet (PBUH) suidr 

"She should give up prayer during her menstrual period, after which 
she should take a bath and then she can perform prayer." 

This hadilh is related by Abu Dawud, [bn Majah and At-Tirmidhi; the 

latter maintains that it is a hasan (good) hadith"' ''. The Prophet (PBUH) also 
said about a mustahadah: 

"I advise you to use cotton (to stuff the vagina with it,) for it absorbs 
the blood!'™ 

Women also can use the sanitary napkins available nowadays. 

Third: Postnatal Bleeding 

The ruling on a woman in a state of postanatal bleeding is like that of a 
menstruating one concerning the permissibility of the husband to enjoy her 
without sexual intercourse. They also have the same rulings regarding the 
prohibition of sexual intercourse, observing Fast, performing prayer, divorce, 
performing tawaf™ reciting the Nnblc Quran, and staying in a mosque. 
Moreover, the rulings on both cases are the same regarding the obligation of 
taking a ritual bath when bleeding stops, and making up for the missed days of 
Past, but not the missed prayers, just like the menstruating women. 

The womb of a woman in a state of postnatal bleeding discharges blood 
during and after giving birth, and this is the blood accumulated during 
pregnancy. The maximum period of pas tana tal bleeding is forty days, according 
to the majority of scholars. At-Tirmidhl siaLcs: 



XI 



i: PURIFICATION 



"People of religious knowledge among the Companions ojthe Prophet 
(PBUH) ami their successors uniformly agree that a woman in a state 
of postnatal bleeding must give up prayer for forty days unless her 
bleeding stops before that; in this case, she has to take a ritual bath 
and perform prayer"' 

So. if the bleeding oi'u woman in a state of postanals! bleeding stops before 
the fortieth day, her period of postnatal bleeding ends, and she must have a 
ritual bnLh, perform prayer, and practice all acts of worship that have been 
prohibited for her during her postnatal bleeding period. 

If a pregnant woman miscarries and starts discharging, and the stillborn 
has reached a distinctively recognizable form, she is considered a woman in 
a state of postnatal bleeding. An embryo takes about eighty-one days to three 
months in order to have a distinctively recognisable shape. If the embryo is 
a mere lump of flesh or a clinging clot (without a distinctively recognizable 
form), the woman is not considered in a state of postnatal bleeding, even if 
she starts discharging; she is not to give up prayer or fasting, and none of the 
rulings on postanals I bleeding is applicable in this case, 

N.B. 

It seems suitable to thoroughly complete our discussion at this point by 
mentioning that some women may take some kinds of medicine that prevents 
menstrual bleeding in order to observe fasting in the month of Ramadan, 
or to perform Hajj (Pilgrimage). Such medications are permissible if they 
prevent blood only for a period of time h not forever. If this medicine prevents 
menstruation forever, a woman is not permitted to take it without her husband's 
permission, since her ability to give birth is also prevented as a result of taking 
this medicine. 

Thus, we have briefly highlighted the rulings on menstruation, which 
needs a much longer time to elaborate on. If a Muslim is confused or in doubt 
regarding any of the aforementioned rulings, or any other ones, he/she must 
consult faqihs {scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence), and surely they will find 
what eliminates their confusion and doubt, Allah willing. We invoke Allah to 
grant us success. 



Chapter 13: Mcnsrruaiioji and PtistnataL Bleeding g^ 

Endnotes 



1 Al-Bukhari (331) [1/84] and Muslim {751) [2/241]. 

2 See Al-Bukhari (304) [ 1/526]. 

3 Al-Bukhari (321) [1/546] and Muslim [761) [2/2511. 

4 Muslim (692) [2/202], Ahmad (12339) [3/167], Abu Dflwiid (285) f 1/123], Al-Tirmidhi 
(2933) [5/214], An-Nas4"i (237) [1/I67J and Ibn Majah ((544) [1/337], 

5 Al-Bukhari (326) [1/5521, An-Nasa'i (366J [1/204), Ibu Majah (647) [1/359] and Abu 
Da wud (307) [1/155], 

6 See Ibn Taymiyah's M&jmiY ulFatawa [22/76], 

7 See I bit Taymiyah's Majntu 'ul-FatawA [23/3351 

8 MustahMah: A woman in a state of istikadah (i.e. a woman ha\ r ing vaginal bleeding 
olIict than menstruation). 

9 Muslim (757) [ 2/249] . 

10 Al-Bukhari (228) [1/432] and Muslim (751) [2/241]. 

11 At>0 Dawud (286) [1/143), An-Nasai 1215) [1/133), Ibn tlibban (1348) [4/180] and 
Al-flakim (62(1) [1/268], 

12 The Five Compilers otlitldith are Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-TjrmidhT, An-Na<ta h i, and 
Ibn Majah, 

13 Ahmad (27463) [6/489], AM Dawud (287) (1/144J, At-Tirmidhi (128) [1/221] and 
Ibn Majah (622) [1/3471; see also An-Nasa'i (354) [1/2011. 

14 See Ibn Taymiyah's MajmiY ui-Fatawa [21/630]. 

15 2W. 

16 Hasan (good) hcldUhii&hadith whose chain of transmission is linked to the narration of 
an authority with weak exactitude, and the hadtth is free from eccentricity or blemish. 

17 Abu DawOd (297) [1/151], At-Tirmidhi (126) [1/220] and Ibn Majah (625) \ 1/346]. 

18 Ahmad (27463) [ 6/439 f, Abil Dawiid (287) [1/144], At-Tirmidhi (128) [1/221] and 
Ibn Majiih (G22) [1/344], 

19 Tawaf. Circumambulating the Ka" bah. 

20 At-Tirmidhi (1/258). 



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1" 




CHAPTER 




Obligation of the Five Prayers 



Prayer is the most obligatory of the Five Pillars of Islam next to the Two 
Testifications of Faith, and it was ordained in the best and the most perfect 
way for an act of worship. Prayer includes many of the acts of worship, like the 
remembrance of Allah, the recitation of the Qur'an, standing humbly before 
Almighty Allah , bowing, prostration, supplication, and lakbir , Prayer is also 
the head of the physical acts of worship, of which none- of f he religions brought 
by any of Allah's Messengers is void, Prayer, unlike all other acts of worship, 
was enjoined by Allah on His Messenger, Muhammad (PBUH), the Seal of 
Messengers, on the Night o£ Al-MV raj (Muhammad's Ascension) , This is an 
indication of its greatness, a confirmation of Us being obligatory, and a sign 
of its high status in the Sight of Allah. There are many lidttfrris indicating the 
virtues of prayer and showing its being obligatory on ail Muslim individuals. 
The fact that prayer is an obligatory act of worship is primarily known in Islam. 
5o T whoever denies this fact is considered to be an apostate; such a person is to 
be asked to recant* and if he does not, he is to be killed as unanimously agreed 
upon by Muslim scholars. 



«8 II: PRAYKlt 



Linguistically, prayer means invocation; Alia It, Exalted be He, commands 

the Prophet to 'pray' for the believers, saying: 

"...And invoke [Allah's blessings} upon them.." 

{Quran: At-Tawbah: 103) 

According to the Shan "ah {Islamic Law), prayer is defined as a special kind 
of sayings and deeds beginning wiih takbir and ending with tasUtn. It is called 
'prayer' because it includes invocation; during prayer, the worshipper is in a 
state of invocation through worshipping Allah, praising Him, nr supplicating 

Kim for something. This is why it is called prayer 1 . Prayer was decreed by 
Allah on the Night of Al-Mi 'raj, before Hijrah" as five prayers lobe performed 
everyday and night at specified times by every legally accountable Muslim, 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"...indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the bet levers a decree 
of specified t imes" (Qur an : An -Nisa' : 1 03 ) 

Those prayer times are the rimes pointed out by Allah's Messenger (PBUH) 

through his words or his deeds (i.e. through die Sitnnah). Allah, Exalted be He, 
also says: 

"And they were not commanded except to worship Allah I being] 
sincere to Him in religion, Inclining to truth, and to establish 
prayer, .." { Q u r& n : Al - Bayy in ah : 5) 

In addition, in many verses of Alb lis Glorious Book (the Quran), Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"And establish prayer..." (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 43) 

Allah also says: 

"[O Muhammad], tell My servants who have believed to establish 
prayer..!' (Qur 'an: Ibrahim: 3 1 } 

Moreover, Allah, Glorified be \ fe, says; 

"So exalted is Allah when you reach the evening and when you 
reach the morning. And to Him is [due all] praise throughout the 
heavens and the earth. And [exalted is He] at night and when 
you are at noon." (Qur'an: Ar-Rum: 17-18) 

Therefore, it is obligatory for whoever reaches one of the specified times 
of prayer, being adult and sane, to perform it, excluding women in a state 

of menstruation or postnatal bleeding, Scholars unanimously agree that it 



Chapter !: Obligation of the Five Praycn gt) 

is not obligatory for women in the aforesaid two cases to perform prayer, 
nor to perform it later after purification, On the other hand, whoever is 
in a state of unconsciousness, as in sleeping, fainting, and the like, has to 
perform the prayer(s) he/she has missed when he/she wakes up. Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"...And establish prayer for My remembrance.'' 

(Quran: Taha: 14) 

In addition, the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"Whoever misses a prayer out of oversleeping or forgctfuiness let 

him perform it once he rtmsmbers it" 

A guardian of a child has to command him to perform prayer when the 
child reaches the age of seven, though it is still not obligatory for him, But the 
purpose is to make the child interested in prayer and used to it. Thus, the child 
and his guardian will be rewarded when the former performs prayer, for Allah, 
Exalted be He, says in general: 

"Whoever comes [on the Day of Judgment] with a good deed will 
have ten times the like thereof [to his credit]...." 

(Qur'an: Al-An 3m: 160) 

Moreover, when a woman showed the Prophet (PBUH) a young boy who 
was with her saying: 

"Docs this one have to perform Haj] (Pilgrimage), O Messenger of 
Allah?" He (PBUH) replied, "Yes, and you will have a reward!" 

So, a guardian has to teach his child how to perform prayer and how to 
perform ablution for it, A guardian has also to beat his child if the latter is ten 
years old and neglects prayer, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Command your children to perform prayer when they become seven 
years old, and beat them for (not performing) it (i.e. prayer) when 
they become ten years old; and arrange their beds (so that boys and 

girls sleep) separately!' 

(Related by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawiid, and other compilers 
ofHadith) 

It is also impermissible to perform prayer later than its due time, for Allah, 

Exalted be He, says; 



90 II: PRAYER 

"...Indeed prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of 
specified times." (Qurln: An-Nisa ; 1 03) 

The meaning is that prayer has specified times at which it has to be 
performed. A prayer is impermissible to be deferred except for those who 
would like to combine it with the following prayer, provided that the said 
prayer can be combined with another, and that the case is among those in 
which combin j ng two prayers is permissible as well as the person being one 
who is allowed To combine prayers in this way. As for delaying performing 
a night prayer until the morning, a day prayer until the night, or the Fajr 
(Dawn) Prayer until sunrise, it is by no means permissible, whether the 
reason is a state of major ritual impurity, minor ritual impurity, or anything 
else. Rather, one has to perform them at their specified times, regardless 
of one's state. 

A person might happen to be detained in hospital where he is confined 
to a bed that he cannot leave to pray, or cannot change the impure clothes 
he wears, or cannot find pure earth to perform tayammum (dry ablution) 
instead of ablution to pray. Some ignorant people in this case defer prayer 
on the pretext that they will perform it later when possible. In fact, this is a 
grave mistake and a means of missing prayer whose reason is unawareness 
and Jack of juristic consultation. What they have to do is to perform prayer 
at its specified times regardless of their states. Their prayer will be sufficient, 
even if it is performed without tayammum or in impure clothes; Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"So fear Allah as much as you are able..." 

(Quran: At-Taghabun: 16) 

Even if they pray without facing the qibiah t provided they are unable to 
face it, their prayer is still valid. 

As regards those who abandon performing prayer out of negligence 
or slackness, even if without denying the fact that it is obligatory, they are 
considered disbelievers according to the more valid of the two juristic opinions 
in this regard. This is what is indicated in the prophetic faadiths, like the one 
related by Imam Muslim that stales: 

"Verily,, between man and between polytheism and disbelief is the 

negligence of prayer? 



Chapter I: Obligation at the Five Prayers rjj 

There are many other legal proofs. Those who abandon prayer are to be 
pointed out among people so as to be ashamed of themselves and perform 
prayer. In addition to this, they are to be discarded to the extent that they 
are not to be greeted and their invitations are not to be accepted utitil they 
repent and establish regular prayer. This is because prayer is the basic pillar 
of religion, and the main difference between a Muslim and a disbeliever. So s 
whatever good deeds one might do are useless if one is negligent of prayer we 
ask Allah for safety. 

Endnotes 



1 The Two Testifications of Faith: Saying, "1 testify that there is no deity but Alhih ami 
that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah" 

2 Takbir. Saying, "All&hu-Akbar" [i.e. Allah is the Greatest). 

3 See Al-Bukhari (75 1 7} [ 13/58-3] and Muslim (409) (384). 

4 'iiwJHfl: Saying the final SalAnn in prayir{$a.yiftg"A&-$tit{irnu 'aitiykunr ivn Rajmtatittlaii" 
i.e. "Peace be upon you, and the mercy of Allah") when concluding prayer. 

5 Hijrah: 'I he Prophet's Immigration to Medina. 

6 Al-Bukhari (597) [3/93] and Muslim (1566) [3/1981. 

7 Muslim (3240) 1 5/ 103]. 

8 Ahmad (6753) [2/243], Abu DawCld (495) [1/239], Al- Hakim (951) f 1/378]; see also 
At-Tirmidhi (407) [2/259) Jtm Kbuzaymah (1002) [2/102}. 

9 1ht tfibitih: 'the direction of prayer, namely towards the Ka"bah, 

10 Muslim (243) |2/259l. 






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tlfeKfc' 1 




CHAPTER 




1 ?*?■'-■ '■ *;-HSM 



Prayer Call (Adfiaw) and 
Immediate Prayer Call (Iqdmah) 



The Five Prayers have specified times, before which it is impermissible 
to perform them. Many people (at the time of the Prophet) did not know the 
exact time of prayer; or were so busy that they did not pay attention to the time 
of prayer. Therefore, Allah decreed the prayer call (adhan) to notify them of 
its due times. The prayer call was decreed in the first year after the Prophet's 
Immigration to Medina. The reason behind its prescription was that it was 
difficult for the Muslims then to observe the exact times of prayer. Therefore, 
they conferred and agreed to have a certain sign to gather them Tot- prayer* 
Afterwards, the wording of the prayer call was revealed to Abdullah Ibn Zayd 
in a vision, which was confirmed by the Divine Revelation; 1 All all,. Exalted be 
He, revealed: 



94 II: PRAYER 

"Dytw who have believed, when [the adhanjis called for theprayer 
on the day ofjumuah } Friday], then proceed to the remembrance 
of Allah and leave trade.," (Qur an: Al-Jtimu l ah; 9) 

Allah also revealed: 

"And when you call to prayer..." (Qur'Sn: Al-Ma idah: 58) 

Each of the prayer call {ndhan) and the immediate prayer call (iqAmah) has 
special wording, which express creed and faith. Both of them begin with takb'ir 
{saying, "AUahu-Akbar" i.e. "Allah is the Greatest") which is a sign of glorification 
of Allah, Almighty and Ever-Majestic be He, Then the Two Testifications of 
Faith are to be declared, as an acknowledgement of the Oneness of Allah, 
Exalted and Glorified be He, and the pmphethood of our Prophet, Muhammad 
(PBUH). After that, a call for prayer, the basic pillar of Islam, is pronounced, 3 
fol (owing which a call for prosperity is pronounced, inviting all Muslims for 
prayer, the way to felicity and eternal delights. Finally the wording of the prayer 
call ends with takbtr, which is the best way of the remembrance of Allah, and 
the word of sincerity of faith, whose greatness and virtues outweigh the seven 
heavens with all beings therein (excluding Allah) and the seven earths with all 
beings therein, 

There are many hadtths stating the great virtues of the prayer call, and 
indicating that prayer callers [Is., muezzins) will have the longest necks of 
all people on the Day of Judgment". Both the prayer call {adh&n) and the 
immediate prayer call {iq&mah) are collective duties ," and they are among the 
apparent Islamic rituals;. They are decreed on men, residents or travelers, at 
each of the five prayer times. The town whose people abandon the prayer call 
and the immediate prayer call are to be fought, because they are among the 
manifest Islamic rituals, so it is impermissible to abandon them. 

The bask characteristic of a prayer caller is to be a loud-voiced man, so 

as to be more convenient to call for prayer informing people at its due times. 
He has also to he an honest man, because he is considered to be an entrusted 
person, as his calling for prayer decides the times when people pray, fast, and 
break their fasting, A prayer caller has also to be acquainted with the due times 
of prayer to call for each prayer once its time is due. 

The prayer call consists of fifteen sentences, as it used to be made by 
Bilal during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (PBUH), It is desirable to be 
deliberate while calling for prayer, without lengthening. It is also desirable 



Copter h PrjivcT Qill ( A dlmn) and 1mm t'tENttc Prayer Call Uqanaih) 9-5 

to pause after pronouncing each sentence of the prayer call, and to face the 
qihlah while calling, inserting one's index fingers into ones ears, In addition, 
it is desirable, while calling for prayer, to turn to the right when saying, "Hrtyv 
'ala$_Salah", i.e. "Come to prayer," and to the left when saying, "Hayy "aial- 
Falah", i,e, "Come to success!" When calling for the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer, after 
saying "Hayy ' ala\-Fa]ah" twice, it is desirable for the prayer caller to call 
saying, "As-Saiiitu Khayrun mirian-Nawm", i.e. "Prayer is better than sleep," 
twice. That was commanded by the Prophet (PBUH),' as dawn is a time 
when people are often asleep. It is impermissible for the prayer caller to add 
any words to the original wording of the prayer call heforc or after calling, 
as this is considered to be a bid" ah (i.e„ a matter innovated in religion). 
Whatever is pronounced other than the wording of the prayer call approved 
of by Allah's Messenger (PBUH) is regarded as a prohibited and an innovated 
act in religion. For example, uttering words of tashih, chanting, invoking 
Allah, or conferring Allah's peace and blessings upon the Prophet loudly 
before or after calling for prayer, all are nothing hut bid'ahs. These acts are 
prohibited, and one must express one's disapproval of who ever follows any of 
them (while calling for prayer). 

It is not right to call for a prayer before its due time, because the prayer call 
is to notify people of the exact time of prayer, but an early prayer call causes 
confusion instead. Still, it is permissible to call for the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer 
earlier than its due time, in order to allow people to get ready for prayer (in 
that late hour). But there must be another prayer call at the exact time of the 
Fajr Prayer, so as to acquaint people with the due time of prayer and fasting (as 
fasting starts from the Fajr). 

When listening to the prayer call, it is an act of the Sunnah (Prophetic 
Tradition) to repeat what the prayer caller is saying while calling. Also, when 
the prayer caller calls saying, "Hayy l alas-Salah" (Come to prayer) and "Hayy 
' alal-Faldh" (Come to success}, one is to say, "La Hawla wala Quwwata ilia 
Billah" i.e. "There is neither might nor power but in Allah." Afterwards, when 
the prayer caller finishes calling for prayer, one is to say: 

"O Allah, Lord of this perfect call and of this established prayer, 
grant Muhammad the place of Al-Wasilah and the most virtuous 
place, and raise htm to a praiseworthy position (in Paradise) that 
you have promised him (of)" 

Following the prayer call, it is prohibited for one to leave the mosque 
withouL having a legal excuse or an intention to return soon. In addition, if one 



% II: PRAYER 



is silting while the prayer oilier is calling for prayer, one should not stand, but 
one should rather be patient until the prayer caller finishes calling so as not 
to resemble Satan (who flees when hearing the prayer call). Once a Muslim 
hears the prayer call, lie lias Id head for the mosque (to offer prayer), leaving a!J 
worldly affairs, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"[Such niches are] in houses [Le. mosques J which Allah has 
ordered to be raised and that His Name be mentioned (i.e, praised / 
therein; exalting Him within them in the morning and the evenings 
■ [arc] men whom neither commerce nor sale distracts from the 
remembrance of Allah and performance of prayer and giving of 
Zakah. They fear a Day in which the hearts and eyes will {fearfully] 
turn about.," (Quran: An-Nur: 36-37) 

The immediate prayer call is in eleven sentences that are uttered quickly. 
There is no need to be slow in pronouncing Ehem because they are merely 
addressed for those already present for prayers. It is preferable thai the person 
who calls for prayer is the same one who undertakes the immediate prayer 
call. He should only perform the latter by permission of the imam (i.e., leader 
in prayer) who is the one who determines the commencement of the prayer. 

Endnotes 

1 Abu PawUd (499) [1/241 1, At-Tirmidhf ( 1*9) | I /35S1 and lbn Majab. (706} f I /389]; see 
also Muslim (835) [2/298], 

2 Saying, "Astiiifithi allA ihtha ilfoUdh {twice}. Ashhadu atma Muhmmtultfr-Rasttfuttak 
(tivke},"\,t, "I le&tify that there is no deity but Allah (twice). I testify that Muhammad 
is the Messenger of Allah (twice).'' 

3 Saying, "Hayy 'alafr$al&kT (twice), i.e. "Come to prayer," 

4 Saying, "Hayy 'atat-FaiAb.". i.e. "Come to prosperity" 

5 Muslim (8501 [2/311], 

6 Collective duly: A religious duty which if sufficiently fulfilled by some Muslims, the 
rest will not be accountable for it as sin obligation, and it becomes an act of the Suttmih 
for them 

7 AbO LMwiLd (500) [1/242], An Nasai (632) [1/334], At-Tirmidbi (193) [1/378] and lbn 
Majah(7l5) fi/396). 

S Tasblte. Saying, "Subhan-Alldh* (i.e. Glory be to Allah), 

9 Al-Wasiltih: It is the greatest and the most superior degree in Paradise reserved for only 
one of Allah's servants, and Prophet Muhammad (PRUH) hopes to be that one. So, he 
(PMJH) asks everyone of his tiaiirtit (o pray to Allah following each prayer call (adhAn) 
to grant him that place, Al-Wastlah. 




M%m 



Prayer Conditions 



The conditio n s o f prayer are th ose on wh ic h t he va lidity of praye r depends 
so long as one is able to fulfill them. Prayer has certain conditions if they, or 
any of them, are neglected, prayer is nullified. Among those conditions are 
the following: 

The first condition: To be performed at its specified timesj Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"Indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of 
specified times." (Quran: An- Nisa'i 103) 

That is to say, prayer is decreed to be performed at certain times specified 
by Allah, Glorified be He. Thus, Muslim scholars uniformly agree that prayer 
has five specified times and it is insufficient to perform a prayer before its due 
time. The Commander of the Believers, 'Umar Ibnul-Kha£l&b (may Allah be 
pleased with him) said; 

"Prayer has specified times stipulated by Allah, without observing 
which prayer is invalid" 



9fi [1: PRAYER 



So, prayer is obligatory on a Muslim once its due time begins, for Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"Establish prayer at the decline of the sun,, ." 

(Qur'an: Al-Isra : 7&) 

Moreover, scholars uniformly agree on the great virtues of performing 
prayer at its specified times in general according to the verse in which Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

". . . So race to [all that is] good." ( Q u r an: Al -Baqarah 1 1 48 ) 

Allah* Ejtalted be He, also says: 

"And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord,.," 

(Qur'an: Alu Imran: 133) 
Furthermore, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And the foremost,, the foremost. Those are the ones brought 
near [to Allah]." (Quran; Al-Waqiah: 10-11) 

In addition, it is related in the Two £ahths that when the Prophet (PBUH) 
was asked about the dearest deed in the Sight of Allah, he replied: 

"Performing prayers at their specified times"' 
Further, Allah t Exalted be He, says: 

"Main tain with care the [obligatory] prayers.,? 

(Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 238) 

And performing prayer at its specified times is a sign of such care enjoined 

by Allah. 

The obligatory prayers are five ones To be performed daily, and each has a 
due time of performance specified by Allah so that it suits the life conditions of 
His servants; that is, times of prayer are specified in a way that does not hinder 
people from managing their worldly affairs, but helps them manage such 
affairs. In addition, prayer is a way through which people's sins are forgiven; 
the Prophet (PBUH) has likened prayer to a river in which a Muslim takes a 
bath five times a day, so no trace of dirt would be left on him". 

Those specified times of prayer are as follows: 

1- The Zuhr (Noon) Prayer: Its specified time begins when the sun 
passes its meridian and declines westward, and this is what is indicated 
in the verse in which Allah, Exalted be He, says: 



Chapter 3: Prayer Conditions yy 

"Establish prayer at the decline of the sun..." (Quran: Al-lsra : 78) 

Such a decline of the sun is known when the shadow of an object 
becomes eastward instead of westward, and this specified time for 
the Zuhr (Noon) Prayer continues until an object's shadow becomes 
approximately the same in length as the object itself and ends at this 
time, for the Prophet (PRUH) said, as related by Imam Muslim: 

"The time of the Zuhr (Noon) Prayer is when the sun pusses the 
meridian and a man's shadow is the same (length) as his height"* 

It is desirable to hasten performing the Zuhr Prayer at the beginning 
of its specified time unless it is extremely hot, in which case it is 
desirable to delay performing it until it is cooler, as the Prophet 
(PBUH)said: 

"In a very hot weather, delay the Zuhr Prayer until it becomes (a bit) 

cooler, because the severity of heat is from the raging of the Hell- fire." 

2- The 'Asr (Afternoon) Prayer: It begins when the time of the Zuhr 
(Noon) Prayer ends, i,e, when the shadow of an object is of the same 
length as. the object itself, and continues until the sun sets according 
to the valid of the two juristic opinions in this regard It is an act of the 
Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) to hasten performing me 'Asr Prayer at 
the beginning of its due time, as it is the Middle Prayer whose virtues 
are stated by Allah, Exalted be, when He says: 

"Maintain with care the [obligatory] prayers and (in particular] 
the middle [i. e. n A§r] prayer. . ." ( Q u r an: Al - Baqai ah : 2 3 B ) 

It is also stated in the Sunnah that it is the 'Asr (Afternoon) Prayer . 

3- The Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer i The time of the Maghrib Prayer 
begins when the sun sets; i.e. when it completely disappears so that 
it can by no means be seen, neither from a plane hill nor a mountain. 
The time of the sunset is known by the coming of the darkness of 
night from eastward; the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When night falls from this side and the day vanishes from that side 
and the sun sets, then the fasting person should break his fast f 

The time of the Maghrib Prayer lasts until the red twilight ends, 

and it is an act of the Sunnah to hasten performing the Maghrib at 
the beginning of its due time, according to the hadith related and 



100 II: PRAYER 

deemed sahih (i.e. an then tit) by At-TirmidhJ on: the authority of 
Sal amah, which states that the Prop he f (PBUH) used to perform 
the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer when the sun disappeared from the 
horizon . At-Tirmidhl commented, "This is also the opinion of 

most of the people of religious knowledge of the Prophet's Companions 
and their followers" 

4- The 'Isha* (Night) Prayer: The time specified for this prayer begins 

when ihe lime of the Maghrib Prayer (i.e. the time during which it is 
performed) ends. Thus, the time of the 'Isha Prayer begins when the 
red twilight disappears and continues up to half of the night. This time 
is divided into Two parts; an optional time and an obligatory time. The 
optional time continues until the third of t lie night s and the obligatory 
time begins from the third of the night until the second (real) dawn. It 
is desirable to delay performing the Isha' Prayer until the end of the 
preferred time for it, which is the third of the night, if possible. Yet, if 
this might cause difficult to the Muslims, it is then desirable to hasten 
performing it at the beginning of its due time so as to avoid difficulty, 
On the other hand, it is detestable to sleep before the Ishu' Prayer so 
as not to oversleep and miss it. Moreover, it is detestable for people to 
gather and chat following performing the "Isha Prayer so that they 
can sleep early and get up early. So, a Muslim should sleep following 
performing the Isha Prayer so as to be able to get up early and offer 
Tahajjud and then the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer actively, as the Prophet 
(PBUH) disliked sleeping before the Isha Prayer and talking after 
(performing) it . Thus, it is detestable to stay up after the 'Isha unless 
one has something useful or urgent to do. 

5- The Fajr (Dawn) Prayer: Ihe time of the Fajr Prayer begins with 

the true dawn and lasts until sunrise, and it is desirable to hasten 
performing it provided that the rise of the true dawn is certain. 

These are the specified times of the five obligatory prayers decreed by 
Allah, so you should, gentle Muslim reader, perform them at their specified 
times without delay for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"So woe to those who pray - [but] who are heedless of their prayer." 

(Qur'^n: Al-Ma T un:4-5) 

That is, woe to those who perform prayer but deJay it and do not perform 
it at its specified times. Allah, Exalted be He, also says: 



Chapter 3: Prayer Condi (ioiis ]ni 

"But there came after thetn successors [i.e. later generations} who 
neglected prayer and pursued desires; $0 they are going to meet 
evil - except those tvho repent .." ( Q u ran : M aryam : 59- 60) 

The phrase " neglected prayer" in the above verse means thai 1 1 lose people 
used to neglect observing prayer at its specified times. In brief, Allah refers 
to those who do not perform prayer at its due times as "heedless" people who 
"neglect*' prayer, and He states that such people will be severely tortured in 
the Hell fire and that " ,. they are going to meet evil." If one forgets performing 
one of the five obligatory prayers or misses it out of oversleeping, one has to 
perform it once one remembers or gets up; the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If anyone forgets a prayer or misses it because of sleeping, 
he should perform it when he remembers it; there is no other 
expiation for it." 

Thus, it is obligatory to make up for a missed prayer as soon as possible. 
One should by no means wait to perform a missed prayer with the same prayer 
on the following day, as mistakenly done by some people. Also, one should not 

put off performing a missed prayer until such lime when its regular time is 
overdue, but one has to perform it immediately instead. 

The second condition (of prayer): To conceal one's 'awrah 10 while 
performing prayer, i.e. to screen the parts of the body that have to be covered, 
as exposing them is offensive or causes one embarrassment; Allah, txalted be 

He, says: 

"O children of Adam, take your adornment I i.e. wear your cloth- 
ing] at every maijid..." (Qur'an: Ah A 4 raf: 3 1 ) 

"Masjid" means a place for prayer or a mosque, so the meaning of the verse 
is that people have to wear their clothing that conceal their private parts upon 
each prayer. Moreover, in the hadith related and deemed hasan (good) by At- 
Tirmidhi, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached 
puberty unless she wears a veil" 

Ibn ' Abdul- Barr said: 

"Scholars uniformly agree on the invalidity of lite prayer of one who 
refrains from clothing* and performs it naked though able to clothe 
oneself and conceal one's "awrah" 



102 II: PRAYER 

So, it is indisputable that it is obligatory to conceal ones 'awrah during 
prayer, in the presence of people, or even while being alone according to the 
valid opinion implied in the hfldith narrated on the authority of Mu'awiyah 
Ibn Haydah Al-Qushayri who reported: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said to me, 'Conceal your 'awrah (private 
parts) except from your wife and from whom your right hands 
possess (i.e. slave-girls)! I said, 'O Messenger of Allah! What (should 
we do) if the people are assembled together? 1 He (PBUH) said, 'If it 
is within your power that no one looks at it (i.e. your 'awrah), then 
let no one look at it? I then said, 'O Messenger of Allah! What if one 
is alone (i.e. should one conceal it too)?' He (PBUH) replied, Allah 
is more entitled to be shown bashfulness than people! " 

(Related by Abu Dawud and other compilers of Had\th) n 

Allah also refers to exposing 'awrah as an act of 'immorality' as the 
unbelievers used to circumambulate the House (i.e. the Ka'bah) while being 
naked, claiming that it was an act of religion; Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

''And when they commit an immorality^ they say, 'We found our 
fathers doing it and Allah has ordered its to do it! Say T 'Indeed, 
Allah does not order immorality,,! n (Qur'an: Al-A T raf: 2&) 

In the light of the above, exposing one's 'awrah and looking at it leads 
to grave evil and such an act is a means of immorality and debauchery. We 
see in those dissolute societies nowadays that their honor is lost and their 
morals are gone due to exposing their 'awrah, which led to the spread 
of vice and the disappearance of virtue among them. On the other hand, 
concealing "awrah is a means of maintaining virtue, and this is why Satan 
is keen to tempt people to expose their 'awrah. Therefore, Allah warns us 
against Satan, saying; 

"O children of Adam, let not Satan tempt you as he removed 
your parents from Paradise stripping them of their clothing to 
show them their private parts,." (Quran: Al-A 1 raf: 27) 

So, exposing 'awrah is a satanic scheme in which many communities are 
entrapped nowadays, calling it fashion and modernity. As a result, there have 
become strip clubs, and women have become so dissolute that they expose 
their bodies before men so shamelessly 



Chapter .1: l'rayci Condi rtons jqij 

So, you should know, gentle Muslim reader, that 'awrah (private parts) has 
to be concealed in a way that makes such parts un noticeable; Allah, Exalted 
be He, Says: 

"O children of Adam, We have bestowed upon you clothing to 
conceal your private parts.,." (Qur'an: Al-A 1 raf: 26) 

Thus, concealing ones "awrah (private parts) with clothing is a necessary, 

obligatory act. 

A mans 'awrah is from his navel to his knees, for "Alilbn AbuTalib narrated 
that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Do riot unveil your thigh, and da not look at the thigh of the living 
or the dead."" 

(Related by Abu Dawud and Tbn Miljah) 

In another hadith, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Cover your thigh for a man's thigh is a part of his awrah (private 
parts)? 4 

(Related by Malik, Ahmad, and At-Tirmidhi who deemed it a hjasan 

(good) hadtth) 

In spite of all the above, regrettably, we find that a lot of men nowadays 
when practicing certain sports expose their bodies and cover only their sexual 
organs, which is an explicit contradiction to the aforementioned religious 
texts. Such men have to beware of thai, and to abide by the teachings of their 
religion, refraining from whatever contradicts them. 

As for a woman, all her body is considered * awrah, as the Prophet 

(PBUH) said: 

"A woman is (regarded as) 'awrah (i.e. she has to be concealed just 
like "awrah)" 1 ' 

This hadith is deemed sahih (authentic) by At-Tirmidhi. Also, it is narrated 
on the authority of Urani Salamah thai she asked the Prophet (PBUH) saying: 

"Can a woman perform prayer while wearing a dir" (a long upper 
garment) and a veil but not wearing a loincloth? He (PBUH) replied, 
"(Yes,) only if the dir" is long enough to cover her instep.' 

(Related by Abu Dawud) 



ule> 



HJ4 II: PRAYER 

Moreover, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidht, and Ibn Majah narrated on the authority 

of ' A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached 
puberty unless she wears a veil"'' 

At-Tirmidhi commented: 

"The opinion of scholars is that if a woman who has, reached puberty 
performs prayer while a certain part of her *awrak is exposed, her 

prayer is deemed invalid" 

In addition to the aforesaid hadiths concerning a woman's Wrah, Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

if .. . And not display (heir adornment exceptthat which [necessarily] 
appears thereof and to wrap [a portion of] their head-covers over 
their chests and not display their adornment [Le. beauty] except 
to their husbands. . ," ( Qur'an : An- Nur : 3 1 ) 

Allah, Exalted be He, also says; 

"0 Prophet, felt your wives and your daughters and the women 
of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their 
outer garments..." (Quran: Al-Ahzab: 59) 

Moreover, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"..And when you ask [his wives] for something, ask them from 
behind a partition.. ™ (Quran: Al-Ahzab: 53) 

For more illustration, ' A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated: 

"Men would pass by us when we accompanied the Messenger (PBUH) 
while we were in the state ofih/am (a state of ritual consecration 
during Hajj or 'Umrah). When they came by us, every one of us 
would let down her veil over her face, and when they had passed on, 

we would uncover our faces." 

The aforesaid texts as well as their likes in the Qur'an and the Sunnah 
(Prophetic Tradition), which are so numerous, stress that everything in a 
woman is considered 'awrafi that has to be concealed in the presence of men 
who are ajnabh (foreign, marriageable males); nothing of a woman's body is 
permissible Eo be exposed in the presence of an ajnabi (a foreign, marriageable 
male), whether in prayer or elsewhere. However, if a woman performs prayer 
in a place void of ajftabh, it is permissible for her to uncover her face, as it is 
not regarded as 'awrah during prayer provided there is no ajnabi to see her 
face, as it is impermissible in this case. 



Chapter 3: Prayer Conditions IQ<J 

It is really shameful, upsetting and disappointing that many of the Muslim 
females of this modem age have reached a dangerous extent of dissoluteness 
and debauchery; they compete in exposing their bodies and wear see-through 
clothing and the like, imitating the unbelieving and apostate females. There is 
neither might nor power except in Allah, the Most High, and the Most Great! 

Allah, Exalted be He, does not only command concealing 'awrah during 
prayer* but He also enjoins Muslims to appear well when going to perform 
prayer; Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"O children of Adam,, take your adornment [l.e, wear your 
ch th ittg] at every m asjld. . ." (Q ur'axi : AJ - A h raf: 3 1 ) 

This means that Allah commands His servants to wear their best, cleanest, 
and most beautiful clothing when heading for mosques to perform prayer, as 
they will stand in prayer between the Hands of Allah, Blessed and Exalted be 
He. Therefore, one has to appear perfectly well, physically and spiritually, to 
stand before Almighty Allah in prayer. 

The third condition (of prayer): To avoid impurity One of the 
conditions of the validity of prayer is the avoidance of impurity, and being in 
a perfect state of purity, whether related to one's body, clothing* or the place 
in which one stands to perform prayer. Impurity here means a special kind of 
filthy materials that makes it impermissible for one to perform prayer. Such 
as the flesh of dead animals, blood, wine, urine, and stool. Allah, Exalted be 
He, says: 

"And your dothing purify" (Quran; Al-Muddaththir: 4) 

Moreover, the Prophet (PBUHJ said: 

"Purify yourselves from urine, for most of the torture in the grave 
is because of it!' 

He (PBUH) also commanded a woman to wash her garment and purify it 
from menstruation blood before perform i rig prayer in it, and enjoined scrubbing 
the soles of one's shoes to dean them before performing prayer wearing them , The 
Prophet (PBUH) ordered his Companions to pour a bucket of water over the 
place in the mosque where a Bedouin had urinated, Such incidents, as well as 
many others, are proofs of the necessity of avoiding impurity while performing 
prayer, as prayer is invalid if there is something impure afflicting one's body, 
one's clothing, or the place in which one performs prayer; the same ruling is 
applicable in case one is carrying something impure. 



10fi II: PRAYER 

Tf one notices something impure on one's body or clothing after performing 

prayer, ones prayer is deemed valid so long a& one has not been aware of it. 
Likewise, if one has been aware of impurity and has forgotten to remove it 
before performing prayer, one's prayer is deemed valid according to the sound 
juristic opinion in this regard. However, if impurity is noticed during prayer and 
o fie is able to remove it without making much movement during prayer (such 
as taking off one's impure shoes or turban), one is to remove it and continue 
performing prayer. Bui if unable lo remove it, one's prayer is. deemed invalid. 

Prayer is invalid if performed at a graveyard, except for the Funeral Prayer, 
for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"The whole earth is a masjid (a place for prayer ) except bathrooms 
and graveyards." 

This hadith is related by the Five Compilers of Hadith except An-NasnTi, 
and was deemed sahth (authentic) by At-Tirmidhi" . The Prophet (PBUH) 
also said: 

"Do not face graves in prayer and do not sit on them," 

(Related by the Group of Compilers of Hadith except Al-Bukhari)' 

The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Do not take graves as masjids (i.e. places for prayer)"'' 

The reason for such prohibition is not just to avoid impurity, but for fear 
that graves might be taken as sacred places or idols to be worshipped by people. 
That is, the prohibition of performing prayer at graveyards is intended to avoid 
worshipping their dwellers (the dead) afterwards. Stilt, the Funeral Prayer is an 
exception of that ruling, as it is permissible to be performed at graves, as done 
by the Prophet (PBUH),'" 1 which makes the Prophetic prohibition restricted to 
certain cases. So h whatever is related to graves is prohibited to perform prayer 
therein, such as graves themselves, graveyards, etc, 

Shaykhul- Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: 

"The Imams agree that it is impermissible to build a mosque over a 
grave, or to bury a dead person in a mosque. If the mosque has been 
built before the grave, the grave inside has to be leveled to the mosque 
floor, or to be disentombed if it has been recently built However, if 
the mosque has been built after the grave, we should either pidi down 
the mosque or pidl down whatever indicates that the place is a grave 
rather than a mosque, for it is prohibited to offer prayer at a mosque 
built on a grave, be it obligatory or supererogatory prayer."' 



Chapter 3: Prayer Condi rioris ]07 

On the other hand, prayer is invalid if performed at a mosque whose 
qiblah faces a grave, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Do not face gmvtt in prayer." 

It is also prohibited to perform prayer in a toilet, as they are places specified 
for urination and defecation and connected with impurity; since the Lawgiver 2 * 
prohibits mentioning the Name of Allah in a toilet, then* with greater reason, 
it is prohibited to perform prayer in such places, which are inhabited by devils. 
Moreover, it is prohibited to perform prayer in bathrooms, where one gets 
washed, because they are places where peoples "aw rafts (private parts) are 
exposed and where devils live; this prohibition includes all the places inside 
the bathroom. 

In addition, it is impermissible to perform prayer at camel stalls; Shaykhut- 
Islam Taqiyyud-Din Ibn Taymiyah said: 

"It is prohibited to perform prayer at their stalls (i.e. the camels') 
as their stalls are shelters for devils, and it is also prohibited to 
perform prayer in a bathroom, as it is a shelter for devils. So. such 
places of evil spirits reasonably necessitate avoiding performing 
prayer therein"' 

It is detestable to perform prayer in a place containing pictures or the like; 
Imam Ibnul-Qayyim said: 

"Such places are more deserving of avoiding performing prayer therein 
than bathrooms. The dettstability of performing prayer in a bathroom 
is out of fear that the place is impure, or because it is the devils' dwelling 
place which is the sound opinion. Yet, the detestability of performing 
prayer in a place containing pictures or the like is intended to avoid 
polytheism, for the polytheism of most of the previous nations was 
related to paintings and graves' 1 

Dear gentle Muslim reader, you should take care of your prayer and be 
keen on its validity, verifying your purity before being engaged in it, and 
avoiding the places where performing prayer is invalid, so as to ensure that 
your prayer is legally performed in the way decreed by Allah. In addition, you 
should never neglect any of the rulings on prayer or disregard it, for prayer 
is the bask pillar of your religion, if perfected, your faith will be perfected as 
well; if not, your faith will be imperfect, May Allah guide us all Co that which 
leads To goodness and righteousness! 



m II: PRAYER 

The fourth condition (of prayer): Facing the qiblah (direction of 
prayer). Among the conditions of the validity of prayer is facing the qiblah, 
the honorable Ka bah. It is called qiblah because all Muslims turn their face 
towards it during prayer. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"...So turn your face {i.e. yourself] toward Al-Masjid Al-Haram 
(the Sacred Mosque). And wherever you [believers] are, turn your 
faces [i.e. yourselves] toward it [in prayer],.." 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 144) 

So, whoever is so near to the Ka'bah that lie can see it, it is obligatory for 
him to turn his whole body toward it during prayer, as such a person can face 
it well, as he sees it with his eyes. Thus, it is impermissible for such a person to 
deviate from its direction. On the other hand, if one is near to the Kabah but 
there is something that hinders one from seeing it, one in this case has to try 
facing it as much as possible. However, if one is anywhere in the world so that 
one is away from the Kabah, one then can face the direction believed to be 
that of the Ka'bah, and moving a bit leftward or rightward does not matter, as 
the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"There is qiblah (direction of prayer) between the east and the west"* 1 

This hadith was deemed whtk (authentic) by At-Tirmidhi, and was narrated 
by many of the Prophet's Companions. Surely, this hadith specifies the qiblah 
for Medina and all the places of the same direction and location. However, the 
qiblah for the east, for example, is between the south and the north, and so is 
the qiblah for the west. 

Generally prayer is invalid without facing the qiblah, for Allah, Exalted be 
He, says: 

" . . And whereveryou [believers] are, turnyourfaces [i.e. yourselves] 
toward it [in prayer].. ." (Q uran : Al- B aqarah : 1 44) 

"Wherever" here indicates that the qiblah is to be faced during prayer no 
matter where one is; traveling by land, sea, air, eastward, westward, etc. Yet, one 
is not obliged to face the qiblah if unable to, such as being tied up or crucified in 
a way that one cannot face it. In such a case, one is to perform prayer facing the 
available direction even if it is not the qiblah, as this condition is inapplicable 
in such a case according to juristic consensus. Similarly, if one is engaged in a 
fierce war, or one flees from a flood, fire, a wild animal, or an enemy, or one is 



Chapter 3: Prayer Condi rions |Q.g 

so ill that one is unable fo face the qiblah, one in such cases can perform prayer 
in the same state one is in, even if one is not facing the qiblah, and ones prayer 
will be deemed valid as well. This is because the condition is nullified in case 
of inability Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Bo fear Allah a$ much as you are able„" 

(Qur'an: At-Taghabun; 16) 

The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If I command you to do something, the}! do (of) it as much as you can." 

Also, it is stated in a. hadith related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim that the 
Muslims in case of extreme fear used to perform prayer with and without 
facing the qiblah . 

How to Identify the Qiblah 

There are many ways through which one can know the qiblah, among 
which are: 

Informing; One can be informed by a legally responsible! trustworthy 
person of the direction of qiblah, provided that the informer is certain 
about it. 

Following the qiblah observed by mosques and mihrabs: One can 

identify the qiblah by following the qiblah observed by a mosque or a 
mihrab (prayer niche), which would sbow one the right direction of 
the qiblah. 

Astronomy: The qiblah can also be identified by means of stars; Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"...And by the stars they arc (also} guided." 

(Quran: An-NahJ: 16) 

The fifth condition (of prayer): Intention;; to intend performing 

an act of worship Eo draw near to Allah, Exalted be He. The heart is the real 
place of intent ion t so one does not have to declare it overtly, for this is regarded 
as an act of innovation in religion that had never been observed either by the 
Prophet (PBUH) or by his Companions, So, one is to intend performing a 
certain prayer only with one's heart, not tongue, in accordance with the hadith 
that states; 



110 II: PRAYER 



"Deeds (i.e. their correctness and rewards) depend upon intentions"" 

One intends performing a certain prayer upon the opening takbtr* of that 
prayer, so that the intention becomes associated with the act of worship; there 
is no harm if one intends a bit earlier It is a condition that intention must 
last until the end of prayer However, prayer becomes invalid if intention is 
cancelled during it. If one has said the opening takbir in an obligatory prayer, 
whether one is led in prayer or performs it alone, it is permissible for one 
to change one's intention and perform it as a supererogatory prayer provided 
there is a valid excuse, such as joining a congregational prayer instead of 
praying alone. 

It is important to know that some people have done strict innovations in 
religion concerning intentions of prayer which have never been decreed by 
Allah. For example, when intending to perform a certain prayer, some declare 
overtly which prayer they are going to perform, how many rak ahs (units of 
prayer) they intend to perform, and who the imam (leader) of prayer is, and so 
on. Such acts had never been done by the Messenger (PBUH) who had neither 
been reported to have declared his intention, whether secretly or overtly, upon 
performing prayer, nor had he been reported to have enjoined that. 

Shaykhul-Islftm Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"Declaring intention overtly is neither obligatory nor desirable as 
uniformly agreed upon by Muslim scholars. Rather, one who pronounces 
it overtly is regarded to be an innovator in religion who contradicts the 
Shariah (Islamic Law). If one does so intentionally, thinking that it h 
an act ofShari^ah, one is deemed an ignorant, straying Muslim who 
deserves discretionary punishment for that. If such a person insists on 
declaring intention overtly upon each prayer after being informed and 
enlightened, especially if he disturbs his prayer mates with his voice 
or repeats it several times, he deserves to receive severe discretionary 
punishment for that..." 

Ibn Taymiyah then added: 

"., Some of the modern scholars maintained the obligation of doing 
so (i.e. pronouncing intention overtly) basing their opinion on 
misinterpretation of an opinion of Imam Ash-Shafi'i However, the 
majority of the followers of Imam Ash-Shaft 'i viewed the invalidity 
of such an interpretation of the Shaft "t's opinion. This is because, 
Imdm Ash-Shaft 'i said about prayer, 'It is obligatory to begin it with 
overt pronunciation.' So, those modern scholars mistakenly thought 



Ompter 3: Prjiytr Condi tin n$ \\\ 

that ImAm Ash-SkafVi meant that it was obligatory to pronounce 
an t>'s intention overtly upon each prayer. However, all the followers of 
Imam Ash-Shafi't deemed this a misinterpretation, pointing out that 
Imam Ash-Shaft 7 only meant the overt pronunciation of the opening 
tahbir of prayer, not the intention..."™ 

In addition to the fact that expressing intention overtiy is bid'' ah (a matter 
innovated hi religion),, ir couk! also lead to hypocrisy; ones intention, has to 
be expressed secretly in one's heart as a sign of sincerity and devotion to Allah 
while performing acts of worship. 

To sum up, a Muslim has to abide by the limits set by the Shari'ah (Islamic 
Law), to adhere to the acts of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition), and to avoid 
whatsoever kinds of innovation (in religion) regard less of its adherents. Allah, 

Exalted be He, says: 

"Say, 'Would you acquaint Allah with your religion while Allah 
knows whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth, 
and Allah is Kn owing of all th ings? " ( Q ur a n ; AI - Huj ura t : 1 6 ) 

Allah is Knowing nf the intention of the heart, so a Muslim does not have 
to pronounce it overtly whether upon performing prayer or in any other act of 
worship; Allah, Exalted be He, knows best. May Allah guide us all to what He 
likes and pleases] 

Endnotes 



1 Al-Bukhari (527) [2/131 and Muslim (85). 

2 Al-Bukhari [528) [2/15] and Muslim (1520) [3/1731. 

3 Muslim (1387) 12/114], 

4 Al-Bukhari (536) [2/25] and Muslim (1394) [3/1 lSj r 

5 See Muslim (1424) {3/13(1 1 and Al-RukliarT (4533) [fl/2<J5h see also Muslim (1425) 13/130]. 

6 Al-Bukhari (1954) [4/2491 and Muslim {2553) [4/2(19]. 

7 Al-Bukhari (561) [2/55], Muslim (1438) [3/1371 and At-TirmidhS (164) 1 1/304], 

8 Tahajjud: The Night Vigil Prayer. 

9 Al-Bukhari (568) [2/63 1 and Muslim (14150) |3/H7j. 

10 "Ati'rait: The private parts or parts of the Body which are illegal to expose to others; a 
male's 'awal) is from the navel to the knees whereas in another view it is said to be the 
external organs of sex and excretion. As tor a female's ' aa-rutr, i( includes all her body in 
one view whereas in another it is all lit"]' body with the exception of her face and hands. 

11 Abroad (25823) [6/248], AM Dawud (641) [1/298], At-Tirmidhi (377) [2/215] and 
Ibri Majah (655) [1/362], 



112 11: PRAYER 

12 Ahmad {199?a> [S/S], Abu D3wQd (4017) H/1971. At-Tirmidhi (2799) [5/110], Ibn 
Majah (192) |2/44*1; seealsoAl-BukharL 0/500} [1/500], 

13 Abu Dawud (3 1 4fl) J3/327] and Ibn Majah (1460) [2/200). 

14 Ahmad (2492) [1/342] and At-Tirmidhi (2H0I) J5/1 II]; SCO also Aba Dawud (4014) 
14/197] and At-Tirmidhi (2803) |5/1 ] I ]. 

L5 At-Tirmidhi (1 175) [3/476|. 

i ft Abu Dawud (640)] 1/297], 

17 Ahmad (25823) [6/248), Abu Dawud (641) [1/2981, At-Tirmidhi (377) [2/215] and 

Ibn iMajah (655) [1/362], 
J 3 See /wnj" df-Tirvm^M (2/216). 
[9 Abu Dawud (1833) [2/285] and Ibn Majah {2935) |3M29]. 

20 Al-LSukhan (277) [1/4301 and Muslim {673) [3/190]. 

21 Abu Dawud (650) 1 1/302], 

22 Ahmad (11903) [3/121], Abu Dawud (492) [1/236J, At-Tirmidhi (317) [2/131] and 
Ibn Majah {745} [1/412]. 

23 Muslim {2243) (4/42 |, Ahmad (17184) [4/135], Abu Dawud (3229) [3/35*3. At- 
Tirmidhi (1051) [3/367] and An- Nasal (759) [1/401]. 

24 Muslim (1 188) J3/I7]. 

25 Al-Bukhari (1336) [3/2(5! | and Muslim (2203) [1/271; see also AI-Rukharl (1337) 
[3/261 1 and Muslim (2212) [4/29|. 

26 See Ibn Tuymiy all's Mtijmu'ul-Fatawa |4/521-523|, [11/290, 291], [17/502, 503], 
[19/4 1 1J21/304, 321-322] ,|22/194-195], [27/1 40]. 

27 The qHtlah; The direction of prayer, namely towards the Ka ' bah. 

28 The Lawgiver of Shari'nh (Islamic: Law) is Allah, Exalted be He; the term tan also refer 
to the Prophet (PBUH) as lie never ordained but what was revealed to him by Allah. 

29 See Ibn Taymiyahs Alajinu ' ut-FatawA 1 25/240], 

30 See ZAdttl-Ma'Ad [2/147, 183|. 

31 At-Tirmidhi (342) [1/171] and Ibn Majah (1011) [1/534]. 

32 Al-Rukliari (943) |2/555]; see also Muslim (1941) [3/64], 

33 Al-Bukhari (I) [1/12] and Muslim (4904) [7/55]. 

34 The opening tukbiy (in prayer); Opening prayer with saying, "Allfihu-Akbar" (i.e. 
Allah is the Greatest), 

35 See Ibn Taymiyahs Majtm't'ul-FatawA 1 22/218-221], [37/57]. 





[^i^^^^"^---vr.?^-\r.^"/mli!^v - ';\s. < -ii'--Z-' '■'■ 



Etiquette of Heading for Mosque 



Gentle Muslim reader, you really have to know the legalized standards of 
behavior prior to prayer, so as to get ready for it properly. This is because prayer 
is a great act of worship that must be preceded with the proper preparation and 
readiness, so that a Muslim can engage in such a glorious act of worship in the 
best state. 

Therefore, if one heads for the mosque to join one's fellow Muslims in 
a congregational prayer, one should walk calmly, peacefully, and tranquilly, 
without haste. One should be in a state of solemnity and calmness, averting 
one's vision (from looking at what Allah prohibits), lowering ones voice and 
trying as much as possible not to Jook around. 

It is stated in the Two £ahihs that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If the iq&tntth is declared - (in another narration, 'When you hear 
the iqamah..*) - proceed to perform the prayer with calmness and 
solemnity and do not make haste. And pray whatever mkahs 
(units of prayer) you get (with the people) and complete the rest 
which you have missed")' 



n4 Tl: PRAYER. 



Moreover, Imam Muslim related that the Prophet (PRUH) said: 

"...When one of you is preparing for prayer, he is in fact engaged 
in prayer." 

When a Muslim heads for the mosque to perform prayer, he shoLEld not 
be late, so as not to m ess. the opening takbin i.e. to attend the congregational 
prayer from the begi lining. In addition, while making towards the mosque, 
one should make one's pace slow, taking ones steps close to one another to get 
more rewards. Jt is slated in the Two Sahibs that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"// a person performs ablution and does it perfectly, and then 
proceeds to the mosque with the sole intention of performing prayer, 
then for each step he takes toward the. mosque, Allah raises him a 
degree in reward and bbts out (i.e. forgives) one of his sins."'' 

When a Muslim reaches the mosque, he should step in with his right leg, 
saying the following invocation: 

"In the Name of Allah, I seek refuge with Allah the Most Great, in 
His Honorable Face, and in His infinitely preexistent Sovereignty, 
from the accursed Satan. O Allah! Confer Your blessings upon 
Muhammad. O Allah! Forgive my sins and let the doors of Your 
Mercy he open for me." 

When one wishes to come out of the mosque, one should step out with 

one's left leg saying the aforesaid invocation, but instead of saying, "... and 
let the doors of Your Mercy be open for me", one should rather say "... and lei 
the doors of Your Favor be opened for me" This is because the mosque is the 
place of seeking Allah's Mercy, while outside the mosque is where one seeks 
livelihood, which Allah bestows upon His servants out of His Favor. 

Once one enters the mosque, one should perform two rak'ahs before 
sitting, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If anyone of you enters a mosque, he should perform two rak"ahs 
before sitting" 7 ' 

Then one sits waiting for the iqdmah; while waiting for the iqdmah, one 
should spend the time between the two rajahs and the tqamah in glorifying 
and praising Allah, and in reciting the Quran. One has also to avoid frivolous 
play such as interlacing ones fingers and the like, for the Prophet (PBUH) 
forbade doing so while wailing lor the iqanuib, saying: 



Chapcer A: Rikjin-rte or Heading lor Masque ■ , e 

"When anyone of you is in the mosque, he should not interlace (his 
fingers), for interlacing {fingers) is from Satan."'' 

As for those in the mosque for reasons other than waiting for the iqamah, 
they are allowed to interlace their fingers, as it is stated that the Prophet 
(PBUH) once interlaced his fingers after concluding prayer with taslim 

While waiting for prayer in the mosque, one should not enter into talks 
unrelated to religion, because it is stated in a hadith that doing so eats up rewards 
in the same way as fire eats up wood . In another hadith, the Prophet stated that 
when anyone enters a mosque, he is considered to be in prayer as long as he is 
waiting for the prayer, and the angels keep on asking for Allah's forgiveness for 
him . Therefore, a Muslim should not miss such great rewards by being engaged 
in frivolous play or idle talks. 

When the iqamah is declared, one should stand up when the prayer caller 
says "qadi-qdmatis-sal&k" (i.e. "Prayer is commenced"), for the Prophet 
(PBUH) used to do so. it is also allowed for one to stand up on the beginning 
of declaring the iqamah if one sees the imam (prayer leader); if not, it is better 
not to stand up until one sees the imam. Resides, one should always be keen 
on standing in the first row (in congregational prayers), for the Prophet 
(PBUH) said' 

"If the people knew the reward for pronouncing the adhAn (prayer 
call) and for standing in the first row (in congregational prayers), 
and found no other way to get that reward except by casting tots, 
they would east tots" 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

He (PBUH) also said: 

"The best raws for men are the first rows..." 

As for men, it is better to be close to the imam, as the Prophet (PBUH), 

who used to lead the Muslims in prayer, said: 

"Let those of you who are sedate and prudent be near me (i.e, be in 
the first row)" 

As regards women, it is better for them to be in the last rows, for the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"...And the best rows for women are the iflsf ones." 

This is because women will not be visible to men in this way. 



HIS II: PRAYER 

The imAm and the ones led behind him ought to be cautious to straighten 
rows, for the Prophet said: 

"Straighten your rows, for the straightening of a row is part of the 
perfection of prayer'' 

(Related by Al-BukhJrl and Muslim) 

In another hadith the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Straighten your rows or else Allah will alter your faces." H 

Thus, when standing for congregational prayer, Muslims should straighten 
their rows SO that their shoulders and ankles become aligned, leaving no Space 
between one another, for the Prophet (PBUH) said in this regard: 

"Straighten your rows and stand close to one another'* ' 

This hadith means that the ones led in prayer ought to stand close to one 
another, leaving no gaps between them for Satan. 

The Prophet (PBUH) has always been greatly concerned with straightening 
rows and making the ones led in prayer stand close to one another, which 
indicates how important and useful it is. This does not mean that people should 
widen between their feet in a way that disturbs those standing beside them, 
as mistakenly done by some ignorant peopJe. Such people thus leave gaps in 
rows, causing harm and annoyance to those standing next to them without 
having any legal proof supporting such an act. Therefore, Muslims should pay 
more attention to such issues and care for straightening their rows in prayers, 
following the example of the Prophet (PBUH) and ensuring the perfection of 
their prayer; may Allah guide us all to whatever He likes and pleases. 

Endnotes 



1 Al-Bukhari (636) [1/53]. 

2 Al-Bukhari (908) (27105) and Muslim ( 1 358) [3/100]. 

3 Muslim (1359) [3/101], 

4A1-Bukharl (477) 11/73] and Muslim (1504) [3/16&J. 

5 AL Bukhiri ( 1 163) [3/631 and Muslim ( 1652) [3/232]. 

6 Ahmad (1 1324) [3/43] and lt>n Abu Shaybah (4&24) [1/420], A]-Haythami in his book 
'MaJTtitt ' Az-Zawtftf {The Collection of Additional Hadlths) [2/25). 

7 Al-Bukhari (482) [1/731] and Muslim (1288) [3/69) 

& This tradition was not mentioned by any one of the compilers of Hadith as said by 
AI-' Iraqi in his book Takhrijul 'tfy*T(l/l36)i Ibn As-Sut>k1 in his book 'Jabaqat Ash* 
Shtf'iyyab' (4/145) and Ai-Albrtni in his book Af-Sibilah Ai-Ua'tftih' (4) 1 1/1 8] 



Chaprcj- 4: L^jquorre of Heading for Mosque | jy 

9 Ai-Bukhail (477) [1/730] and Muslim (1504) (3/168] 

10 Al-BukhSrt (615) (2/126] and Muslim (WW) j 1/378] 

11 Muslim (984} [2/38] 

12 Muslim (973) \ll 376 J 

13 AJ-Bukhari (723) [2/271] and Muslim (974) [2/376] 

14 Al-Bukhari {?]?) (2/2(5*] and Muslim (977) [2/377] 
l5AI-Bukhart(719)[2/269i 



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CHAPTER 




\f SV", < vJ*^* 



Prayer: Integral Parts, Obligatory 
Practices and Acts of the Sunnah 



Prayer is a great act of worship which includes decreed statements 
and postures forming the perfect form of its performance. Scholars define 
prayer as special statements and postures starting with takbtr and ending 
with taslim. 

These statements and postures of prayer are divided into three sections, 
namely the integral parts, the obligatory practices, and the acts of the Sunnah. 
The integral parts of prayer are those the negligence of any of which, 
intentionally or inattentively, invalidates prayer or invalidates the rakah (unit 
of prayer} in which it is neglected; being replaced by the next one, as we will 
point out later. As for the obligatory practices of pray en if any of them 
is intentionally neglected, prayer is invalidated, but if inattentively, it is not 
invalidated, and performing the Prostration of Forget fulness will be obligatory 
then. Concerning the acts of the Sunnah to be observed during prayer, 



I2f) II: PRAYER 

the negligence of any of them neither affects the validity of prayer nor makes it 
incomplete. Still, we have to bear in mind thai whenever the Prophet (PBUH) 
performed prayer, he observed its integral parts, obligatory practices, and acts 
of the Sunnah, and we have to follow his example, for he (PBUH) said: 

"Perform prayer in the way you sea me performing prayer." 1 
A- The Integral Parts of Prayer 

They are fourteen: 

The first is to stand while performing an obligatory prayer; Allah, Exalted 
be He, savs: 

"... And stand before Allah, devoutly obedient." 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 238) 

Moreover, in the marfu' (traceable) hadUh narrated on the authority 

of Tmran, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 



"Perform prayer while standing: if you cannot* perform it white sitting; 
if you cannot, then perform if. white lying on your sidef 

The above-mentioned verse and httdith prove that standing is obligatory 
while performing one of the obligatory prayers so long as one is able 
to. Yet, if one is unable to pray while standing due to an illness, one 
is allowed then to pray wnile silting or lying on ones side. The same 
goes for one in a state of extreme fear, one who is naked (finding no 
clothing to conceal one's 'awrah), one whose recovery requires sitting 
or lying on ones side rather than standing, or one who is unable to 
stand because the roof of the place where one prays is not high enough 
provided one is unable to go out (to pray in ihe mosque). Likewise, in 
case the regular imam of a mosque leads the people in prayer while 
sitting, due to a legal excuse, the people led in prayer behind him 
should also perform il while sitting, following their regular imam. This 
is because the Prophet (PBUH) was once ill and led the people in prayer 
while sitting, commanding them to do the same, i.e. to sit as well". 

As for a supererogatory prayer, it is permissible to perform it while 

standing or sitting, Tn other words, il is not obligatory to perform it while 
standing, as it is stated that the Prophet (PBUH) sometimes performed 
supererogatory prayers while sitting, without any legal excuse' 1 . 



Giaprcr 5: Prayen Integral Pacts, ObJiguroiy Practices and Aels ofrhe Sttnntifo ^l 

The second integral part of prayer is the opening takbir (in the beg inning 
of prayer); the Prophet (PRUH) said: 

".,. Then face the qiblah (direction of prayer towards the Ka 'bah) and 
say takbtr"' 

This is also supported by the hadith in which the Prophet (PRUH) said: 

"... And takbir is the beginning of prayer (that makes all lawful acts 
outside prayer unlawful in prayer." 

The Prophet (PBUH) was never reported to have started performing 
prayer without the opening takbir (saying, "Allatw-Akbar", i.e. "Allah 
is the Greatest 1 "). There is by no means any other sufficient substitute 
for it when opening a prayer, according to what is reported to have 
been observed and enjoined by the Prophet (PBUH). 

The third integral part of prayer is the recitation of the Al-Fatihah (the 
Opening Chapter of the Quran). The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"No prayer is (accepted) from whoever does not recite Al-F&tihah (in it)."' 

Reciting Al-Fatihah is one of the integral parts of each rak"ah in 
prayer, as authentically narrated to have been observed by the Prophet 
(PBUH). Moreover, when the Prophet (PBUH) taught the one who 
used to perform prayer improperly, he ordered him to recite Al- 
Fatihah in each rak^ah . 

The question here: Ts everyone performing a congregational prayer 
obliged to recite Al-Fatihah-, or is it only obligatory to he recited by the 
imam in ease of a publicly- recited prayer and by the single worshipper? 
In fact, scholars disagree in this concern. So, to avoid any doubt and to 
be in the safe side, one is to recite Al-Fatihah if one is led in a secretly- 
recited prayer, and to recite it during the pause made by the imam 
(after his recitation of Al-Fatihah) in case of publicly-recited prayers. 

The fourth integral part of prayer is bowing in every rak*ah\ Aliah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"Qyou who have believed, bow and prostrate.." 

(Quran: Al-Hajj: 77) 

Moreover, bowing during prayer is authentically stated in the Sunnah 
(Prophetic Tradition)* so it is an integral part of prayer according to 
the Qur'an, Sunnah-, and consensus , 



[22 II: PRAYER 

Proper bowing during prayer is done by bending ones body forward 
so that ones hands can reach one's knees in normal cases (i.e. when 
one's hands are neither longer nor shorter than normal). Otherwise, 
one tries to bend one's body in a degree similar to that of normal cases 
as much as possible. It is also sufficient for one praying while sitting 
to bend one's face instead, so that it is aligned with one's knees, 

The fifth and ihe si*th integral parts of prayer are rising following 
bowing, and standing upright, as the Prophet (PBUH) used to do so 
while performing prayer; he (PBUH) said: 

"Perform prayer in the way you see me performing prayer" 

The seventh integral part of prayer is prostrating, i.e. making one's 
forehead touch the ground, as well as the other organs of prostration, 
namely the nose, the hands, the knees and the bottom of the toes. 
Prostration is to be done twice in each rak ah; it is a Divine command, 
as Allah, Exalted be He, says, ".And prostrate,.." (Qur'an: Al-Hajj: 
77) It is also a Prophetic command according to many hadtihs, for he 
(PBUH) said, as mentioned above: 

"Perform prayer in the way you see me performing prayer?" 

The organs of prostration are seven as previously mentioned (the 
forehead and the nose together, both hands, both knees, and the 
bottom of the toes of both feet). Each of them has to touch the ground 
well, as much as possible. In fact, prostration is the greatest integral 
part of prayer; the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"The state in which a servant is nearest to his Lord is while prostrating 



„i; 



himself' 

Thus, the Prophet (PBUH) teaches us that prostration is the optimum 
state that draws one near to the Lord, Allah, 

The eighth integral part of prayer is raising oneself from prostration and 
sitting erect between the two prostrations; Imam Muslim related that 
A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated: 

"When he (the Prophet) raised his head after prostration, he did not 
prostrate himself (again) until he had sat erect."' 

The ninth integral part of prayer is being tranquil while performing all 
the actions of prayer. Tranquility here means performing the acts of 



Chapter 5: Pnyeh Integra] Paris, Obligatory Practices and Acts of the Smm&k *yi 

prayer serenely, humbly and submissively, moving as less as possible. 
The Qur'an and Sunnah state that the prayer of one who does not 
perform it in a state of tranquility and devotion is deemed incomplete, 
and it is obligatory for one to re-perform it in this case. 

The tenth and the eleventh integral parts of prayer are the Final 
Tashahkud and the posture of sitting for it. It is authenticated 
that the Prophet (PBUH) used to recite Tashahkud during prayer 
and never abandoned it, so we must follow in his footsteps, as he 
(PBUH) said: 

"Perform prayer in the way you see me performing prayer" 

Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "Before Tashahhud 
was decreed, we used to recite instead..." ; the phrase "was decreed" 
here implies that it is obligatory to recite Tashahhud in prayer 

The twelfth integral part of prayer is invoking Allah to confer His 

blessings upon Muhammad, by saying; 

"0 Allahl Confer Your blessings upon Muhammad,,." 

Whatever is recited more than this is an act of the Sunnah, not an 
obligatory act. 

The thirteenth integral part of prayer is observing succession when 
performing the above-mentioned integral parts of prayer, as the 
Prophet (PBUH) used to perform them successively, and he (PBUH) 
commanded Muslims to follow his example while performing prayer, 
saying, as mentioned above: 

"Perform prayer in the way you see me performing prayer.'" 

In addition, when the Prophet (PBUH) taught the one, who performed 
prayer improperly, the right way of performing prayer, he pointed out 
the aforesaid acts successively, one after another '. 

The fourteenth integral part of prayer is concluding prayer with taslim, 
for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"...And its conclusion is taslim." 

So. after taslim, what has been unlawful to be done during prayer (such 
as eating, drinking, talking, etc,) becomes lawful once again, as taslim 
is decreed as a sign of the end of the prayer. 



124. __ II: PRAYER 

Gentle reader, you should be aware that a Muslim should never neglect 
any of rhe aforesaid integral parts of prayer. As for (lie opening takbir t if it is 
not pronounced, then prayer is not begun, and one thus will not be considered 
in a state of prayer. Regarding the other integral parts of prayer, intentional 
negligence of any of them causes prayer to be invalid. However, if it is 
inattentively neglected, such as bowing or prostrating, and one remembers 
that before starting another rak'ah, one then performs whatever one has 
inattentively missed, But, if one remembers after the following rak 'ah has been 
started, the previous rak 'ah (one of whose integrals is inattentively neglected) 
will be null and the following one will take its place. Still, prayer is not 
invalidated in the latter case, provided that one performs the two prostrations 
of forget fulness even if one realizes the missed integral part after tastim. In case 
the forgotten integral part is the Final Tashahhud or one of the two taslims, 
and one remembers it after concluding prayer with taslim, one can re-perform 
it, perforin the two prostrations of forget fulness, and then say tastim. However, 
if the forgotten part is something other thrtn the Final Tashahhud or one of the 
two taslims, such as bowing or prostrating, one makes up for it by performing a 
whole rak' ah then performing the two prostrations of forget fulness, provided 
that there is no long interval between ending prayer and remembering the 
forgotten integral, or that ones ablution is not invalidated by then. Otherwise, 
the whole prayer must be re -performed. 

What a great act of worship prayer is, and how glorious arc its words and 
actions! May Allah grant us success in establishing it regularly and observing 
it perfectly! 

B-The Obligatory Acts of Prayer 

There are eight obi iga lory acts to be observed during prayer: 

1- All the takblrs of prayer - other than the opening takbir - are among 

the obligatory acts, not the integral parts, which have to be observed 
during prayer. The example for this is the transition takbirs. 

2- Tasmi\ which is only obligatory to be said by the imam or by one 
praying alone, not the one(s) led in prayer, 

3- Tahmid, which is obligatory to he said by the imam, the one praying 
alone, and the one(s) led in prayer, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When the imam says, 'Allah listens to the one who praises Him,' you 
should say, 'O our Lord, to You be (all) the praise.' " ' 



Chapter }: Prayer: Integral Pjirt. 1 ;, OliiigitMry Practices ilihI AttK ttr the Switldh i it 

4- Saying, "Subhdna Rabbiyal-'Azlm" (i.e. "Glory be to my Lord, 
the Most Great") only once while bowing; it is an act of the Sunnah 
(Prophetic Tradition) to say it three times at least, or ten times at most, 
for the sake of perfecting prayer. 

5- Saying, "Subhdna Rabbiyal-A 'la" (Le, "Glory be to my Lord, the 
Most High") only once while prostrating; it is also an act of the Sunnah 
to say it up to three times, 

6- Invoking Allah saying, "0 my Lord, forgive me," once between the two 
prostrations, and it is an act of the Sunnah to say it up to three times, 

7- Reciting the First Tashahhud, saying: 

"(All) compliments, prayers and good things are due to Allah; peace 
be upon you, Prophet, and the Mercy of Allah and His blessings (be 
upon you). Peace be upon us and upon the pious servants of Allah. 
I testify that there is no deity (worthy of worship) but Allah, Alone, 
with no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant, and His 
Messenger" 

Or the like of what is reported to have been observed by the Prophet 
(PBUH). 

8- Sitting for reciting the First Tashahhud, as reported to have been 
regularly observed by the Prophet (PBUH) t who said: 

"Perform prayer in the way you see me performing prayer" 

It is worth mentioning here that prayer is invalidated if one abandons 
any of the aforesaid eight obligatory practices of prayer intentionally, as one 
thus alters and distorts prayer. Yet, if one does not perform any of them by 
remissness or ignorance, it is obligatory for one to offer the two prostrations 
of forget fulness instead, as a way of making up for ones negligence of an 
obligatory practice of prayer whose nonperformance is forbidden. 

C-The Acts of the Sunnah to be Observed during Prayer 

They are divided into two types; verbal and physical practices- of the Sunnah, 
abandoning any of which does not invalidate prayer, unlike the previous two 
sections (the integral parts and the obligatory acts of prayer },So s there are two kinds 
of the acts of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) to be observed during prayer: 



U6 EI: PRAYER 

1- Verbal Acts of the Sunnah 

There are many verbal acts of the Sunnah to be observed during prayer, 
among which are the opening invocation of prayer, seeking refuge with Allah 
from Satan, saying Basmalah, ta'min, and reciting some of the Quran 
following reciting Al-F&tihah (the Opening Chapter of the Quran) in the Fajr 
(Dawn} Prayer, the Jumu'ah {Friday) Prayer, the Id (Feast) Prayer, the Eclipse 
Prayer, and in the first two rak'aH of the Maghrib {Sunset) Prayer, the Isha 
{Night) Prayer, the Zuhr (Noon) Prayer, and the 'Air (Afternoon) Prayer, 

Among the verbal acts of the Sunnah of prayer is saying, following tahm'id: 

"(Our Lord, to You be (all) praise) with which are filled the heavens 
and the earth, and what is between them, and whatever You will 

afterward!' 

It is only an act of the Sunnah to say, "Subhdna Rabbiyal-'Agim" (Glory 
be to my Lord, the Most Great) while bowing and "Subhana Rabbiyal-A 7<T 
(Glory be to my Lord, the Most High) while prostrating; such verbal acts 
may be said more than once. Moreover, it is an act of the Sunnah to say more 
than once, between the two prostrations, K Allah! Forgive me.'' Also, among 
the verbal acts of the Sunnah to be observed during prayer is to invoke Allah 
saying, following the Final Tashahhud: 

"O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the torture of the Fire, from 
the torture in the grave, from the tr;al of life and death, and from 
the evil of the trial ofAl-Masihud-Dajjal (Antichrist)!" 

In addition, one can invoke Allah with other invocations that the Prophet 
used to say in the Final Tashahhud. 

2- Physical Acts of the Sunnah 

There are physical acts of the Sunnah to be observed while performing 
prayer, such as raising one's hands (so that the thumbs be near the ears) when 
saying the opening takblr\ the same is to be observed before bowing, and also 
when standing upright after bowing. It is also an act of the Sunnah to put one's 
right hand on the left one, putting the latter either on the chest or under the 
navel when rising from bowing. Moreover, it is an act of the Sunnah to keep 
looking at the position of prostrating during prayer Also, one is to put ones 
hands on one's knees while bowing, straightening one's back (as if forming 
a right angle), and making nncs head in alignment with one's back without 
lowering or raising the head. During prostration, it is an act of the Sunnah to 
keep one's abdomen apart from one's thighs, and ones thighs apart from one's 
legs, making one's forehead, nose and the rest of the aforesaid seven parts of 
prostration well settled on the ground (or the place of prayer). 



Chapter 5: Prnytr: Integral Parrs, Obligatory Practices and Acis of the Stttinah , -, 7 

In addition to the above, there arc rnany verba! and physical acts of the 
Sumuiri concerning prayer pointed out in details in juristic books. At any 
rate, it is not obligatory to observe these acts of the Sunnah during prayer; 
whoever observes tbein or any of them will be rewarded, and there is no sin 
on those who do not observe them, just like the ruling on all other acts of tire 
Surmah. We do not find any logical justification for the strictness and narrow- 
mindedness observed by some youth nowadays when applying the acts of the 
Sutmah during prayer, which may tead thetn to perform it in a very strange 
manner. For instance, some of thctn may how their heads while standing as 
if they were in a state of bowing. They may also put their hands on the upper 
part of the chest, under the neck, instead of putting them on the chest or under 
the navel as stated in the Sunnah. In addition, some of them are so strict iti 
keeping themselves screened while praying (so that no one can pass in front 
of them) that they do not perform the supererogatory prayer in the same 
row (where they have offered a congregational prayer); they rather perform 
it elsewhere in the mosque provided it is a screened place. Some of those 
strict youth also stretch their heads forwards and their legs backwards during 
prostration that they look as if they were lying on the ground rather than 
prostrating. Furthermore, some- of them, while being in A Standing position, 
keep their feet wide apart in a way that disturbs those beside them. These are, 
in fact j strange practices that may lead to strictness and excess iveness, which 
are detestable in religion. 

May Allah guide them and us to the straight path, and make us work 
accordingly. 

Endnotes 

1 Al-BukharT (6008) [10/538]. 

2 Al-Bukhari (II 17) [2/758], Abu DSwud (952) [1/409] and At-Tirmidhi (372) 12/208], 

3 Al-Bukharl (80S} [2/375| and Muslim {920) [2/351]. 

4 Muslim UG9G) [3/2531. 

5 Al-BukhJrt(6251) [11/44 J and Muslim (884) [2/330]. 

6 Muslim (1110) [2/4331 arid also in (IS 10) [3/302], 

7 Al-BukharH756> [2/306] and Muslim (S72) |422). 

8 Al-Bukhari (757) [2/306] and Muslim (8*3) [2/329], Concerning the Prophet's order to 
recite M-h\Uhah as reported in Sn/ji/j of Ibn Hihban (17S7) [5/B&1. 

9 See the book of Al-Mujamui-Mufahrai'iHin). 

10 Set Lhe book of 'Al-Mu 'jamut Mufahras' (2/4 15). 

11 Al-Bukhari (6003). 

12 Muslim (I0S3) [2/423], 



128 II: PRAY t II 

13 J Muslim (498) 

14 (The Final) Tashnhtmd: Reciting. "(All) compliments, prayers <md good things me due to 
Allah; peace be upon you, O Prophet, and (he Mercy uf Allah and His blessings (be upon 
you). Peace be upon us and upon the pious servants of Allah. I testify that there is nc deity 
(worthy af warship) but Allah. Alone, with >io partner, and I testify that Muhammad is 
His sctyitnt and I lis Messenger. O Allnli! Conjee Your blessings upon Muhanannd fold the 
family af Muhammad as You conferred Your blessings upon Ibrahim (Abraham) and the 
family of Ibrahim. Verily. You are Praiseworthy and Honorable. And bless Muhammad 
and the family of Muhammad as You blessed Ibrfthim and the family of Ibrahim. Verily, 
You are Praiseworthy and Honorable." 

\5 lliis may be, cuncludi'd trum a lot a( hjuiith 1 /, such as that one related by Muslim 
(1110) [2/438], 

16 An-Nasal (1276) [2/247], Al-Bukhart (6328) [1 1/157] and Muslim (895} [2/33?]. 

17 Al-Ruklwt (757) [2/306] and Muslim (383) [2/3291. 

15 Muslim (1110) [2/438]. 

19 Tasini'-. Saying "iVMuV/Wra limuri htumdtm" i.e. "Allah listens To the one ivlio praises 
Him, 1 " when standing following bowing in prayer, 

20 Tahnud (in prayer): Saying as a reply to lasmi, "Rabimna-walakal-haind" i.e. "Our Lord, 
loYuube(All) praise." 

21 Al Bukhari (684) 1 2/225} and Muslim (920) [2/351]. 

URasmalah: Saying, "tlismilldirir-Rahmanir-Rahim' i.e. "In the Name of Allah, the lintirdy 

Merciful, ihe Hspixiiilly Merciful." 
23 Tamin: Saying, "Amin" i.e. 'Amen" after the recitation ofAl-Falihah in prayer. 







Manner of Prayer 



We have dealt with the integral parts, the obligatory acts, and the verbal 
and the physical acts of the Sunnah of prayer. Therefore, we would like now to 
point out the way prayer is performed, as stated to have been observed by the 
Prophet (PBUH), so as to follow the Prophets example in this regard and in 
accordance with the hadith in which he (PBUH) said: 

"Perform prayer in the way you see me performing prayer." 

Here is the Prophetic way of performing prayer: 

• Whenever the Prophet (PBUH) stood for prEiyer, he faced the qiblaK raised 

his hands making the palms face the qiblah, saying, "AUdhu-Akbar" i.e. 
"Allah is the Greatest," 

• He (PBUH) then holds his left band with his right one, putting it on his chest. 

• Then, he (PBUH) says the opening invocation; he (PBUH) did not 

observe a certain opening invocations regularly, so it is permissible to 
say any of the opening invocation reported to have been said by the 
Prophet (PBUH). Among these invocations is: 



130 ][:PRAYFR 

"Glory be to You, Allah, and to You be all praise, and Blessed is Your 
Name, and Exalted is Your Majesty, and there is no deity (worthy of 
worship) but You v 

The Prophet (PEUH) then says: 

"I seek refuge with Allah from Satan, the expelled (from the mercy of Allah). 
In the Name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful" 

♦ Then, he (PBUH) recites Al-Fatihah (the QpeningCkapterofthe Quran). 

fallowing it with saying "Amin {Amen)" 

• After that, he (PBUH) recites a sura (a long, a short, or a medium 

one). It is narrated that he (PBUH) used to prolong reciting the 
Qur'an in the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer in particular The Prophet also 
used to recite publicly in the first two rak. 'ahs of the Fajr (Dawn), 
the Maghrib (Sunset), the Isha* (Night) Prayers, and recite quietly 
to himself in any other rah ahs. Moreover, he (PBUH) used to make 
the recitation of the first rak'ah longer than that of the second one 
in every prayer, 

■ He (PBUH) then raises his hands in the same way he does while saying 
the opening takblr of prayer, saying, "AUahu-Akbar" (Le, "Allah is the 
Greatest"). He then bows putting his hands on his knees firmly, parting 
between his fingers, and stretching his back, making his head aligned 
with his back, neither raising nor lowering iE, and says, "Subhana 
Rabbiyal- Azim" (i.e. "Glory be to my Lord, the Most Great"). 

. Then, he (PBUH) raises his head saying, 'Allah listens to theone whopraises 
Him 11 , raising both his hands in the same way he does upon bowing. 

♦ After that, he (PBUH) stands up straight saying, (following tasmi), 2 

"Our Lord, to You be (all) the praise" It is important to point out that 

the Prophet (PBUH) used to prolong standing following bowing. 

• He (PBUH) then says takblr (without raising his hands this time) then 

prostrates. In prostration, he (PBUH) used to settle his forehead, nose, 
hands, knees, and the bottom of his toes on the ground (or the place 
of prayer), making his fingers and toes face the qiblah. He (PBUH) 
used to lean on the palms of his hands during prostration, keeping his 
upper arms apart from his sides, his abdomen apart from his thighs, 
and his thighs apart from his legs, saying, "Subh&na Rabbiyal- A 'Id" 



Chapree 6; Manner of Prayer jgj 

(i.e. "'Glory be to my Lord, the Most High"); he (PBUH) used to make 
his prostration neither long nor short. 

■ Following the first prostration, he (PBUH) raises his head saying takbir, 

placing his left foot on its side and sitting on it, keeping the right foot 
as it was since prostration (i.e. resting on the bottom of its toes while 

the heel is up). He (PBUH) also places his hands on his thighs saying: 

"O Allah! Forgive me, have mercy on me, set me right, guide me, and 
sustain me" 

• He (PBUH) then says takbir and prostrates, doing in the second 

prostration the same as he did in the first. 

• After that, he (PBUH) raises his head saying takbir, and then he stands 

upright after resting on the bottom of his toes and leaning on his knees 
and thighs, 

» When he (PBUH) stands upright, he starts recitation, performing the 
second rak *ah in the same way he did in the first, 

• At the end of the second rak 'ah, the Prophet (PBUH) sits for the Pirst 

Tashahhud, placing his left foot on its side and sitting on it just as 
he does while sitting between the two prostrations. Then he (PBUH) 
places his right hand on his right thigh and his left hand on his left 
thigh. He (PBUH) also places the thumb of his right hand on his 
middle finger making them like a ring, leaving the index finger 
extended forward as if pointing, and keeps looking at it, reciting the 
First Tashahhud, saying: 

"(All) compliments, prayers and good things are due to Allah; peace 
be upon you, O Prophet, and the Mercy of Allah and His blessings (be 
upon you). Peace be upon us and upon the pious servants of Allah, 
1 testify that there is no deity (worthy of worship) but Allah, Alone 2 
with no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and His 
Messenger" 

• He (PBUH) used to make this sitting as short as possible, 

• After this, he stands upright saying takbir, performing both the third 

and the fourth rak "ahs just like the first two, but making them shorter; 
he (PBUH) also recites Al-Fatifoah in both the third and the fourth 

rak. 'aha. 



132 II: PRAYLR 

« Ik (PBUH) sirs for the Final Tashahkud, placing his left foot on its side 
and sitting on it, keeping the right foot as it was since prostration (i.e., 
resting on the bottom of its toes while the heel is up), or putting his left 
calf under hi* right one, keeping his right foot vertical, and sitting on 
the ground (or the place of prayer) instead. 

* Then, he (PBUH) recites the Final Tashahhud, which is the same as the 

first with the following addition: 

"...0 Allah! Confer Your blessings upon Muhammad and the family of 
Muhammad as You conferred Your blessings upon ibrahim (Abraham) 
and the family ofJbra h hn. Verily, You are Pra iseworthy and Memorable. 
And bleu Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You blessed 
Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. Verily, You are Praiseworthy and 
Honorable. " 

■ Following the Final Tashahhud, he (PBUH) seeks refuge with Allah 
from the torture of the Hire, from the torture in the grave, from the 
trial of life and death, and from the evil of the trial nf Antichrist. A 
Muslim may then invoke Allah with invocations mentioned in the 
Quran and Sunnah. 

* Finally, he (PbUH) closes prayer with taslim f turning his head to 

the right saying, "As-slamu 'alaykum wa rahmatull&h" (i.e. "Peace 
and Mercy of AUah be upon you"), then turning to the left saying 
the same. He (PBUH) used to start uttering taslim while facing the 
qiblah and finish it when he completed turning his head to the right 
or the left. 

« When the Prophet finishes taslim, he says: 

"O Allah! I seek Your forgiveness, (thrice). Q Allah! You are the Perfection 
and You are the One Who grants perfection; Blessed are You, O Owner 
of Majesty and Honor. 

* Then, he (PBUH) used to remember Allah with the invocations reported 

to have been observed by him, 

This is, gentie Muslim reader, a brief description of the way the Prophet 
(PBUH) used to perform prayer according to the texts afhadfths mentioned 
in this regard. Therefore, you should take an interest in your prayer, trying 
your best to perform it perfectly, following in the Prophet's footsteps as much 
as possible; Allah, Exalted be He, says: 



Chapter 6; Manner of Prayer \ 33 

"There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an 
excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is itt Allah and the last 
day and {whoj remembers AlUih often" 

{Quran: Al-Ab^ab: 21) 
May Allah grant us all success and acceptance of our good deeds. 

Endnotes 



1 The qiblah: The direction of prayer, namely towards the Ka*bah. 

2 Tastni": Saying "Sami'allahu Siman haiuirinh" i.-e. "Allah listens to the one who praises 
Him," when standing following bowing in prayer. 



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CHAPTER 




Prayer: Detestable Acts 



It is detestable to turn around with one's face and chest, for the Prophet 

(PRUH) said about turning around in prayer, as related by Al-Rukhari: 

"It is what Satan steals from the prayer of any one of you" 

There are exceptional cases suck as turning around in case of fear or for 
a valid excuse. However, if one turns around with all one's body, or turns his 
back lo the Ka'bah in cases other than fear, one's prayer will be invalid, for one 
thus turns and does nor face the qiblah during prayer without a legal excuse. 
This shows that it is permissible to turn around in prayer only in the case of 
fear, for it is one of the things that fighting necessitates. So, in cases other than 
fear, it is permissible to turn with ones face and chest only when necessary. Yet, 
it is detestable to turn around unnecessarily during prayer, and if one turns 
around with ones whole body, one's prayer becomes invalid. 

It is also detestable to look toward the sky during prayer, as the Prophet 
(PBUH) disallowed this saying: 

"What is wrong with those people who look toward the sky during 
prayer?" 



136 _ [1: PRAYER 

The Prophet (PBUH) criticized such an act so bitterly that he continued saying: 

"They should stop (looking toward the sky during prayer) or eise 
their eyesight would be taken away" 1 

(Related by Al-Bukhiri) 

As we have previously mentioned, one should look only at the position of 
prostrating during prayer. One should never let one's sight wander everywhere 
during prayer, looking at the waits, engraved patterns, writings, and the like, as 
this distracts one during prayer. 

ft is detestable to close ones eyes during prayer unnecessarily, as this is a 
Jewish practice. Yet, it is not detestable to close one's eyes when necessary, such 
as closing them to avoid looking ill what may distract one during prayer, like 
decorations, ornaments, etc. This is the opinion Ibnul-Qayyim (may Allah have 
mercy on him) mentions in this regard'. 

It is detestable to lean on ones forearms when sitting during prayer, as the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When yon raise your head after prostration, do not squat as a dog 
squats" 

This iutdith is related by Ibn iVlajah,' and there are other hadUhs stressing 

the same point. 

It is also detestable to lean on a wall or the like when standing during 
prayer* unless in case of necessity, such as an illness or the like, as leaning on 
something facilitates standing up. 

It is detestable to put ones forearms flat while prostrating, stretching them 
with elbows touching the ground, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Perform the prostration properly and do not put your forearms 
flat with elbows touching the ground like a dog."'' 

It is detestable as well to trifle in prayer, such as playing with ones leg, 
beard, garment or anything else during prayer, or playing with ones hand on 
the ground, and so on. 

Among the detestable acts is placing one's hands on ones waist during 
prayer, as such a posture is related to the unbelievers and the arrogant people, 
and the Prophet (PBUH) forbade Muslims to imitate them; it is authentically 
stated in a hadith related by Al-Bukharl and Muslim that the Prophet (PBUH) 
forhadc performing prayer with the hands on the waist ''. 



Chapter?; Prayer: Detestable Acts 137 

Interlacing one's fingers and cracking one's knuckles are also detestable 
in prayer. 

It is also detestable for one to perform prayer while there is some distracting 
thing in front of one (such as drawings on the prayer mat) as this negatively 
affects the perfection of one's prayer. 

Jt is detestable to perform prayer in a place where there are paintings or 
drawings, as this in a way resembles idolatry, be they hung on walls or not, 
according to the valid view in this regard. 

It is detestable to perform prayer while being disturbed by something such 
as ones need to answer the call of nature (to urinate, excrete or break wind) or 
being disturbed by extreme hot or cold weather, or extreme hunger or I hirst, as 
such issues hinder one from performing prayer tranquilly and submissively. 

It is also detestable to perform prayer in the presence of delicious food one 
desires, as the Prophet (PBUH) said in the hjidUh related by Muslim: 

"No prayer should be performed when the food is present, or when 
one is prompted by the call of nature"' 

The Muslim should avoid such detestable issues to observe the obligations 

decreed by Allah , Exalted be Me, devoutly and to stand before Allah in prayer 
attentively, tranquilly, and humbly. 

It is detestable as well to make prostration restricted to the forehead 
excluding the nose, as maintained by a group of heretics called the Rafidah, 
imitating whom is prohibited. 

It is also detestable to wipe whatever attaches to one's forehead or nose during 

prayer following prostration, yel one is allowed to do so after finishing prayer. 

During prayer, it is detestable to play with ones beard, to hem one's garment, 
to clean one's nose, or the like, us this distracts one's attention in prayer. 

In brief, Muslims are required to stand before Allah during prayer in full 
devotion, in both heart and soul, doing nothing that may distract them, for 
Allah says: 

"Maintain with care the I obligatory] prayers and {in particular] 
the middle [i.e. "AsrJ prayer and stand before Allah, devoutly 
obedient" (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 238) 



238 11 PRAYER 

Accordingly, Muslims are required to perform prayer attentively, sub- 
missively, and devoutly, observing what is decreed to be done therein, and 
refraining from whatever acts or words that may affect its validity. By doing 
so, their prayer will be performed properly, both in form and essence. It will 
be a valid and sufficient prayer, 

May Allah guide us all to goodness and felicity in both this world and the 
Hereafter. 



Endnotes 

1 Al-Biikhari (3291) f 6/4 07}. 

2 Al-Bukhiri (750) [2/3(K]. 

3 See the book of 'Zadul Ma 'M' (1/75-76). 

4lbnMajaM896}[l/483], 

5 AhRukhari (532) [2/2 1 ! and Muslim (i 102) [2/433]. 

6 Al-ftllkhari (1220) 13/115) and Muslim (12 IK) \2j3K). 

7 Muslim (1 246 H 2M9J. 

ft The. Rafidah: A Shiite group who refused the caliphates tit Abu Dakr As-Siddiq and " Umar 
Ibnul-KhaUiib and waged accusations against them and against many of the Prophet's 
Companions as well. 




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Prayer: Desirable and 
Permissible Acts 



It is an act of the Sunntth for the one perform iug prayer to let no one pass 
in front of him, for the Prophet (PBUH) said in a hadith related by Muslim: 

"When anyone of you per farms prayer, he should not let anyone puss 
in front of him; if he (the passer) refuses to go, he (the prayer) should 
turn him away forcibly for there is a devil with him (the passer)." 1 

However, if there is a concrete object in front of the one performing prayer, 
such as a wall or the like, it is permissible to let others pass behind that barrier. 
Similarly, it is permissible for the one performing prayer to let others pass in 
front of him if the place is not wide enough and they have no other way to 
pass from; in this case, the one performing prayer should not turn them away 
if they want to pass in front of him, In addition, if one is performing prayer 
in the Precinct of Mecca, one should not turn away those passing in front of 
one, as it was related by the Five Compilers oiHadhh that the Prophet (PBUH) 
used to perform prayer in Mecca while people were passing in front of him 
and there was no barrier or screen between both". 



\4ti ^_ II: PRAYER 

It is an act of the Sunnah for the imam (i.e., leader in prayer) or the one 
praying alone to perform prayer placing a concrete object in front of him as a 
barrier so as to let no one pass in front of him. This is illustrated in the hadilh 
related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah on the authority of Abu Sa'Id, in which 
the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"When any one of you performs prayer, he should have (or place) a 
concrete object in front of him and keep dose to it." 

As for the ones led in prayer, they are screened by their imam, so they do 
not have to place any concrete object in front of them if their imam. does. It is 
worth mentioning that it is not obligatory for one to place a concrete object as 
a screen while performing prayer, for ibn 'Abbas reported: 

"The Prophet { PBUH) performed prayer in an open space without 
placing a concrete object in front of him as a screen." 

(Related by Imam Ahmad and Abu DawLid) 

Ihe concrete object put in front of one during prayer should be something 
erect, which is approximately one cubit high, be it thin or wide. It is put, 
as mentioned above, to hinder anyone from passing in front of one while 
performing prayer. In case one is performing prayer in a desert, one should 
perform prayer behind something fixed such as a tree, a stone, a sticks or the 
like, Tf one is unable to insert a stick into the ground, it is permissible to put it 
in front of oneself in a crosswise position. 

It is permissible for the ones led in prayer to correct the imam publicly 

during prayer if the latter makes a mistake while reciting the Quran therein. 

During prayer, it is permissible for one to put on a garment and the like, 
to carry something or put it down, and to kill a snake or a scorpion, for the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Kill the two black things during prayer: the snake and the scorpion"'" 

{ Related by Abu Dawud and At- Tir in idhi, and dec mccXiahih (authentic) 
by the latter) 

Yet, one should not do many of these permissible acts during prayer 
unnecessarily. So, if one does such permissible acts excessively, repeatedly, and 
unnecessarily, ones prayer becomes invalid, as they distract one's attention 

during prayer. 



Chapter fi: Prayer: Desirable and Permissive Acls 1 41 

It is permissible for the one engaged in prayer to draw another's attention to 
something urgent, such as answering someone knocking at the door, drawing 
the imams attention tn the latter a inattention in prayer, warning someone 
who is in danger, and so on. Still, this is not to be done freely; men are only 
allowed to say, "Subhan- Allah" (i.e. "Glorified be Allah), and women just to 
clap when they want to draw someone's attention to something urgent, for the 
Prophet said: 

"If some problem arises during prayer, then the men should say, 
'Subhan-Allah' (i.e. Glorified be Allah), and the women should clap" 

{Related by Al-Rukhari and Muslim) 

It is not detestable to greet the one performing prayer if the latter knows 
how to return it; the one performing prayer is allowed to return greetings by 
means of gesture, not words. In other words, if the one performing prayers 
returns greeting by speaking, his prayer becomes invalid, as it is regarded 
among the kinds of human speech which are prohibited during prayer; one 
is allowed in this case either to return a greeting by gesture or to postpone 
returning it until one ends prayer with taslim. 

It is also permissible for the one performing prayer to recite more than 
one sura (following the recitation of Al-Fatihah) in one mk'ah according to 
the saUh (authentic) hadith stating that the Prophet (PBUH) recited the Suras 
of Al-Baqarah (the Cow) t An-NisA' (Women), and Alu "Itnran (the Family of 
tmran) in one rak "ah while standing in prayer'. It is also permissible for 
the one performing prayer to recite the same sura in two rak'ahs, to divide 
a sura, reciting it in two rak'ahs, or to recite certain parts of a sura (such as 
the middle or the last verses) during prayer. To illustrate, Imam Ahmad and 
Muslim related on the authority oflbn ' Abbas that the Prophet used to recite 
the following verse in the first rak '<lh of the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer": 

"Soy, {O believers], 'We have believed in Allah and what has 
been revealed to us...' n (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 136) 

And in the second rak 'ah', 

"... Say t f O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable 
between us and you,.," " (Qur'an: Alu Irnran: 64} 

Moreover, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

".., So recite what is easy [for you] of the Qur'an..." 

(Quran: Al-Muzzammil: 20) 



142 II: PRAYV.R 

Yet, a Muslim should not keep doing so (i.e. reciting certain verses of the 
Quran during prayer), but it is permissible lo do it from time to time. 

During prayer, it is permissible for one to seek refuge with Allah from the 
Fire when reciting or listening to a verse in which the torment of the Fire is 
mentioned, and to ask Allah for mercy when reciting or listening to a verse 
in which Allah's mercy is mentioned. Likewise, it is permissible for the one 
performing prayer to ask Allah to confer His blessings upon the Prophet 
(PBUH) when red ting or listening to a verse in which the Prophet (FBUH) is 
mentioned, as this is what the Prophet (PKUH) enjoined (us) to do whenever 
he is mentioned. 

Gentle reader, these are in brief the desirable and the permissible acts to 
be observed during prayer. We have pointed them out so that you may benefit 
from them and observe them when performing prayer, and be aware of the 
rulings of your religion on prayer. We invoke Allah to grant ail of us more 

useful knowledge and guide us to the righteous good deeds. 

To conclude, a Muslim should know that prayer is li great act of worship, 
during which it is not permissible to do or say anything other than what is 
enjoined by Allah's Messenger (PBUH), Therefore, you should, gentle reader, be 
keen on the perfection of your prayer, and be aware of what makes it perfect and 
what makes it imperfect, so as to ensure performing it in the best way ever. 



Endnotes 



1 Muslim (1130) [2/447]. 

2 AM DawQd (2016) [2/354); Ait-Nasal (757) [l/40o| aii<i llm Mijah (2958) [3/440]. 

3 Abu Dawud(G98} [1/3161 and tbn Mjijah (954) [1/510]. 

4 Abu DawOd (7 IS} [J/324]; An-Nasai (752) [2/39S] and Al-Rayhaqi (3480) [2/387]. 

5 Abil Dawud (921) [1/369]; At -Tirmidhi (390) |5/233]; Ail- Nasal (1203) [2/14] and Ibn 
Majah (1245) [2/82], 

6 AI-BukMri (719) [13/225] and Muslim (948) [2/565]. 

7 Muslim (1811) [3/303]. 

8 Muslim (1689) [3/249], 















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Prostration of Forgetfulness 



Man is subject to forgetfulness and inattention, and Satan is eager to dis- 
tract a Muslim from his prayer through whispering abstractive thoughts to 
turn him away. This may cause ones prayer to be incomplete or over- per- 
formed, out of inattention and distraction. Therefore, Allah has ordained 
Muslims to prostrate at the end of prayer in case of inattention in order to 
please Allah, the Most Gracious, to defeat Satan, and to make up for whatever 
decrease or addition made inattentively in ones prayer, Such a prostration is 
called, by scholars, ''Prostration of Forgetfulness," It is worth mentioning that 
the Prophet (PBUH) once forgot while performing prayer; this is one of the 
signs of Allah s favor upon the Muslim nation to guide them to the perfection 
of their religion through following the example of the Prophet (PBUH), and 
to follow in his footsteps when they inattentively err during prayer. 

It is authentically narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) sometimes forgot 
while performing prayer. To illustrate, he (PUUH) once ended a ioar-rak"ah 
prayer with taslttn after performing only two rak y ah$ (instead of four) and then 

offered the prostration of forgetfulness in compensation , It is also narrated 



^44 IhPRAYLR 



that he (PBLTH) once ended a fom-rak'ah prayer with taslhn after performing 
only three rak'ahs (units or' prayer)'. Another time, he (PtfUH) forgot to sit 
for the First Tashahhud in the second rak'ah of a prayer and prostrated for 
forgetful tiess afterwards'. The Prophet (PEUH) said; 

"When any one of you forgets (i.e. errs inattentively during prayer), 

he should perform two prostrations"* 

Prostration of Forgetful ness is to be performed in three cases: 

1- When one inattentively performs something additional during prayer 

2- When one inattentively misses something integral in prayer 

3- When one is uncertain whether he has performed something additional 

or missed some integral part in prayer 

So, ei Muslim is to perform the prostration of forget fulness in any of the 
above-mentioned three cases according to the authentic proofs stated in the 
Sunnak, yet not for every unintentional decrease, addition, or doubt during 
prayer. The prostration of forget fulness can be performed in both obligatory and 
supererogatory prayers, as generally indicated in the legal proofs in this regard. 

The first case (that obEigates the prostration of forgetfulness) is when 

a Muslim absent minded!)' adds acts or words to his prayer. Concerning (he 
addition of acts, if one inattentively adds acts which are considered integral 
parts of prayer, such as standing instead of sitting or vice versa or performing 
extra bowing or prostration, one lias to perforin the two prostrations of 
forgetfulness in compensation. This is because it was narrated on the authority 
of Ibn Mas' fid that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When one (inattentively) adds or omits something in one's prayer, 
oneshou Id perfo rm two prostrations." 

(Related by Imam Muslim) 

Since addition in prayer causes the imperfection of one's performance of 
prayer, the prostration of forgetfulness lias been ordained to make up for such 
imperfection. Likewise, if one abscntmindediy performs an extra rakah and 
does not remember until he finishes prayer, then one must perform the two 
prostrations of forgetfulness. Yet, when one remembers while performing this 
additional rak"ak, one has to sit immediately, recite Tashnhhud (if one has not 
already recited it), perform the two prostrations of forgetfulness, and then end 
prayer with tasllm* 



Chapter 9' Prostration of Forgetful n ess 145 

If an imam (one who leads a congregational prayer) inattentively adds 
such acts to a congregational prayer, men performing prayer behind him must 
draw his attention by saying "Subh&n-AU&h" (Glory be to Allah), but women 
can only clap their hands. Then, it is obligatory for the im&m to respond to 
them unless he is sure he is right; this is the legal way to be followed. Also, the 
people led in prayer must draw the attention of the imam in the same way if he 
inattentively omits any of the acts of prayer. 

As for a verbal addition in prayer, if a Muslim absent mi ndedly recites 
something inopportunely during prayer, such as reciting some verses of the 
Quran while bowing or prostrating, or reciting a sura following Al-Fatihah 
while standing in the last two rak 'ahs of a four- rak "ah prayer or in the third 
rak' ah of the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer, it is desirable for a Muslim in such 
cases to perform the two prostrations of forgetful ness. 

The second case (that obligates the prostration of forgetful ness) is when 
a Muslim inattentively misses any of the acts of prayer. If the missed act is 
one of the integral parts of prayer, Such as the opening takbtr, ones prayer 
becomes null and the prostration of forget fulness does not make up for it 
If it is an integral part other than the opening takbtr, such as a bowing or 
a prostration, and one remembers before starting another rak' ah, one then 
must go back to it and perform it first, and then perform what comes after 
it. Yet t if one remembers such a missed integral part after starting another 
rak' ah, this missed act nullifies the rak l ah in which it was omitted so the 
whole rak "ah must be re-performed before ending prayer with taslim and then 
the prostration of forget fulness is to be performed. This is because the missing 
integral part cannot be made up for during the same rak 'ah in this case. Still, 
if one remembers that missed integral part after taslim, it is considered a 
complete, missed rak" ah, and one in this case must re-perform it individually, 
perform the prostration of forgetful ness, then end it with taslim, provided the 
remembrance is soon enough and ones ablution is still valid. However, if one 
remembers the missed integral part after a long interval after taslitn t or when 
one's ablution is invalidated, one must re-perform the whole prayer. 

In case the missed integral part is the Final 'lashahhud or taslim, it is not 
regarded as missing a full rak 'ah, so one has only to perform it, offer the two 
prostrations of fcrgetfulness, and then end prayer with taslim. On the other 
hand, if one misses the First Tashahhud and remembers it before completely 
standing upright for the following rak 'ah, one can go back to perform it. But 
if one has already stood upright, it is detestable for one to sit to perform it, 
yet if he sits it does not nullify ones prayer. However, if one has already stood 



346 [1: TOAYF.R 

upright and started recitation, it is prohibits J for one then to sit to perform 
it (i.e. the missed Fi rs-l Tashahhud). This is because one in this case is already 
engaged in another integral part of prayer (which is recitation) that must not 
be interrupted. 

If one misses glorifying Allah while bowing or prostrating, one has to go 

back and do it unless one has completely stood upright for the following rak" ah. 
After that, one is to perform the two prostrations of forget fulness (before Uislim) 
and then end the prayer with taslhn, 

The third case (that obligates the prostration of forgetful n ess) is when 
one doubts whether one has added or missed some parts of ones prayer. If 
one is uncertain about the number of rnk'aH one has performed (whether 
one has performed two or three rak" ahs for example), one has to proceed 
taking the smaller number of rak" aha for granted and base ones prayer on 
that assumption. Then, one completes ones prayer and performs the two 
prostrations of forget fulness before Ulrffai. So, the original ruling here is that 
one is to re-perform what one is uncertain about whether one has performed 
it or not. This ruling is implied in the following hadtth narrated by 'Abdur- 
Rahman Ibn 'Awf (may Allah be pleased with him): 

"The Prophet (PBUH) said, 'When anyone of you is in doubt 
whether he hil$ performed one or two rak "ahs (i.e. uncertain about 
the number of rak* ah i he performed), he should regard it as (only) 
one. Also, when one is in doubt whether he has performed two or 
three rak" ahs, he should regard then: us two (rak ahs).' " 

(Related by Imams Ahmad, Muslim, and At-Tirmidhi) 

Tn a congregational prayer, if a Muslim is uncertain whether he has joined 
the prayer from the first rak" ah or the second, he is to consider it from the 
second rak" ah t and perform the two prostrations of forget fulness at the end 
of his prayer. Likewise, when one joins a congregational prayer late and is 
uncertain whether one has caught a full rak 'ah or not, one is to disregard this 
rak' ah (i.e. it must be re-per formed) and then one performs two prostrations 
of forget fulness at the end of one's prayer. 

To conclude, if one doubts ihal one has missed an Integral part of prayer, 
one has to go back and perform it, then perform what comes after it within 
the same rak" ah, as mentioned above in detail, Yet, if the doubt concerns an 
obligatory act of prayer, not an integral part, it has to he disregarded and one 
then is not obliged to perform the two prostrations of forge tfu loess. Moreover, 



Chapter 9: Prosirarion of forget fulness 147 

when doubt is related to addition, not omission, such doubt is to be disregarded, 

as the original ruling is to offer the prostration of forget fulness to make up for 
inattentive omission, not addition, in prayer 

These are the rulings on prostration of forgetful ness in brief, and whoever 
seeks more elaboration, he may refer to the books on fiqhi rulings. May Allah 
grant us success. 

Endnotes 

1 AJ-Rykhari (482) f 1/731] and Muslim (1 288) [3/69!. 
2Muslim (1293) [3/73], 

3 Al-BukMri (S29) [2/400] and Muslim (1263) [3/60]. 

4 Muslim (1283) [3/67]. 

5 Muslim (1287) ( 3/69] . 

6 Muslim ( 1272) [3/62]; Ahmad (1655) [ 1/236]; At-Tirmid hi (398) [2/244] and Ibn Majah 

(120?) [V62]. 






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D/rifcr (Remembrance of Allah) 
Following Prayer 



Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, says: 

"O you who have believed, remember Allah with much remetrt- 
brana - and exalt Him morning and afternoon." 

(Qur'an:Al-A]i£ab:41-42) 

Allah, Glorified be He, has enjoined dhikr (Remembrance of Allah) to be 
said following the different acts of worship. To illustrate, Allah, Glorified be 
He, says regarding prayer: 

"And when you have completed the prayer, remember Allah 
standing, sitting, or [lying] an your sides..." 

(Qur'an: An-Nisa': 103} 



IW ^ H: PRAYER 

Allah, Glorified be He, also says: 

"And when the prayer has been concluded, disperse within the 
land and seek from the bounty of AUah> and remember Allah 

often that you may succeed" (Quran: Al-Jumu l ah: 10} 

As for lasting, Allah commands Muslims to remember and glorify Him after 
completing the listing of the month of Ramadan; Allah, Glorified be He, says: 

"... to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that {to] which 
He has guided you; tind perhaps you wilt be grateful '," 

(Quram Al-Jjaqarah: 185) 

The same goes for Hoy (Pilgrimage); Allah commands Muslims to remember 

Him after performing the rites o( Hajj saying: 

"And when you have completed your rites* remember Allah like 
your [previous] remembrance of your fathers or with [much] 

greater remembrance" (Qur'ari: Al-Baqarah: 200) 

This Divine Command (i.e. to remember Allah following acts of worship) 
may be decreed to help a Muslim make up for any imperfection or evil 
whisperings affecting the act of worship he performs. It may also be decreed 
to make a Muslim feel that he is legally required to continue remembering And 
worshiping Allah, and that his legal July (towards Allah) is not restricted to 
the performance of acts of (obligatory) worship. 

A Muslim has to follow the Sttnnah (Prophetic Tradition) in remembering 
Allah (saying dhikr) following obligatory prayers, nut to follow the invented 

ways of Sufi groups who are innovators in religion. It is stated in Sahih Muslim 
(Muslim's, Authentic Book ofHadhh) that Thawban (may Allah be pleased with 

him) narrated: 

"Whenever Allah's Messenger (PBUH) finished performing prayer 
he used to ask Allah's Forgiveness thrice then say, X) Allah, You are 
the Perfection and You are the One Who grants perfection; Blessed 
are You, O Owner of Majesty and Honor: n 

In addition, it is stated in the '1 'wo Sahihs,' on the authority of A3-Mughirah 
lbn Shu' bah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (PBUH) used 
to say following prayer: 

"There is no deity but Allah, Alone, Who has no partner. To Him 
belongs dominion, and to Him belongs {all) praise, and He is over 



Chapter 10: Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah) Pol Lowing Prayer 1 51 

ail things Omnipotent. O Allah! None can withhold what You grant, 
and none can grant what You withhold, and the fortune of a man of 
means is useless before You (i.e. only good deeds are of value}" 

It is also stated in Sahih Muslim (Muslim's Authentic Book of Hadith), on 
the authority of* Abdullah Ibnuz-Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with him), 
that the Prophet (PBUH) used to say following every prayer: 

"There is no deify but Allah, Alone, Who has no partner. To Him 
belongs dominion, and to Him belongs (all) praise, and He is over 
all things Omnipotent. There is neither might nor power except in 
Allah. There is no deity but Allah and we worship none but Him, 
Atone. To Him belong all bounties, to Him belongs all grace, and to 
Him is worthy praise accorded. There is no deity but Allah; we are 
sincere to Him in religion, although the disbelievers dislike it" 

Moreover, it is stated in the Sunan, on the authority of Abu Dharr (may 
Allah be pleased with him), that the Prophet (PBUH) said; 

™ Whoever says ten times immediately after finishing the Fajr (Dawn) 
Prayer, before moving from his place or talking to anyone, "There 
is no deity hut Allah, Alone, Who has no partner. To Him belongs 
dominion, and to Him belongs (ail) praise. lie gives life and causes 
death, and He is over alt things Omnipotent,* ten good deeds will be 
recorded for him, ten sins will be eliminated from him, he will be 
upgraded ten degrees (in reward), he will be safeguarded from all 
kinds of harm all that day, he will be guarded against Satan, and 
no sin can overtake him on that day (and nullify his good deeds) 
except associating others in worship with Allah." 

At-Tirimdhi commented on this hadith saying, "This is a hasan, sahih 
hadith (i.e. a good and authentic hadith)." Likewise, it is an act of the Suitnah to 
say the aforesaid supplication of dhikr ten limes following the Maghrib (Sunset) 
Prayer, according to a hadith rduied by Imam Ahmad on the authority of Urn m 
Salamah, and another hadhh stated in Sahih Ibn tHbb&n {Urn Hibbans Authentic 
Book of Hadith) on the authority of Abu Ayyiib Al-An^rl*. Moreover, it is an act 
of the Sunnah to say seven times following the Fajr and the Maghrib Prayers: 

"O my Lord, protect me from the Fire" 

This is according to the hadiths related by Tmams Ahmad, Abu Dawiid* An- 

Nasai, Ibn Majah and other compilers of Hadith. 



152 II: I'KAYER 

Among the ways of dhikr is saying, "Subhau- Allah" (Glory be to Allah), 
"Al-hamdu-lillah" (Praise be to Allah), "AMhu-Akbar" (Allah is the Greatest) 
respectively thirty-three times each, and then saying to complete a hundred: 

"There is no deity but Allah, Alone, Who has no partner 'To Him 
belongs dominion, and to Him belongs (all) praise, and He is over 
all things Omnipotent" 

It is stated in Sahih Muslim (Ma dim's Authentic Book ofHadith) that the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If anyone extols Allah (saying, 'Subhdn-Alldh' i,e. 'Glory he to Allah') 
after (performing) every prayer thirty-three times, and praises Allah 
(saying, Al-hamdtt-litlati i.e. "Praise be to Allah') thirty-three times, 
and declares His Greatness (saying, Mahu-Akbar' i.e. Allah is the 
Greatest') thirty-three times, ninety-nine times in all, and says to 
complete ft hundred: There is no deity but Allah, Alone, Who has no 
partner. To Him belongs dominion, and to Him belongs (all) praise, 
and He is overall things Omnipotent,' his sins will be forgiven even 
if they are as abundant as the foam of the sea." h ' 

After saying that dhikr following the performance of prayer, it is preferred 
for a Muslim to recite the following suras and verses: 

1 . Ayatul-Kursi (i.e, the Verse of the Throne)" 

2. The Sura of Al-Ikhlas (Sincerity of Faith)' 1 

3 . The Su ra of A l-Fala q { Daybrea k) 

4. The Sura of An-Nas (Mankind)'' 

An-Nasai and At-Tabarani related on the authority of Abu Umamah {may 
Allah he pleased with him) that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Whoever recites Ayatul-Kursi (le. the Verse of the Throne) following 
(performing) every prayer, nothing will be between him and (entering) 
Paradise but death!''' 

This means that nothing delays him from entering Paradise except being 
alive, fn another badith, the Prophet (PRUH) said: 

"Whoever recites Ayatul-Kursi following (performing) every prayer 
will be in Allah's covenant of protection until the following prayer" 16 



Cliapier tO: Dbikr {Remetabra.r\& of Alh\\) Following Prayer 153 

It is also stated in the Sunan that "Uqbah Ibn "Amir (may Allah be pleased 
with him) narrated: 

"Allah's Messenger (PB UH) commanded meto recite Al-Mu 'awwidhatan 
(the Suras, of Al- Faint] (Daybreak) and An-Nas (Mankind)) following 
every prayer" 

All the afore merit ion ed ho norable hadiths state the legality of these religious 
supplications of dhikr following obligatory prayers, and the great rewards 
prepared for those who observe them. So, we should keep on observing them, 
following in the footsteps of the Prophet (PBUH), We should also bear in mint! 
that they are to be said after concluding prayers with taslim (i.e. immediately 
after finishing performing prayers), before moving from the place where we 
have performed prayer. 

Immediately after concluding prayer with taslim, these supplications of 
dhikr are to be said in the following sequencer 

* Asking Allah's Forgivenes-s three times 

» Saying, "O Allah, You are the Perfection and You are the One Who 
grants perfection; Blessed are You, O Owner of Majesty and Honor" 

*■ Saying, "There is no deity but Allah, Alone,. Who has no partner. To 
Him belongs dominion, and to Him belongs (nil) praise, and He is over 
all things Omnipotent. O Allah! None can withhold what You grant, 
and none can grant what You withhold, and the fortune of a man of 
means is useless before You (i t & only good deeds are of value)." 

* Saying, "There is neither might nor power except in Allah. There is no 

deity but Allah and we worship none but Him, Alone. To Him belong 
all bounties, to Him beb?tgs all grace, and to Him is worthy praise 
accorded. There is no deity but Allah; we are sincere to Him in religion, 
although the disbelievers dislike it" 

* Saying, "Subhan- Allah" {Glory be to Allah), "Al-hamdu-lillah" (Praise 

be to Allah), "Allahu-Akbar" (Allah is the Greatest) respectively thirty - 
three times each, and then saying (o complete a hundred, "There is no 
deity but Allah, Alone, Who has no partner. To Him belongs dominion, 
and to Him belongs (all) praise, and He is over all things Omnipotent" 

* Saying ten times following the Fajr (Dawn) and the Maghrib (Sunset) 

Prayers, "There is no deity but Allah, Alone, Who has no partner. To 
Him belongs dominion, and to Him belongs (all) praise. He gives life 
and causes death, and He is over all things Omnipotent" then saying 
seven times, "O my Lord, protect me from the Hellfire." 



i$4 ]j:Pkayi;k 

* Reciting Ayatul-Kursi {the Verse of the Throne), and the Suras of 

Al-lkhlas {Sincerity of Faith) and Al-Mu l awividhatan (the Suras of 
Ai-falaq (Daybreak) and An-Nds (Mankind)). Tt is also desirable to 
recite each of these suras three times following the Fajr (Dawn) and 
the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayers. 

* Following prayers, it is also desirable to say tahi'd, tasbth, iahimd,' and 

takhif aloud, individually not chorally To count saying iasbtkitahmtd, 
and takbir thirty- three times each, one can use ones fingers, as they 
will be questioned (by Allah) and will speak and testify about ones 
deeds on the Day of ludgmeiiL It is also permissible to use a rosary 
iris read of one's fingers for that purpose, provided one is aware that it 
by no means has a special virtue over using one's fingers. Still, using a 
rosary is deemed detestable by some scholars. So, if a Muslim believes 
that a rosary used for counting the times of the aforesaid dhikr has 
any special virtue or superiority, it becomes an innovation in religion, 
as is the case with the Sufis who wear rosaries as necklaces or make 
them like bracelets in their hands. This aforementioned behavior is 
not only an innovation in religion, but it is also a kind of ostentation 
and affectation. 

* After finishing the aforesaid supplications of dhikr, a Muslim should 

invoke Allah secretly asking Him for whatever he desires, for invocation 
after performing prayer and saying those glorious supplications of 
dhikr is more likely to be granted by Allah. Tt is prohibited for a Muslim 
to raise his hands while invoking Allah after obligatory prayers as 
some people mistakenly do, for this is an act of innovation in religion; 
this may sometimes be done after supererogatory prayers. Similarly, 
A Muslim should not raise bis voice while invoking Allah, so as to be 
nearer to sincerity and submissiveness and far away from ostentation. 

In some countries, some people are used to raising their voices and hands 
chorally while invoking Allah after performing prayer, and sometimes the 
imam (one who leads people in prayer) invokes Allah while raising his voice 
and hands, and the attendants reply "A in in (amen)," raising their voices and 
hands as well. Such a practice is an abominable innovation in religion, as it has 
neither been narrated to have been observed by the Prophet (PBUH) following 
prayers - be it the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer, the 'Asr (Afternoon) Prayer, or any 
other obligatory prayer - nor deemed desirable by any Muslim. Shaykhul- 
Tslam Ibn Taymiyali said" in this regard; 



Chapter W: ZM/jM Remembrance of Allah) Following Prayer 1 55 

"Whoever reported that Imam Ash-Shafi'i deemed it desirable (i.e. 
deemed raising the voices and Jtands chorally in supplication desirable) 
must have misquoted kirn," 

According to the above, we have to follow in the footsteps of the Prophet 
(PBUH) and stick to his Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition), for Allah, Exalted be 
He, says: 

"...And whatever the Messenger has given yOlt - take; and what 
he has forbidden you - refrain from. And fear Altah; indeed,, 
Allah is severe in penalty." (Qur'an: Al-Hashr: 7) 

Allah, Glorified be He, also says: 

"There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an 
excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the last 
day and [who] remembers Allah often." 

(Qur'an: Al-Ahzab: 21) 
Endnotes 

1 Muslim (1333) [3/92]. 

2 The Two Sahibs: The Two Authentic Hooks of Al-Rukhari and Muslim, 

3 Al-fiukMrf (844) [2/420] and Muslim (1337) [3/93], 

4 Muslim (1342) [3/94], 

5 Ihe Saturn refers to compilations ot' the Prophetic haditlts clarified according to the 
Islamic jurisprudential subjects; the main four compilers of the Suttilfi are Abu Dawfld, 
lb 11 Majah, At- Ti mi id hi and An-Nasai. 

6Al-Tinntdhi(3484)l5/515). 

7 Ahmad (26130) [6/298] aEid Haythami mentioned, in his book ivUjma Az-Zawa'id 
(77je Collection of Additional HndUhsl deem ad it hamm hadith ( ] O/l 08). 

3Ibniiibban{2023) [5/369], 

9 Abu Daivud (5(179) [5/200], 

10 Muslim (1351) [3/971, 

1 1 Verse No. 255 of the Sura ofAl-Bitquruh {the Cow); Chapter No. 2 of the Quran. 
! 2 Chapter No. 112 of the Qur'an. 

13 Chapter No, 113 of the Qur'an, 

14 Chapter No. 1 14 of the Qur'an, i.e., the last Chapter of the Qur'an, 

15 An-Nasai in his book Amal Al-Yawm Wai-Ltiykh (Supplications of the Day and 
Night }(l 00) i At -Tab a rani in his bookAl-Mu "jam Al-Kabir (The Great Ux icon) (7532) 
[8/1 141 and Ibnus-Sunm in his book 'AmalAl-Yawrn Wal-Laylah (Supplications of the 
Day and Night )( 124). 



156 II: PRAYER 

16 At-Taharani in his book Al-Mu pin Al-Kabir (The Great Lexicon] (2733) [3/33-8+1- 
! 7 Abu P3wud £ 1 523) [2/ 1 23] i At -Tirmi <i hi (2 903 } \ 5/ L 7 1 ] arid A n- Nasa J ( 1 3 35) [ 2/77 ] . 
[8 TrtftfiV: Saying, HL £d flMa xttrlMfr" fi-e. Them i? nn deity hut Allah). 

19 Tajfrffe Saying, "5wW?frjT-dMi" (i.e. Glory he lo All ail). 

20 Tahmtd: Saying, " Ai-iiamdu-Hllnh" (i.e. Praise be to Allah). 

21 Takblr, Sayiflg, Mfla/itf-/Ucbar" (i.e. Allah is the Greatest). 

22 See: 'Afrymii 'jiJ ftftfwd' (22/512). 



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Voluntary Pi 




dSi&fe 



We should know that our Lord, Glorified and P.salletl be He, has ordained 
voluntary prayers, side by side with the obligatory ones, as a means for His 

servants to draw near to Him, Performing voluntary prayers is considered 
among the best means of bringing oneself nearer lo Allah. It ranks next to 
jihad (fighting or striving in the Cause of Allah) and seeking knowledge, for 
the Prophet (PBUH) always drew himself near lo Allah by means of voluntary 
prayers as he (PBUH) said: 

"Keep on the right course and (know that) you will not be able to 

do all good acts; and know that the best of your (good) deeds is 
prayer" 

Prayer combines different acts of worship such as. reciting the Noble Qur an, 

bowing, prostrating, supplicating Allah, being humble and submissive to Him, 
imploring and glorifying Him, declaring His greatness (by saying takbsr) y and 
praying to Him to confer His blessings, upon the Prophet (PBUH). 



158 TLPRAYF.R 



Generally, voluntary prayers are of two types: 

The first is called "regular supererogatory prayers," as they have specified 
times of performance, and the second is called "non-regular supererogatory 
prayers" whose performance is not restricted to certain times. The first type 

of voluntary prayers has some subcategories of which some are more stressed 
than others; the most stressed of them arc the Wilr Prayer,' the TtiT&wifc Prayer,' 
the Prayer for Rain, and the Eclipse Prayer respectively Each of these prayers 
will he dealt with separately in detail in the following chapters, Allah willing, 

Endotes 

1 tbn Majah (277) [1/178]; Ahmad (22278) [5/277] and Al-Hakim, Al-Hakim graded it as 
authentic, and Adh-Dhahabi was (if the same opinion as that of Al-HAkim. Al-Albani 
also graded it as authentic in his book 'Saljiliul Jami' '(952). 

2 'I he WiSr Prayer; A supererogatory prayer consisting of an odd number of rak'ahs 
(onej three, five, seven, nine, eleven or thirteen) and it is performed any time between 
the "hha (Night) and the I ; ajr (Dawn) Prayers, 

3 'Hie TarAwih Prayer: Supererogatory prayer performed after the *Ssha' (Night) Prayer 
during the month of RiuiUidJil. 




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Wiffr Prayer 



Let us start with the Witr Prayer since it is important as it is the most stressed 
voluntary prayer, and some scholars ai r e of the opinion that it is obligatory to 
perform it. Generally, the act of worship whose incumbency is disputable is 
more stressed than any other act which is agreed to be not obligatory Muslims 
agree on the legality of the Witr Prayer so it should not be abandoned. The 
testimony of whoever insists on leaving this prayer is not to be accepted, Imam 
Ahmad says, "Whoever abandons (performing) the Witr Prayer intentionally 
is a bad man whose testimony is not to be accepted." Ahmad and Abu Dawud 
relate as marfu ' (traceable) hadith that the Prophet (PBUH) says; 

"Whoever does not perform the Witr Prayer does not belong to us" 

'The Witr' is the name of the rak"ah (unit of prayer) separated from its 
preceding rak'ah$> or three, five, seven, nine, or eleven (continuous) rakahs 
(performed with only one final tasiim). If these rak 'ahs are separated by two or 
more taslims (final Saiams in prayer), the Witr is the rak" ah separated alone, 
The time for the Wtrr Prayer starts immediately after the hha (Night) Prayer 
and continues until dawn. In the Two &ahJh_St " A'ishah (may Allah be pleased 
with her) says: 



160 II: PRAYER 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) performed the Witr Prayer at different 
nights at various hours extending (from the Night Prayer) up to the 
last hour of the night"' 

It is stated in many hadiths that the time of performing the Witr Prayer is 
the whole night except the lime before the 'Isha Prayer. If a Muslim is sure 
to wake up late at the last time of the night, it is desirable for him TO perform 
the Witr Prayer then; however, if he is not certain (to be awake at this time), 
he should perform this prayer before going lo bed as recommended by the 
Prophet (PBUH). Imam Muslim relates on the authority of Jabir (may Allah 
be pleased with him) that the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"If anyone of you is afraid lhat he way not be able to get up at the 
end of the night, let him perform the Witr Prayer and then sleep. And 
if he is confident of getting up and performing prayer at night, then 
let him perform if at the end of it, for the recitation (of the Quran) at 
the end of the night is witnessed (by angels), which is better" 

The Witr Prayer can be as short as one rak'ah (unit of prayer) according 
Ui I he hadithm (related to this ruling) and us narrated from ten of the Prophet's 
Companions (may Allah be pleased with I hem all). Yet, it is desirable to perform 
the Shaf before the Witr Grayer. The rak'ahs of tiie Witr Prayer can be as 
many as eleven or thirteen, uttering tasiitu at [he end of every two rak *ah$ and 
performing the Witr with a single rak'ah. Imam Muslim relates that 'ATshah 
(may Allah be pleased with her) narrates: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) used to perform eleven rak ah sat night, 
performing the Witr with a single rak "ah" 

In another narration, she says: 

'[..uttering tasiim at the end of every two rak'atts and performing 
the Witr with a single one." 

Moreover, a Muslim is permitted to perform eleven continuous rak'ahs., 
with one Tashahhudm the tenth rak 'ah and another Tashahhudio. the eleventh, 
and then end his prayer with tasiim. Also, he myy perform eleven continuous 
rak 'ahs with only one Tashahhud in the last one (before ending his prayer with 
tasiim). Yet, the first way of performing the Witr Prayer is more desirable. 

Besides, a Muslim is permitted to perform nine continuous rak "ahs* with 
a Tashahhud ii\ the eighth rak'ah and another in the ninth, and then end his 

prayer with taslhn. He also may perform seven or five continuous rak'ahs, 
with one Tashahhud in the end after which he is to end the prayer with taslhn. 
Umm Sal amah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated: 



Chapter 12: Witr Prayer Lf>1 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) used to perform the Witr with Jive or 
seven rak'ahs (units of prayer) without talking or uttering taslim 
between them." 

A different way to perforin the Witr Prayer is to perform twu rak'ahs and 
say taslim men perform a single (last) one. 

It is desirable to recite the Sura of Al-A 'la (the Most High)' in the first 
rak y ah, the Sura of Al-Kujirun {the Disbelievers) in the second and the Sura 
of Al-ikhias (Sincerity of Faith) ' in the third. 

Therefore, it became evident that it is permitted to perform eleven, thirteen, 
nine, seven, five, three, or one rak 'ah, yet the highly desirable is to perform 
eleven rak'ahs and the least desirable is three rak"ahs, but it is sufficient to 
perform only one rak" ah. In addition to this, it is desirable to recite qunut 
(invocation) after rising from bowing in the last rak' ah, invoking Allah and 
saying the following supplication related about the Prophet (PBUH): 

"0 Allah! Guide me among those You have guided..!' ' 
Endnotes 

1 See: 'Majmu -id FatciwV [23/127, 253], 

2 Ahmad (%7K) [2144 3) and Abu Dawud (1419) [2/37]. 

3 Al^Rukhari (996) [2/626] unit Muslim (1734) 1 3/267]. 

4 Muslim (1764) (3/277]. 

5 Hie Shaf: It generally refers to any prayer consisting of an even number of rak'ahs, 

and it particularly refers to the even number of rtlk'ahs performed before the final 
mk'rthofths Why Prayer. 

6 Muslim (1714) [3/259]. 

7 Muslim (1715) [3/259]. 

S An-Nasa't(l7l3) [3/266] and lbnMajah(l 192) [2/55|. 

9 Chapter No, -57 of the Qur'an. 

10 Chapter No. 109 of the Quran. 
] I Chapter No. 112 of the Quran, 

12 Abu Dawud (1125) [2/Wh At-Tirmidhl (163) [2/328]; An-Nasai (1744) (3/275) and 
IbnMaj nh (1378) [2/49]. 









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Tarawih Prayer 



The TarQtyjfa. Prayer (Nightly Supererogatory Prayer during the month 
of Ramadan) is among what Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has ordained for 
Muslims in Ramadan, and it is a stressed act of the Sunnah. It is called 'the 
Tarawih' which means in Arabic 'intervals of relaxation' because Muslims 
used to take an interval of relaxation after every four rak "has of the Tarawth 
Prayer as they used to prolong the prayer It is more desirable to perforin the 
Tar&wlfa. Prayer in congregation in the mosque, as the Prophet (PBUH) led his 
Companions in performing the Tar&wth. Prayer for some nights then he stopped 
for fear that it (i.e. the Tarawth Prayer) might become a burden on Muslims. In 
the Two SahjhjSt ' A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated: 

"One night, Allah's Messenger (PBUH) performed prayer in the mosque 
and some people followed him. The next night he also performed 
prayer and too many people gathered. On the third or the fourth night, 
more people gathered, but Allah'i Messenger (PBUH) did not come 
out to them. In the morning he said, 1 saw what you were doing and 
nothing but the fear that it (i.e. the prayer) might be enjoined on you, 
stopped me from coming to you!* 



] 64 __ , il: 1'KAYER 

In the narration of Al-Bukhari the words "...and thai happened in the month 
of Ramadan" were added. Il is well-known that the Companions performed 
the Tarawih Prayer after the death of the Prophet (PBUH) and the Muslim 
nation has accepted and followed this practice. 

The Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"Whoever stands (performing prayer) with the imam until he 
finishes prayer, (the reward for) performing prayer all the night will 
be recorded for him. 1 * 3 

The Prophet (PBUH) also says: 

" Whoever performs praye r durh ig the nights of Ram adem faithfully 
out of sincere faith and hoping for Divine reward (not for showing 
off), all his past sins will be forgiven"' 

(Related hy Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

Thus, performing the Tarawih Prayer is a stated (stressed) actoftheSuttttfl/l 
that a Muslim should not leave. 

Concerning the number of rak'ahs (units of prayer) performed in this 
prayer, nothing definite is narrated about the Prophet (PBUH) and hence 
Muslims are free to choose. ShuykhuMslnm Ibn Taymiyah said: 

"A Muslim can perform twenty rak'ahs (in the Tarawih Prayer) 
according to the famous opinion of the HanbaTt and Shaft "i Schools, 
thirty six rak'ahs with regard to the Mdliki School, eleven rak'ahs, 
or thirteen. Thus, (til is good and a Muslim can perform more or less 
rak 'nhs according to the (long or short) time of his standing reciting 
theQur'anf 

When 'Uinar (may Allah be pleased with him) gathered Muslims to 
perform the Tarawih Prayer in congregation behind Ubayy Ibn Ka'b, the latter 
performed twenty rak\ihs. Some of I he Companions used to perform more 
rak'ahs and other Companions performed less. So, there is no definite text 
related about the Prophet (PBUH) determining a certain number of rak'ahs 
to be performed in the Tarawih Prayer. Many imams of mosques perform the 
Tarawih Prayer without paying attention or feeling tranquil while bowing or 
prostrating. Feeling tranquil is an integral par! of prayer and a Muslim must 
pay attention while standing before Allah, Exalted be He, and learn from the 
Words of Allah (i.e. the Qur'an) while they are being recited. Of course, a 
Muslim cannot fulfill this when performing prayer with detestable haste, It is 
more befitting to perform ten rak'ahs in a state of tranquility and recite the 



Clupter 1 3: 'limituih Prayer 1 £5 

No bl^ Quran for li long time than to perform twenty ruk'ahs with detestable 
haste. This is because the essence of prayer is to turn one's heart to Allah, 
Exalted and Ever Majestic be He. Verily, a tew rak'ahs (with tranquility and 
reflet I ion) Can outweigh so many ones. Also, it is better to recite the Quran 
with measured recitation than recite it with haste. It is allowable- to be quick in 
reciting the Quran provided that no letter is neglected since it is prohibited to 
neglect a letter for the sake of quick recitation. However it is good for an imam 
{in Con y re ga I ion yl prayer) to recite the Quran in a way that benefits those 
performing prayer behind him. Allah dispraises those who recite the Quran 
without understanding its meaning as Allah, Exalted be He, reveals: 

"And among them are unlettered ones who da not know the 
Scripture except {imiulgettce hi] tvishftil thinking.,/* 

(Qur'an; Al-Baqarah; 78) 

The verse refers to those people who recite (the Kook) without understand- 
ing Us meaning, Allah has- revealed the Qur'an lor Muslims to understand its 
meaning and carry out its rulings, not only to recite it, 

Some imams of mosques do not perform the Tarawih Prayer as it should 
be performed] for they recite the Quran so hastily that they violate the sound 
reciting of the Quran. Moreover, they do not I eel tranquil while standing, 
bowing, or prostrating though feeling tranquil is an integral part of prayer. 
Furthermore, they may perform only a few rak "uhs (units of prayer). That is, 
those imams combine many detestable acts which arc performing only a few 
mk'ahs, shortening the time of prayer, and reciting the Qur'an in a bad way 
Thus, they perform worship heedlessly*. They must fear Allah, establish their 
prayer well, and not deprive themselves and those {performing prayer) behind 
them from performing the Tarawih Prayer according to the legal way'. We 
invoke Allah to guide all Muslims to success. 

Endnotes 



1 The Tarawih. Prayer is to be performed in two rak'ahs successively the same as Tahajjud 
(the Night Vigil Prayer). Some imams of mosques who are not well -versed in Fiqh 

{ Islamic JtiriJpRidtiU'C} irUU' ilol say itlslirri after i>very Uvo nik ahi in I lie Tanhvih or 
Tahajjud* which is wrong and -contradictory to the Summit. Scholars state rhat whoever 
stands m perform a third rak' ah in the Tarawih or Tal\ajj\ni is the same as him who 
(mistakenly) stands to perform n third rak 'ah in the ivjr (Unwn) Prayer (which 
consists only of two rak\ihs) r Thus, his prayer is invalid. Sheikh 'Abdul- 1 Aziz Ibn 
Ban (may Alluh him- mercy on him) has composed n reply to those people in which 
he shows their fault, 



166 ^ II: PRAYER 

2 Al-Bukhari (I L 29) |3/!4| and Muslim (1780) [3/2831. 

3 Abu Dawiid (1375) [2/71]; At-Tirmidhi (805) [3/169]; An -Nasa'i (1363) J2/93J andlbn 
Majah(l327] [2/122]. 

4 Al-Rukhari (37} [1/12-1] and Muslim (1776) [3/282]. 

5 See: 'Al-Akhbar At-'Hmiyyali min Al-lkhtiyuniS Al-Fiqhiyyah' written by Shaykhul- 
Isl&m Ibn'faymiyah. 

G Some of the imams of mosques raise their voices in recitation of [lie Quran using 
loudspeakers, thus, they confuse the people performing prayer in other mosques; a 
thing which is not permissible. Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: 
"If there is anyone reciting the Qur'ftn while the people are performing 
supererogatory prayer, he should not raise his voice in a way that may 
distract their attention. This is because the Prophet (PBUH) came out to his 
Companions while they were performing prayer in the mosque and said to 
them, 'O people, everyone of yon is calling his Lord, so let no one of you raise 
his voice in recitation over others' " 

7 Some of the imams of mosques become in haste while reciting the Quran in the 
Tnrawih Prayer in order to finish reciting all the Quran by the beginning of the iast 
ten days of Ramadan or by the middle of them (the kit ten days of Ramadan). When 
he finishes the Quran., he leaves the mosque and travels to perform 'L'mrah (Lesser 
Pilgrimage) leaving another mum instead of him who may not be fit to undertake 
the duties of the imam. This is a great mistake that wastes the duty he is assumed to 
undertake, which is leading the people in prayer until the end of Ramadan, Doing 
his duty {i.e. leading the people in prayer) is a duty upon the imAm while performing 
' Umrah is only a desirable act. Thus, it is not right to ahandun a duty for the sake of a 
desirable act. This is because staying at his mosque to perform the duty he is charged 
with is better than performing "Umrah. Some other imams start shortening the time 
nf prayer and the recitation when they finish reciting the Quran. They do this in the 
last nights of Ramadan which are the nights of emancipation from the Hellfire. It is 
as if these imams consider that what is meant from the Tarawth Prayer and Talutjjutl 
(Night Vigil Prayer) is only finishing the recitation of the Quran not spending these 
blessed nights in standing for prayer, following the Suunah of the Prophet (PBUH) and 
seeking to have the merit of these nights. This is a sign of their ignorance, which shows 
their heedlessness to acts of worship. We ask Allah to return them to what is right. 













Sunnah Ratibah: Prayers 

Performed along with 

Obligatory Prayers 



You should know, my dear Muslim brothers, that a sunnah ratibah (a regularly- 
observed supc rerogatory) prayer ought to be performed and it is detestable to 
abandon it. Whoever keeps leaving the sunnah ratibah commits a sin and, according 
to some Imams, nullifies his uprightness because his leaving such worship implies 
carelessness and weakness in his faith 

There are ten rak'ahs (units of prayer) (or twelve according to some 
scholars) considered as sunnah ratibah prayers: 

+> Two rak ahs before the Zuhr (Noon) Prayer (or four rak "ahs according 
to some scholars) 

♦ Two rak ahs after the gwfjr (No on) Prayer 



168 



II: PRAYER 



♦ Two rak 'ahs after the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer 
*> Two rak "ahs after the Isha (Night) Prayer 

♦ Two rak 'ahs before the Rijr (Da wn) Prayer 

The proof of these aforementioned sunnah ratibah (regularly- observed 
supererogatory) prayers is the hadilh reported on the authority of Ibn 'Umar 
(may Allah be pleased with hi in) who said: 

7 remember ten (supererogatory) rak' ahs from Allah's Messenger 
(PBUH). (He used to perform) two rak' ahs before the Zuhr (Noon) 
Prayer and two rak ahs after it, two rak' ahs after the Maghrib 
(Sunset) Prayer in his house, and two rak' ahs after the Ishd' 
(Night) Prayer iu his house, and two rak 'ahs before the Fajr(Dawn) 
Prayer and at that time nobody would enter the house of the Prophet 
(PBUH). Hafzah (the wife of the Prophet) told me that when the 
prayer caller (muezzin) pronounced the prayer call (adhan) and 
the dawn began to break, the (the Prophet) used to perform two 
rak ahs." 1 

(Related by AI-BukhM and Muslim) 

In Sahih Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book ofHadith), * A'ishah (may Allah 
be pleased with her) said: 

"Before the guhr (Noon) Prayer, the Prophet (PBUH) used to 

perform four rak ahs in my house; then he would go out and lead 
the people in prayer; then come in and perform two rak ''ahs" 2 

This hadith implies that it is more desirable to perform the sunnah r&iibah 
pTayer at home than to perform it in the mosque, for the sake of some benefits, 
such as: 

• Keeping away from ostentation and self-conceit and screening acts of 

worship from the eyes of people 

• Perfection of sub missive n ess and sincerity (to Allah) 

• Ma i niaining the house, wh ere prayer is performed, through remembrance 

of All ali and prayer which causes mercy to descend upon the people 
living therein, and keeps Satan away The Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"Perform some of your (supererogatory) prayers at home, and do not 
take your houses as graves"* 



Chapter H: Sumiab itihibah: Prayers Performed aluiiy with Obiiparory ^9 

The most stressed of the aforementioned sunnah ratibah (regularly- 
observed supererogatory) prayers are the two rak^ahs (units of prayer) before 
the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer, for ' A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) says: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) was never more regular and particular in 
performing any supererogatory prayer than the two (supererogatory) 
rak 'ahs of the Fajr Prayer"' 1 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

The Prophet (PBUH) also said: 

"The two (supererogatory) rak'ahs of the Fajr Prayer are better 
than the world and (all) that it contains"* 

So, the Prophet (PBUH) used to keep these two rak'ahs before the Fajr 
Prayer us well as. the Witr Prayer both in residence and on journeys*. 

On journeys, it is not narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) performed any 

regularly -observed supererogatory prayers (sunnah ratibah) other than the 
two rak'ahs before the Fajr Prayer and the Witr Prayer. When Ibii 'Urnar 
(may Allah be pleased with them) was asked about the supererogatory prayer 
of the Zuhr Prayer, he said: 

"Were J to perform supererogatory prayer, I would have completed 
the obligatory prayer (for during journey, one is not asked to perform 
supererogatory prayer and he is to shorten obligatory prayer)." 7 

Besides, Ibmil-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) stated: 

"On journeys, it is a practice of the guiding Sunnah of the Prophet 
(PBUH) that he used to perform obligatory prayers only. It is not 
narrated about htm (PBUH) thai he performed, on his journeys, 
any regularly-observed supererogatory prayers other than the two 
rak 'ahs before the t'ajr Prayer and the. Witr Prayer"* 

It is an act of the Sunnah to make the two rak 'ahs before the Fajr (Dawn) 
Prayer lighL, as ' Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used to make the two rak'ahs before the Fajr 
Prayer very light!'' 1 

It is also an act of the Sunnah to recite the Sura of Al-KAfirun (the 
Disbelievers)™ after the Sura of Al-Fdtihah (the Opening Chapter of the Quran) 
in the first rak "ah, and the Sura ofAl-Ikhlas (Sincerity of Faith)" in the second. 
The Prophet (PBUH) also used to recite the verse, "Say, (Obelkversl 'We have 



]70 i I: PRAYER 

believed in Allah and what has been revealed to us.,.' " (Quran: Al-Raqarah: 
136) in the first rak'ah and the verse, "Say, 'Q People of the Scripture, come to 
a word that is equitable between us mid you „S " {Quran: Alu l ImrSn: 64) in 
the second rak'ah. 

Concerning the two supererogatory mk'ahs after the Maghrib (Sunset) 
Prayer, it is also an act of the Summh to recite the Sura of Al-Kdfirun after Ah 
Fatihah in the first rak'ah, and the Sura oiAl-Ikhlas. in the second. Al-Bayhaqi, 
At-Tirmidhiand other compilers ofHadith related that Ibn Mas'iid said: 

"7 cannot count (the number of times) f heard Allah's Messenger 
(PBUH) reciting the Sura of Ai-Kuftrun and the Sura ofAl-ikhlas 
in the two (supererogatory) rak'ahs after the Maghrib Prayer and 
the two (supererogatory) rak'ahs before the Fajr Prayer." ' 

If you miss any of the aforementioned supererogatory prayers {oisunnah 
raribah), it is an act of die Sunnah to make up for it. This also is to be done 
with regard to the Witr Prayer, for it is an act of the Sunnah to make up for it 
during the day, as the Prophet (PBUH) made up for the two supererogatory 
rak'ahs before the Fajr Prayer along with the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer when he 
slept and could not get up to perform them ' '. Also, it is narrated that when 
the Prophet (PBUH) was (so) busy that he missed the two supererogatory 
rait Wis before the Zuhr (Noon) Prayer, he made up for them after the "Asr 
(Afternoon) Prayer ' . So, a Muslim can makeup for the rest of supererogatory 
prayers by means of analogical deduction, when missing any of them, The 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If anyone oversleeps and misses the Witr or forgets it, he may perform 
it when he wakes up or when he remembers." ' 
(Related by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi) 

The Witr Prayer along with its preceding Shaf are to be made up for, when 
missed, as stated in §ahih Muslim (Muslim's Authentic Book ofHadith), on the 
authority of 'A 1 i shah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said: 

"When deep or pain overpowered the Prophet (PBUH) and he 
could not perform the. night vigil supererogatory prayer, he used to 
perform twelve rak "ahs (units of prayer) during the day:' 

So, A Muslim ought to keep the aforementioned sunnah rdtibah (regularly- 
observed supererogatory) prayers to follow the excellent pattern of the Prophet 
(PBUH) as Allah says: 



C^haprt-r )4: Sitnndb Rdtrhah: Prayers I'crforjuud along wirlt Obligatory \j\ 

"There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an 
excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the last 
day and fwho] remembers Allah often." 

(Qur'an:Al-Ahzab:21) 

Keeping these supererogatory prayers compensates for any fault committed 

in the obligatory Prayers, as man is fallible and needs to compensate for his 
faults, Hence, a Muslim should not neglect this sunnah rat shah as it will result 
in more rewards prepared by the Lord (to be given to the Muslim on the Day of 
Resurrection). Likewise, along with every obligatory act of worship, Allah has 
ordained a supererogatory act of the same type to compensate for any faults 
committed in the obligatory act of worship, i.e. Prayer, Fasting, 7.akah and 
Uajj have supererogatory acts of worship. No doubt, these (above-mentioned) 
ordinances are favors of Allah upon His servants. Allah has varied His ordained 
acts of worship in order to raise in degrees His servants and remove from them 
their misdeeds. We invoke Allah to grant us success in all that pleases Him. 
Verily He is Hearing and Responsive to supplications. 

Endnotes 



i AL-Bukhari (1180) [3/75] and Muslim (1695) [3/252], 

2 Muslim (16%) [3/253] and Al-Bukhari (1182) [3!?6\. 

3 Al-Bukhari (432) [1/684] and Muslim (]fll7) 13/308], 

4 Al-Bukh<\rl (1169) [3/59] and Muslim (]ft83) 1 3/248]. 

5 Muslim (1685) [3/248], 

6 This was mentioned by Ibmil-Qayyim in his book "ZiidulMa'ad (Provisions for the 
Hereafter)" and this hodUh was related by Ai-Bukliari (1 159), 

7 Abu Davrtld 0223) (2/15). 

8 See; "Zadul-Mu'riti {Prvvishmfor the Hereafter]". 

9 Al-Bukhari [1 171) 13/60 1 and Muslim (1681) 13/247]. 

10 Chapter No. 109 of die Quran. 

1 1 Chapter No. 1 12 of the QurYui. 

12 At-Tirmidhi (431 ) [2/296], Ai-Bayhaqt (4S7S) [3/62] and Muslim (1687) [3/249]. 

13 Muslim U5Sy) |3/i89|. 

14 Al-Bukhari (1233) [3/136] mid Muslim (1930) [3/358]. 

15 AM Dawud (1431) [2/93], At-TirinidhI (464) [1/330] andlbnMajahOlSS) [1/53]. 
! 6 Muslim (I73fi} [3/268]. 



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D«/m (Forenoon) Prayer 



You should know, my Muslim brothers, that there are many faadiths pertaining 
to the Duha (Forenoon) Prayer. In the Two So/jl^s, Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be 

pleased with him) said; 

"My friend (i.e. the Prophet) advised me to do three things and I 
shall not leave them until I die (and they are) to fast three days 
every month, to perform the Duha Prayer, and to perform the 
Witr before sleeping."' 

Also, Abu Sa'id (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used to perform theUuha Prayer (so regularly) 
that we said, 'He will never give it upl and sometimes he completely 
gave it up until we said, 'He will never perform it again! "* 

The Duha Prayer can be as short as only two rak'ahs (units of prayer) as 
the Prophet (PBUH) says, a ..,tbe two rak'ahs of the Duha Prayer..." in the 
aforementioned hadith on the authority of Abu Hurayrah h Besides, Abu Dawud 



174 IIiPRAYF.R 

related on the authority of Anas (may Allah he pleased with him) thai the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If anyone sii s in his place of * prayer sifter finishing the Subh (Morning) 
Prayer until he performs the two rule 'ahs of the Duha Prayer, saying 
nothing but what is good,, his sins will be forgiven even if they are 
more than the foam of the sea?' 

(Related by Aba D £ wad) 

The Duha Prayer can be as long as eight rak 'a/is, for Umm Hani 1 (may Allah 
be pleased with her) said: 

"On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, the Prophet (PBUH) performed 
eight rak' ahs as the [)uha Prayer." 

(Related by the Group of Compilers of Hadith) 

I ma m Mu s I i m also related on t he aut hority of 4 Al&h ah ( may ANah be plea set! 
with her) that: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used to perform the Duha Prayer with four 
rak" ahs and sometimes he used to perform as more rak' ahs as 
Allah willed"' 

The time for the Duha Prayer begins when the sun is about ti spear's length 
above the horizon and it continues until the sun approaches the meridian. 
It is desirable to delay it until the sun has risen high and become hot Imam 
Muslim relates that the Prophet (PBUH) said; 

"The prayer of those who are penitent is to be performed when the 
young (weaned) camel feels the heat of the sun" 

That is, when it becomes so hot I hat the young (weaned) camels kneel 

down because of the heat of the sun. 

Endnotes 

1 Al-Bukhari (1 17S) [3/731 and Muslim (1669) [3/241]. 

2 Ahmad (476) 1 2/342] and At-Tirmidhi (1 172) [3/2 1 1. 

3 Abu t^iid (1237) [ 2/43 j, 

4 Al-BukMri ( 1 103) [2/746): Muslim {763) [2/352]; AbO Pawvd ( 1230) [2/44]; An-Nasal 
(225) [1/137] andIbnMajah(614) [1/340]. 

5 Muslim (1660) | W236|. 

6 Muslim {1743) ]3/27l |. 



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CHAPTER 




■ ■ 










Prostration of Recitation 



The prostration of recitation is one of the Prophetic practices and it is thus 
called as it relates to the recitation of the Quran. It is an act of worship that is 
ordained by Allah and His Messenger to be done when reciting the verses of 
the Q Li ran or listening to them, as a means of drawing near to Allah, subjecting 
oneself to His Majesty and showing submissiveness to Him, 

This act of prostration is enacted as an act of the Sunnah (Prophetic 
Tradition) for both the one who recites and the one who listens to the Quran. 

Scholars unanimously agree on its legality, Tbn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased 
with him) said: 

"When the Prophet (PBUH) recited a sura of the Qurttn that 
contains the prostration, he would prostrate and we would do the 
same and some of us (because of the heavy rush) could not find 
a place for prostration!^ 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 



\76 [1: P PAYER 

Imam Ibnul-Qayyim," the great scholar (may Allah have mercy on him), 
said, "Positions ofprostrntions are what is reported to us and what is commanded 
for us to do" That is, Allah tells us about the prostration of His creatures 
generally or at specific situations. So it is enacted, for the one who recites the 
Qur'&n and the one who listens to it, to act like them (Allah's creatures) when 
reciting or listening to the verses of prostration, and with greater reason the 
verses that actually command prostrating. 

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated, as a mar/ft' 
(traceable) hadith, that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When the son of Adam (Adam) recites a verse of prostration and 
then falls down in prostration, Satan goes into seclusion weeping 
and saying, 'Woe unto me! 1 The so« of Adam is commanded 
to prostrate and he has prostrated, so Paradise is entitled to 
him, and I was commanded to prostrate, but I refused, so 1 am 
doomed to Hell! " 

(Related by Muslim and Ibn Majah) 

The prostration of recitation should be performed by both the one 
reciting and the one listening (10 the Quran). What is staled in the previously 
mentioned }ifldith of lbn ' Umar, namely "When the Prophet (PBUH) recited 
a sura of the Quran thai contain* the prostration, he would prostrate and we 
would do the same" proves the legality of the prostration of the one who 
is listening. As for the hearer (i.e. the one who is not attentively listening), 
it is not obligatory upon him to perforin the prostration of recitation. Al- 
ii ukMrl related: 

"'Uthtnan (may Allah he pleased with Jiitn) passed by a reciter who 
recited a verse involving prostration to make 'Uthman perform 
prostration along with him, bat ' Uthman did not perform prostration 
and said, 'The prostration should be performed by him who listens 

to a: " l 

This act was reported about other Companions. 

The suras of the Quran that involve verses of prostration are Al-A'raf 3 (the 
Elevations), Ar-Ra 1 <J (the Thunder), An-Nahl (thcBccs),' Al-isra (the Night lourttey), 
Maryam (Mary), Al-Hajj (the Pilgrimage), ' Al-Furqan (the Criterion), An-Naml 
{the Anis'ji As-Sajdah (the Prostration), '' Fussilat (Detailed), An-Najm (the Star), '' 



Chapter it>: Piofcrration of Etecifcitinn 177 

Ai-lnshiqaq (the Split)™ and Al-'Alaq (the Clinging Substance/'. Concerning the 
prostration in the Sura of SAd, there is disagreement between scholars, whether it 
is a prostration of thankfulness or recitation; and Allah knows best, 

On performing the prostration of recitation, one should pronounce takbir 

(saying" AUahu-Akbar" i.e. "Allah is the Greatest"). This act is stated according 
to the hadith of Ibn Umnr in which he said: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) used to recite the Quran to us and 
whenever he recited a verse that contains a prostration, he used to 
say takbir and prostrate, and we also used to prostrate along with 
mm. 

(Related by Abu Dawud) 

One should say in pro strut ion, "Subhdna Rabbiyal-A la" (Glory be to 
my lord, the Most High), the same as one says when prostrating during 
performing prayer. If one says, "My face has prostrated before Allah, Who 
created and fashioned it, created in it hearing and vision by His Power and 
Might. O Allah! Reward me for it (the act of prostration)* remove sins from 
me by it, reserve it for me, and accept it from me as You did from Your 
servant Dawud (David)" it will be acceptable. To perform the prostration 
of recitation from the position of standing is better than performing it 
while sitting. 

O Muslim, you should know that there are many ways of doing good acts, 
so make your best to follow them, and be loyal and faithful in both actions and 

words, that Allah may record you among the happy people. 

Endnotes 

1 Al-Buk]iarl{l075) [2/718] and Muslim (1295) 13/75]. 

2 Seer 'MadArij As-S&lik&t{lfl$&l. 

3 Muslim (240) f I /257] and Ibn Majah ( 1052) f ] /549|. 

4 Al'Biikhari (2/719) and ' Abdur-Razzaq in his book W-MufflfXaf. l Abdur-Rmaq 
related the same action about other companions such lis n Umar a his son, Ibn Mas'ud 
and Jbn 'Abbas. See; 'Al-Musannf (3/344) and 'Suuan Al-Bayhacj'i' (2f45#), 

5 Chapter No. 7 of the Quran. 

6 Chapter No. 13 of the Qur'an. 

7 Chapter No. ] 6 of the Qur'ln. 



173 



LI i PRAVLR 



8 Chapter No. 17 of the Qur'an. 

9 Chapter No, 19 of the Quran. 

10 Chapter No. 22 of the Qur'an. 

1 1 Chapter No. 25 of the Qur'an. 

12 Chapter No. 27 of the Qur'an. 

13 Chapter No- 32 of the Qur'an. 

14 Chapter No. 41 of the Qur'an. 

15 Chapter No. 53 of the Qur'Un. 

16 Chapter No. M of the Qur'an. 

1 7 Chapter No. 96 of the Quran. 

18 Chapter No. 3S of the Qur'an. 
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Non-Regular Supererogatory 

Prayer 



The Compilers of the Sunan related that the Prophet (PBUH) was asked 
which prayer was most excellent (concerning reward) after the prescribed 
ones. He (PBUH) said: 

"Performing prayer in the middle of the night . rl 

He (PBUH) also said; 

"There is an hour in the night during which no Muslim person asks 
Allah for good in this world and the Hereafter but Allah will grant it 
to hhni and that applies to every night." 

Moreover, the Prophet (PTSUH) said: 

"Adhere to (the performance of) the night vigil supererogatory 

prayer, for it is the habit of the righteous people before you. Verily, 
the night vigil supererogatory prayer is a means of nearness 



ISO II: PRAYER 

to Allah and the way by which sins are removed and one stops 

committing sins."' 
(Related by Al-H&ki in) 

Allah, Exalted be He, praises those who stand for the night vigil super- 
erogatory prayer, as He says: 

"...Indeed, they were before that doers of good. They used to 
sleep but Utile of the night, and in the hoars before dawn they 
would ask forgiveness,.." (Quran: Adh-Dhariyat: 16-18) 

Praising such righteous servants, Allah, Exalted be He, also says: 

"Their sides part fie. they arise] from {their] beds; they suppiicate 
their I*ortt in fear and aspiration, and from what We have provided 
them, they spend. And no soul knows what has been hidden for 
them of comfort for (the) eyes (i.e. satisfaction] as reward for 
wha t they used to do" (Q u rVi ti : As - Saj dah : 16-17) 

So many are the religious texts that refer to the virtue of the night vigil 
supererogatory prayer. The night vigil supererogatory prayer is the most 
excellent act of worship among voluntary prayers. This is because the night 
vigil supererogatory prayer is characterized by more secrecy and is closer to 
sincerity. Moreover, it is to be performed while people are sleeping. In addition, 
it involves the preference of obedience to sleep or taking rest. 

It is desirable to perform supererogatory prayers at all times, excluding 
the forbidden times. The night vigil supererogatory prayer is more preferable 
than that performed at the daytime, as mentioned before. The most preferable, 
concerning the night vigil supererogatory prayer, is that it is performed at the 
third of the night, which is directly after the middle of the night until the last 
sixth of the night. This is staled in Suhih Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book of 
Hadilh) as a nmrftT (traceable) hadilh, in which the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"The most beloved prayer to Allah is that ofDawtid (David). He 
used to sleep for (the first) half of the night, perform prayer during 
the third of it, and (again) sleep for the sixth of it' 1 ' 

Da wud used to sleep for the first half of the night to have rest and 
then gel up at the time when Allah calls saying, "h there anyone to ask 
Me, so that I may grant him what he asks for?'" Then Diwud would sleep 
for the sixth part of the night to have rest to he fully active by the Fajr 



Chapter 17: Non-Regular Supererogatory Prayer 1^1 

(Dawn) Prayer. So this is the best time for one to perform the night vigil 
supererogatory prayer. However, the whole night is a time for performing 
the night vigil supererogatory prayer. Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy 
on him) said, "One. may pet-form the night vigil supererogatory prayer from 
the time of sunset to the break of da wn" Accordingly the supererogatory act 
{of prayer) performed, between the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer and the K Isha 
(Night) Prayer is considered among the night vigil supererogatory prayer, 
but it is better to delay performing the night vigil supererogatory prayer to 
the last part of the night as mentioned before. Allahu Exalted be He, says, 
"Indeed, the hours of the night are more effective for concurrence { of heart 
and tongue] and more suitable for words" (Quran: Al-Muzzammil: 6) 
Here, the phrase "hours of the night" refers to performing the night vigil 
supererogatory prayer after sleeping. 

A Muslim person should intend to perform the night vigil supererogatory 
prayer and he should (set some time to) get a share of (the reward for) 
performing the prayer at night, width he should keep to, even though it is a 
little. So when a Muslim gets up (to perform the night vigil supererogatory 
prayer), he should use the siwak (tooth-stick) and mention Allah saying: 

"There is no deity but Allah Alone Who has no partner. To Him 
belongs dominion, and to Him belongs (all) praise, and He is over 
all things Omnipotent. Ail praise be to Allah, alt glory be to Him 
and there is no deity but Allah, Allah is the Greatest and there is no 
power or might except with Allah." 

He should also sav: 

'Alt praise be to Allah, Who gave me life after causing me to die 
(sleep) and lo Ilim is the Resurrection. (All) praise be to Allah, 
Who restituted my soul back unto me and made my body sound 
and permitted me to mention Him" 

!t is more desirable for Lite Muslim to begin his optional night prayer with 
two light (short) rak'ahs (units of prayer) for it is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 
that Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said: 

"When any of you stands up at night to perform the night vigil 

supererogatory prayer, let him begin his prayer with two short 

rak'ahs."'* 

(Related by Muslim and other compilers of Hadhh) 



182 H: PRAYER 

Moreover, one performing (he night vigil supererogatory prayer should 
pronounce taslhn (i.e. final salutations in prayer) at the end of every two 
rak'ahs, as the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"The night vigil supererogatory prayer should he performed two 
rak 'ahs after two'" 

(Related by the Group of Compilers ofHadlth) 

Thus, the night vigil supererogatory prayer is to be performed in two 
rak" aha by reciting Tashahhtid and pronouncing taslim at the end, as it is a 

yw-rak'uh prayer. 

Furthermore, a Muslim should prolong the night vigil supererogatory- 
prayer when standing, bowing and prostrating. In addition, the night vigil 
prayer should be performed at ones home. Scholars unanimously agree that 
supererogatory prayers are better to be performed at home, as the Prophet 
(PBUH) used to perform them at home. The Prophet (PBUH) said; 

"... Perform (supererogatory) prayer at your homes,, for the best 
prayer of u person is the one which he performs ai home, except the 
compulsory (congregational) prayer!'' 

This is because performing it at home implies true devotion. 

To perform the supererogatory prayer while standing is better than per- 
forming it while sitting with no excuse. The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Whoever performs pmyer sitting gets half the reward of that 
who performs prayer while standing"* 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

However, he who performs the supererogatory prayer while sitting, but 
with an excuse, will gel reward similar to that of the one who performs it while 
standing. The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When the servant (of Allah) falls ill or travels, then he will get 
reward similar to that he gets for good deeds practiced in residence 
when in good health."* 1 

There is a unanimous agreement on the permissibility of performing 
supererogatory prayers in the sitting position though being able to perform 
it standing. 

The one performing night vigil supererogatory prayer should end it with 

Wi'fras the Prophet (PBUH) used to end his prayer at night by performing vV'rfr 



Chaprcrl7: Non-Regular Supererogatory Pr.ivcr ]fl3 

prayer". Moreover, he commanded, in several hadiths, that it (Witr) should be 
performed , It is desirable for the one who misses the optional night prayer to 
perform it before noon. This came in the hadith stating; 

"Whoever is overpowered by sleeping and misses the (regular) 
portion (of prayer or recitation) and he performs it in the period 
between the Fajr Prayer and the £.uhr Prayer, it will be recorded for 
him as reciting it during riight" 

O Muslim brother, do not deprive yourself of (the reward for) the night 
vigil supererogatory prayer, You should get a share of it, even though it is 
a little, for yourself thai you may keep in order to get the reward of those 
who stand (for night vigil prayer) and seek forgiveness (from Allah) before 
dawn. That which is little may lead you to have much (reward) and do 
much acts of obedience, for Allah does not allow the reward of the doers of 
good to be lost. 

Endnotes 

1 Muslim (2748) L4/29n]. 

2 Muslim (1767) [3/278]. 

3 Al-£ttkim(n 57) 1 1/308]. 

4 Al-Uukharf (1131) [3/22J and Mus lint (2731) [4/287]. 

5 Al-Bukhari (1 145) [3/38] and Muslim (1771) [3/260]. 

6 Muslim (1804) [3/296J, Ahmad (9155) [2/525] and Abu Dawud(1323} [2/55]. 

7 AL-Bukhari (990} [2/615], Muslim (1745) [3/272], Ahmad (4849) [2/41], Abu Dawud 
(1326) [2/55], At Tirmidht (437) [2/300], An-Nasil (1693) [2/259] and Ibn Majah 
(1319) [2/1 lft]. 

S Al-Bukharl(61l3) llfl/635] and Muslim (1822) [3/31 0]. 
9 Al-Bukhari(1116) [2/756] and Muslim (1712) [3/2571. 
lOAl-Bufchari (29%) [6/165]. 

11 As it was related in Mush'm (1 726) [3/265]. 

12 As it was related in Al-BuWiari (99fi) [2/628] and Muslim (1752) [3/274]. 

13 Muslim (1742) [3/271], 



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Times When Prayer Is Forbidden 



We have introduced above some of the ruling;; on the supererogatory 
prayers and now we are going to point out that there are certain times at 
which prayer is forbidden as narrated to have been pointed out by the Prophet 
(PBUH). However> there are some exceptions concerning this judgment, 

There are five times at which performing prayer h forbidden: 

1- The first time starts from the second (the factual) time of dawn to 
sunrise. The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When the dawn breaks, no prayer is to be performed except the two 

rflk*ah$ (units of prayer} of the Fajr Prayer (i.e. the supererogatory 
rak 'ahs of the Fajr Prayer)'' 

(Related by Ahmao\ Abu Dawud, and other compilers of Hadlth) 

Therefore, when the dawn breaks, one should not perform any super- 
erogatory prayer except The two rak 'alts of the Fajr Prayer. 



186 II: PRAYER 

2- The second time starts from the lime of sunrise until the sun reaches 
the height of a spear, in one's sight, above the horizon. 

3- The third time starts from the time when the sun is at its height at 

midday until it passes over the meridian. This time is known as the 
time when "shade stops 3 i.e. it does not increase nor does it decrease; 
until it Starts moving toward the west. 'Uqbnh Ibn 'Amir narrated, 

"There are three times at which Allah's Messenger (PBUH) forbade us 
to perform prayer, or bury our dead (and they are) (i) when the sun 
begins to rise until it is fully up; (ii) when the sun is at its height at 
midday until it passes over the meridian; (Hi) and when the sun draws 
near to setting until it sets!" 

(Related by Imam Muslim) 

4- The fourth time starts from the time of the 'As? (Afternoon) Prayer 
until the sun sets, as the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"No prayer should be performed after the Fajr Prayer until the sun 
rises, and no prayer should be performed after the "Asr Prayer until 
the sun sets."' 

(Related by Al-Bukbari and Muslim) 

5- The fifth time starts from the time when the sun starts setting until 

it sets. 

The Muslim person should know that it is permissible for one to make 
up for missed prayers at such (forbidden) times. This is based on the 
Prophet's hadith: 

"If anyone misses a prayer out of oversleeping or forgetfulness, he 
must perform if once he remembers" 4 . 

(Related by Al-Buklwt and Muslim) 

It is also permissible for one to perform the two rak'ahs of tawdf( circum- 
ambulating Lhe Ka'bah) at such times, as the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Do not prevent anyone from circumambulating this House (i.e. 
the Kabbah) and from performing prayer any moment he desires 
by day or by night."'' 

(Related by At- Tirmidhi who deems it a.sahih (authentic) hadith) 



ChLiprcr IS: Times When I'nty^r h I-WrnddiMi \$y 

So this is regarded as a permission from the Prophet (PBUH) to perforin 
circurn ambulation at all limes at which prayer is forbidden, This is because, 
circumambulation is permissible at all times, and so are its I wo rak'ahs. 

According to the most acceptable opinion of scholars, it is permissible at 
these times to perform prayer that have special causes, such as Funeral Prayer, 
Mosque Greeting Prayer (which is performed on entering the mosque) and 
Eclipse Prayer. There are legal proofs supporting this permissibility which are 
considered specific exceptions to the general rule of forbidding performing 
prayer at such times. Thus, forbidding performing prayer at such times means 
that it is forbidden to perform prayer with no special reason. Accordingly, it 
is not permissible to perform a supererogatory prayer, which has no specific 
reason, at such times. 

Furthermore, it is permissible to perform the two supererogatory rak'uhs 
(units of prayer) of the Fajr Prayer after performing the Fajr Prayer, It is also 
permissible to perform the two supererogatory mk'ahs of the Zuhr Prayer 
after performing the " As r Prayer, especially when one combines both the Zuhr 
and l Asr Prayers, This is based on the fact that the Prophet (PBSJH) made up 
for the two supererogatory rah 'tihs of the Zuhr Prayer after the "Asr Prayer, 

Endnotes 

1 Ahmad (4695) [2/17\, There are hadiths related with the same meaning such as AbO 
Dawud (127S) [2/401 and At-Tirmidhi (419) [2/278]. 

2 Muslim [!92fi}(3/354j, 

3 AMJukltirUatt} [2tt0\ and Muslim (]«ua) |3tf5|- 

4 Ai-Bukhiri {597} [2/93] and Muslim (1566) [3/1931. 

5 Abu Dawgd (1894) (2/308], At-Tirmidhi {R6A) [3/220], An-Nasa'i (5$4> [1/308] and 
IbnMajah( 125-1) [2/B6|, 






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CHAPTER 





Congregational Prayer 



Congregational prayer at the mosque is considered one of the great rituals 
of Islam. All Muslim scholars unanimously agree that performing the Five 
(Obligatory) Prayers at the mosque is a confirmed act of obedience and among 
the best means of drawing near to Allah, Rather it is the greatest and most 

apparent of the rituals of Islam. 

Allah, Exalted be He, ordained that Muslims should gather at certain times. 
Among these times are times that take place during day and night (Le. 24 hours), 
namely, the Five (Obligatory) Prayers for which Muslims gather every day and 
night live times in order to perform them. Moreover, there is a time in every 
week, namely, the/umu "ah (Friday) Prayer, which is greater than the gathering 
for the Five (Obligatory) Prayers. Furthermore, there are two other times for 
gathering in the year, namely, the gatherings for the prayers of the '1'wo Feasts 
( L /ds), which are greater than that of the jumu"ah Prayer, as all Muslims of the 
town are to gather to perform them. In addition, there is a lime of gathering 
that takes place once a year, namely, the gathering for staying at h Arafah, which 
is greater than the gathering for the prayers of the Two Feasts {"Ids) in view of 
the fact that it is ordained for all Muslims all Over the world. 



190 HiPRAYLH. 

These great gatherings in Islam are ordained (by Allah) for the sake and 
benefit of Muslims. That is to let Muslims be more interconnected by means 
of kindness, benevolence and mutual consideration. Another reason is to 
let Muslims love and show tenderness toward each other. In addition, these 
gatherings are ordained to let Muslims know and be acquainted with the 
conditions of each other, sn they would visit the sick, follow the bier, and help 
the needy. It is also to show the power and interconnection among Muslims so 
that they can embitter their enemies, the polyt heists and hypocrites. Moreover, 
such gatherings are ordained to eliminate that which might take place among 
Muslims of hatred, severing of relationships and grudge caused by the devils 
from among mankind and the jinn. >Tence, Muslims shall live in an atmosphere 
ol affection and hearts will gather in righteousness and piety. That is why the 
Prophet (PBUH) said 

"Do not differ (while standing in prayer (i.e. straighten your rows); 
otherwise your hearts will differ," 

Among the virtues of the congregational prayer is that it teaches the 
ignorant, multiplies the reward and motivates toward doing righteous deeds. 
This happens when a Muslim person sees other Muslims practicing good 
deeds and as a result, he will follow them. This came in the hadith related by 
Al-Bukhari and Muslim in which the Prophet (PEJUH) said: 

"The prayer in congregation is twenty seven times superior to the 
prayer performed by a person alone.'" 

And in another narration as: 

". . . twenty five times. . ." 

The congregational prayer is obligatory upon men whether one is in 
residence or on a journey and whether in a state of safety or fear, as an individual 
duty . The proof of this came in the Ever-Glorious Book (the Quran), the 
Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) and the practices of Muslims through centuries. 
It is a thing that the Muslim nation used to practice one generation after 
another. And for this reason, mosques are maintained and imams (leaders in 
prayer) and prayer callers (muezzins) are appointed for them. Moreover, there 
was a special call ordained for it, namely, "Come to prayer! Come to success!" 
Concerning the state of fear, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 



Chaprer 19: Congregational Prayer jgi 

"And when you [i.e, the commander of an army] are among 
them and lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand [in 
prayer]..." (Quran: An-Nisa': 102) 

This noble verse indicates the obligation of the congregational prayer, as it 
is no: permissible for Muslims to leave it even in a state of fear. If it were not 
obligatory, then fear would be the tnos t worthy excuse (for abandoning it). In 
the state of febX* most of the obligatory practices of prayer are abandoned. So, 
if it were not confirmed as an obligatory act, these many practices of prayer 
would not be left out. In other words, many acts are excused and forgiven 
when performing prayer in the state of fear for the sake of establishing the 
congregational prayer. 

Al-Bukhari and Muslim related a hadith on the authority of Abu Hurayrah 
(may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (PBUH) said; 

"The most difficult prayer for the hypocrites is the Irajr and the 
'Isha' Prayers and if they knew the reward for these prayers (at 
their respective times), they would certainly present themselves (in 

the mosques) even if they had to crawl" 

(The Prophet added); 

"Certainly, I was about to order the prayer caller (muezzin) to 
pronounce the immediate prayer call (iqamah) and order a man to 

lead the prayer and then take a fire flame to burn all those who had 
not left their houses so far for the prayer, along with their houses!" 

The evidence, concerning the obligation of the congregational prayer, 
which is stated in the hadith, is based on two aspects. First, the Prophet (PBUH) 
described those who did not attend it .is hypocrites; however, the one who does 
not follow (any) Sitnnah (Prophetic Tradition) is not regarded as a hypocrite. 
Accordingly, this indicates that those who did not attend the congregational 
prayer had left an obligation. Second, the Prophet (PRTJH) wished to punish 
those who abandoned it. That is, punishment is to be established on the one 
who leaves an obligation. However, the Prophet (PBUH) did not establish that 
punishment, as there were women and children, who were not obligated to 
perform congregational prayer, in these houses. 

It is related in S.ahih Muslim (Muslim's Authentic Book of Hadith) that there 
came to the Prophet (PBUH) a blind man who said; 



192 II: PRAYER 

"O Messenger of Allah! f have no one to guide me to the mosque" 
He t therefore t asked the permission of Allah's Messenger (PBUH) 
to perform prayer in his house. He (the Prophet) granted him 
permission. Then when the man turned away, he called him and 
said, "Do you hear (he call to prayer (i.e. the udhtln)?" The man 
said, "Yes" He (the Prophet) said, "So, respond to it"* 

The Prophet commanded the man, despite what he would face of hardships, 
to come to the mosque to attend the congregational prayer and to respond to 

the prayer call. This stresses the obligation of the congregational prayer. 

For the believers at the early period of Islam, the obligation of the 
congregational prayer was a settled matter. Ihn Mas'ud (may A Hall be pleased 
with him J said: 

"1 have seen the time when no one among us (i.e. the Companions) 
stayed away from prayer except a hypocrite, whose hypocrisy was 
well known. And it could happen that a man walk between two 
persons (i.e. with the help of two persons with one on each side) 
until he standi; in the row (of prayer)." 

This indicates that there was a kind of resolution (i.e. unanimous 
agreement), concerning its obligation, among the Companions of the Mes- 
senger (PBUH), They derived their agreement from the acts and practices 
of the Prophet (PBUH). It is known that no one should be considered a 
hypocrite except the one who leaves something that is obligatory on every 
individual Muslim, 

Imam Ahmad and other compilers nf IJadith related, as inarfu " hadlth: 

"Sternness, all sternness, and disbelief and hypocrisy are in him who 
hears the caller to Allah (i.e. prayer caller) calling for prayer and 
calling for success but does not respond to him." 

In this regard, there is a hadith that affirms this in which the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"The Hand of Allah is with the (Muslim) community, so whoever 
deviates from it deviates to Helifire" v 

Ibn 'Abbas was asked ahoul <i man who stands for the night vigil 
supererogatory prayer and fasts the day, but does not attend the congregational 

prayer. Me said, "He will be in Hellfire" 



Chapter 19; Congregational Prayer jfrj 

We ask Allah to grant us safety and guidance toward the right path and 

enable us to follow it, for He is the Hearing, the Responsive, 

What is the ruling on the one who does not observe the congregational 

prayer? And how many persons should be present in order to make it (t,e„ the 
congregational prayer) acceptable? 

There a re two cases con ee r n j ng t h e one w h o d oes n ot observe congregation al 
prayer and performs prayer alone. As for the first case, it applies to the excused, 
whether because of an illness or fear, and who is not in the ViabU ofJeaving 
congregational prayer. Such a person is rewarded as similar to the one who 
performs prayer in congregation. This is stated in the iahtft (authentic) feadtth 
in which the Prophet (PrJUH) said: 

"When the servant (of Allah) falls ill or travels, then he will get 
reward similar to that he gets for good deeds practiced in residence 
when in good health." 

Hence, whoever is strictly resolved to perform his prayer in congregation, 
but is prevented from doing so owing to a legal excuse, is to be regarded 
as the one who performs it in congregation, and that is due to his good 
intention. As for the second case, it applies to the one who does not observe 
congregational prayer and who has not a legal excuse. If such a person 
performs his prayer alone, his prayer is viewed valid according to the 
majority of scholars; however, he loses a great and abundant reward. That 
is because the prayer in congregation is twenty seven times superior to the 
prayer performed by the person alone. Moreover, the person, who does not 
observe the congregational prayer, loses the reward given according to the 
number of steps he walks to the mosque, Furthermore, such a person does 
not only waste great reward, but he also commits a great sin. That is, he 
leaves an obligation with no excuse and commits a legally reprehensible act 
for which he should be reproved and punished by those in authority in order 
to guide him back to the right way. 

Every Muslim should know that the place in which prayer is to be 
performed is the mosque. That is to make the rituals of Islam manifest. The 
act of maintaining mosques was not ordained except for this particular reason, 
hi addition, performing prayer in places other than mosques is regarded as 
suspension of their unique role. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"(Such niches are] in houses (i.e. mosques] which Allah has ordered 



194 fl: PRAYER 

to be raised and that His Name be mentioned [i.e. praised } therein; 
exalting Him within them in the morning and the evenings, [Are] men 
whom neither commerce nor sale distracts from the remembrance 
of Allah and performance of prayer and giving ofZakah. They fear 
a Day in which the hearts and eyes will {fearfully} turn about." 

(Quran: An-Nur: 36-37) 

Allah, Exalted be He, also says: 

"The mosques of Allah are only to he maintained by those who 
believe in Allah and the Last Day and establish prayer., ? 

(Quran: At-Tawbah: IS) 

These two verses refer to mosques and those who maintain them, as 

the latter are promised the excellent reward, Moreover, these verses involve 
disapproval of those who do not attend prayer in mosques. It is related that the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"No (obligatory) prayer of the one who is a neighbor of a mosque is 
to be performed except in the mosque (i.e. one should not perform 
obligatory prayers but in the mosque)." 

A same h/tdith was related by ' Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) with an 
addition: 

"The neighbor of the mosque is the one who hears the caller to pmyer." * 
(Related by Al-Eayhaqi with an authentic chain of transmitters) 
Ihnul-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said; 

"He who looks deeply into the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) will 

realize that performing pmyer in the mosque is an obligation on every 
individual Muslim, except for an excuse permitting him to leave the 
congregational prayer In other words, abandoning the prayer in 
the mosque with no excuse is similar to the act of abandoning the 
congregational prayer with no excuse. All hadiths and traditions 
agree unanimously on this principle" 

Allah threatened those who stop the role of mosques and prevent prayer to 
be performed therein as He, Exalted be He, says: 

"And who are more unjust than those who prevent the Name of 
Allah from being mentioned [i.e. praised} in His mosques and 



Clliaprer I 1 ?: Congnrgarional Prayer 595 

strive toward their destruction. It is not for them to enter them 
except in fear. For them in this world is disgrace } and they will 
hare in the Hereafter a great punishment." 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 114) 

Sim i I rt rly s performing prayer outside mosques is regarded as a way of 
stopping their rote or reducing the numbers of Muslims performing their 
prayer in them. Hence, such an act is regarded a way of undermining the 
importance of prayer in individuals 5 sight*. Allah* Exalted be He, says: 

"[Such niches are} in houses [i.e. mosques} which Allah has 
ordered to he raised and that His Name be mentioned [i.e. 
praised} therein. .!" ( Qu r a n : A n - Nilr : 3 6) 

The word "raised" means raising mosques both tangibly and morally; for 
ail this is required. However, if necessity calls for performing the congregational 
prayer outside the mosque, there will he no harm in doing so. An example for 
thai are the people who are working in a certain place and that if they perform 
prayer in that place of work, it will be more beneficial for the work and be a 
way of committing workers to attend and establish the prayer. Such an act will 
not cause harm to the mosque because there are people around it, who would 
perform prayer in it. So there will be no harm in performing prayer at the 
place of their work for the sake oflhese reasons. 

The least number that should he present in order to perform a valid 
congregational prayer is two persons. That is, two persons are the least number 
that can form a congregation. Abu Miisa narrated, as a marfu" (traceable) 
hadith, that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"The congregational prayer is to he performed by two persons or 
what is more than that (number)" ' 

(Related by Ibn Mai ah) 

In addition, the^e "S a hadith stating that the Prophet {P HUH) said: 

"Who cart do an act of charity to this man (by performing prayer 
with him to let him get the reward for congregational prayer)?" 
A man stood and performed the prayer with him. Thereupon, 
the Prophet (PBUH) said, "That is a congregation." ' 

(Related by Ahmad and other compilers of Hadith) 



IW> IT: PRAYER 

Moreover, the Prophet (PEUH) said to Malik Ibnul-Huwayrith: 

"Lc?! the oldest of you lead the prayer."" 

Furthermore, unanimous agreement was reported in conformity with such 
an opinion. 

As for women, it is viewed permissible for them lo attend the congrega- 
tional prayer in mosques after taking the permission of their husbands. This 
is to be done on certain conditions; namely, women must not be perfumed 
nor should they show their adornment and they should perform prayer with a 
complete cover. Moreover, women are not to mingle with men and they must 
perform prayer while standing behind the rows of men. This permissibility 
comes from the fact that women used to attend congregational prayer in the 
lifetime of the Prophet (PBUH) ". Moreover, it is an act of the Sunnah (Pro- 
phetic Tradition) for women to attend assemblies of knowledge and preaching. 
while being separated from men. It is also viewed permissible for a woman 
to perform congregational prayer with other women, while being separated 
from men; whether their leader (in prayer) is a woman or a man. In support of 
this view, the Prophet (PBUH) ordered Uttim Waraqah to have a prayer caller 
(muezzin) and to lead the people of her home in prayer. This hadith is re- 
lated by Ahmad and the Compilers of Sunou '; and this act was done by other 
women Companions of the Prophet (PBUH)"\ Another reason refers to the 
generalization stated in the hadith of the Prophet (PBUH) in which he says: 

"The prayer in congregation h twenty seven times superior to the 
prayer performed by person alone." 

It is preferable for the Muslim to perform prayer in the mosque, in which 
congregational prayer is not to be established except by his presence. That is, the 
Muslim will get the reward of maintaining the mosque. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"The mosques of Allah are only to be maintained by those who 
believe in Allah and the Last Day*' ( Q u r 'an : At -Tawbah ; 1 8 ) 

The next in preference is to perform prayer in a mosque that has a large 
congregation, as it involves more reward. The prophet (PBUH) said: 

"A mans prayer performed along with another is better (in reward) 
than his prayer when performed alone, mid his prayer with two 
men is better than his prayer with one, and whatever (number) is 
more than this will he more pleasing to Allah, Exalted be He." 1 * 

(Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud and deemed snhih (authentic) 

by IbnHibbau) 



Chapter I l J: Con^rcE^irkmLil Prayer ]A7 

It indicates ihyl ihe larger congregation is better, as mercy and tranquility 
descend upon the congregation. In addition to this, a large congregation 
involves comprehensive supplication as. well as the hope for a response, 
especially if there arc scholars and righteous people among the congregation. 
Allah, Hxalted be He, says: 

"Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah 
loves those who purify themselves." (Quran: At-Tawbah: 108) 

This verse indicates thai it is desirable to perform prayer with the righteous 
congregation, who keep their purity and perform ablution perfectly, 

Then, it is more preferable to perform prayer at old mosques, as they are 
the first mosques where acts and practices of worship and obedience were 
performed, before the newly established ones. What is more preferable lo that 
is performing prayer at distant mosques, rather than the near ones. That is 
because the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"The people who get the best reward for 1 he prayer are those who 
are farthest away (from the mosque) and then those who are next 
farthest and so on." 

He (PBUH) also said: 

"The prayer performed in congregation is twenty five times more 
superior (in reward) to the prayer of fere d alone in ones house or in 
a business center; for if the one of you performs ablution and does 
it perfectly, and then proceeds to (he mosque with the sole intention 
of performing prayer, then for each step which he takes toward the 
mosque, Allah lifts him up a degree in reward and crosses out (i.e. 
forgives) one sin until he enters the mosque"" 

Further, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"O Banu Salamah! Keep living in your houses, for your steps (to the 

mosque) are recorded""". 

Some scholars are of the view that to perform prayer in the nearer nf Iwn 
mosques is worthier, as the near mosque has a right of neighborhood, so the 
Muslim is more entitled to perform his prayer in it. In support of this view, it 
is reported that the Prophet (PBUH) said; 

"jVo (obligatory) prayer of the one who is a neighbor of the mosque 
is to be performed except in the mosque (i.e. one should not perform 
obligatory prayers but in the mosque)." 



1% II: PRAYER 

Skipping the near mosque in order to perform prayer in a distant one 
may cause a kind of perplexity among the people living near the mosque. 
This opinion may be the more acceptable one, as skipping the near mosque 
will be regarded as an excuse for deserting it, and this will cause a kind of 
embarrassment and mistrust with regard to the imam (leader in prayer) of the 
near mosque. 

Rulings on Congregational Prayer 

Tt is. seen as prohibited that the congregation be led (in prayer) by someone 
else other than the assigned imam of the mosque (i.e. the one who leads 

people regularly in prayer in this mosque), unless there is an excuse or by his 
permission. Tt is stated in $ahih Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book of Hadith) 
and other books of Hadith that the Prophet (PKUH) said: 

"No man should lead another in prayer in a place where he (the 
latter) has authority without his (the tatter's) permission!"* 

Arl-Nawawi commented on this hadith saying: 

"The owner of the house and the assembly* and the imam are worthy 
than others. When doing the opposite, it will be a kind of Wronging 
the assigned imam of the mosque and causing Muslims to keep away 
from him. Moreover, such act could cause division among Muslims." 

Some schoJars are of the view that if the congregation in the mosque is led 
by someone else other than its assigned imam and without his permission or 
any legal excuse, the prayer of the congregation will not be valid (acceptable). 
This refers to the seriousness of this issue, so it should be dealt with seriously. 
Therefore, Muslims should consider the right of their imam and not to encroach 
upon it. Likewise, the imam of the mosque should respect and consider the 
rights of those led (in prayer) and not to cause embarrassment to them. Hence, 
all of them (the leader in prayer and the people led) should consider the others 1 
right so that affection and intimacy may be realized. So when the imam is late 
and it is the time for prayer, Muslims are to perform their prayer, as done by 
Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and 'Abdur- Rahman Ibn h Awf (may Allah be pleased 
with them both) when the Prophet (PBUH) went to establish peace among 
Banu ' Amr Ibn ' Awf and he was delayed. Thereupon, Abu Bakr (may AUah be 
pleased with him) led the prayer"'. Likewise, * Abdur-Rabman Ibn 'Awf led the 
people in prayer when the Prophet (PBUH) was late in another incident and 
the Prophet (PBUH) performed the last rak'ah (unit of prayer) behind him*'. 
When the Prophet (PBUH) finished prayer, he said, "You have done well." 



Chapter 19: Congrcgiational Fiaycr 199 

Among the rulings concerning the congregational prayer is that it is an act 
of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) for the one who has already performed 
prayer and then the immediate prayer call {iqdmah) is pronounced while he is 
ill the mosque, to perform that prayer along with the congregation, Abu Dharr 
narrated a hadith on the Prophet (PBUH) stating: 

"Perform prayer at its prescribed time, but if the immediate prayer 
call is pronounced while you are in the mosque, then pray, and do 
not say 'I have performed prayer and so I shall not pray' J> 

(Related by Imam Muslim) 

In this case, the prayer such a person performs in the congregation will be 
considered a supererogatory prayer. This is stated in the hadith of the Prophet 
(PBUH) addressed to two men, in which he commanded them to perform 
prayer again and he said to the mi 

" .At will be considered a supererogatory prayer for you? 

This is ordained lest people should think that the one who is not performing 
prayer in congregation is not among those who establish prayer. 

There is also another ruling on the congregational prayer, namely if the 
immediate prayer call (iqamah) is established, it will not be permissible for 
anyone to start performing a supererogatory prayer; either the confirmed ones 
(supererogatory practices) or the Mosque Greeting Prayer (which is performed 
on entering the mosque). That is because the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When the prayer commences, then there is no (valid) prayer but 
the obligatory prayer (i.e. one should not perform a supererogatory 
prayer when the obligatory prayer starts)." 

(Related by Imam Muslim) 

It is stated in another narration related by Imam Ahmad as: 

"...No prayer (is to be performed) but that which has begun.'' 

Consequently, any supererogatory prayer, in which the opening (akbir 
(saying, "Alhhu-Akba^' Le. "Allah is the Greatest") has just been pronounced, is 
not to be valid as long as the immediate prayer call {iqamah) for the obligatory 
prayer, that one aims to perform along with the imam, has been pronounced 

just before. 

Imam An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"The reason behind this is to let the Muslim be devoted to the 



2M IT: PRAYER 

ohiiga to ry prayer from its begitm trig. Th at is, to s tart it im mediately 
after the imam (leader in prayer). Moreover, to observe the 
perfection of the obligatory prayer is worthier than getting busy 
with a supererogatory prayer. Another reason is that the Prophet 
(PBUH) forbade disagreeing with imams' . Furthermore, the 
stated virtue of the opening takbsr (in prayer) b not to be gained 
except when said immediately after the imam."" 

However, if the immediate prayer cull (iqamah) is pronounced while the 
person is performing a supererogatory prayer, in which he has already pro- 
nounced the opening takbsr, he may complete it making it light and not to cut 
it short unless he is afraid of missing the congregational prayer. Allah, Exalted 
be He, said, "...And do not invalidate your deeds." (Quran: Muhammad: 33) 
Accordingly, if one is afraid of missing the congregational prayer, one is to cut 
short the supererogatory prayer, iis ihe obligatory act is more important. 

Endnotes 

! Abu DAvi/ud ((564) [1/306], An-Nasa 1 ! (810) [1/425] and fbr Majah (976) f 1/5 18]. 

2 Al-Bukhan (645) [2/171 ] and Muslim ( 1475) [3/ 1 54], 

3 Al-Bukhari (647} [2/17 1 j and Muslim ( 1474) (3/1 54] . 

4 Individual duty: A religious duty whose obligation extends to every Muslim. 

5 AI-BukMri (657) [2/184] and Muslim (1480) [3/1561. 

6 Muslim (1484) [3/157]. 

7 Muslim (1486) [3/158]. 

8 Ahmad (15564) [3/439]. A 1- Ha ytriami graded il asauiheniichaditti in his book 'Majina ' 
Az-Zawaid" [Itie Compilation af Additional Hadiths) [2/41-42] and. Al-Mundhlrf in 
his book 'At-Targhlb wit-Tarhtb' [1/2731 

9 Al-Tirmidhi (21721 [4/4661 and An-NnsiVi (4032) [4/106]. 
10AI-Bukhari(2996j. 

11 Ad-Daiaqutni (1538) |l/39y|, Al-Bayhaqi (4945) |3/«l] and Al-Hakim. A similar 
hiulith was related by Ad-Daraqutni (1537) [1/399], 

12 Al-Bayhaqt(4943) |3/8I]. 

13 Ibn Majah (972) [1/517]. 

14 Ahmad [1 1394) [3/57], Abu Dawud (574) [1/274] and At-Tirmidhi (220) [1/427], 

15 Al-Bukbart{63(]) [2/14fi| and Muslim (1533) 12/179], 

16 Al-Uukliari (867) 1 2/450] and Muslim (1457) (3/1461, 

17 Ahmad (27273) [6/4531 and Abu Dawud (592) [1/282]. 

IS This was reported about 'Aishah. and Umm Salamah as it was related by Ihn Abu 
Shaybah in his book At-Mustumnf (4932, 4954) [1/430], Ad-Daraqutnt (1492, [493) 
[1/338], ^Abdur-Razzaq(5086) [3/1411 and Al-Bayhaqt (5355) [3/187;. 

19 Ahmad (2I25K) [S/lfi4|, Abu Da wild (554) | 1/267] and [bn tiibb&n in his book As- 
Stihik (2056) |5/405|, 



Chancer 19; CongrL-garional Pr^j-er jn. 

20A1-Bufchiri(651) [2/17S] and Muslim (1511) [3/170]. 

21 Al-Uukhdri {477) j 1/730] and Muslim (1504) [3/168]. 

22 Banii Salamli wanted to move their houses near the mnsque so Lhe Prophet (PBUH) 
said this k&dlth. 

23 Muslim (1518) [3/172), 

24 Muslim (1530) {2/177]. 

25 Ai-BufchAr! (684) [2/23 7] and Muslim (948) [2/365]. 

26 Muslim (951) [2/367], 

27 Muslim (1467) |3/151]. 

2U Aba D&wud (575) {1/274], At-Tirmidhi (219) [1/424] and An-Nasa'j (857) [1/447). 

29 Muslim (1642) [3/228], 

30 Ahmad (3597) [2/464]. 

31 As the hadiths related irt Al-Bukhart (722) [2/270) and Muslim (929) [2/354]. 

32 See: l Al-Majmu ' ' 14/103] and 'SharhSahih Muslim' [3/228], 



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The Latecomer to 
Congregational Prayer 



The sounder of the two views of scholars regarding the one coming late 
for congregational prayer is that he is not to be regarded as having caught up 
with the prayer unless he prays at least one rak'ah (unit of prayer) thereof. 
So, if one catches less than one rttk'ah in congregation, one is not regarded 
as having attended the congregation, but one is allowed to follow the imam 
from the time one has entered the prayer and one will get the reward for the 
congregational prayer according to ones intention. Likewise, if one intends 
to perform prayer in congregation but finds that the people have finished the 
prayer, then one will gel a reward like that of those who have performed prayer 
in congregation, according to ones intention. This view agrees with the faadUhs 
stating that if somebody intends to do a good deed and he cannot do it, then it 
will be recorded for him as a reward like that of the one who does it'. 

According to the soundest view of scholars, the rak l ah is counted only 
when one catches up with the prayer during the bowing (position). This is 



204 II: PRAYER 

according to the hadith in which I he Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If anyone catches up (the people in prayer when they are) bowing, 
he already has got therak ah" 

(Related by Abu Dawud) 

This is also stated in a hadith in $ahih Muslim (Muslim's Authentic Book 
of Hadith) narrated on the authority of Abu Bakr who readied the Prophet 
(PBUH) in the mosque while he {the Prophet) was bowing in prayer and he 
too bowed before joining the row. The Prophet (PBUH) did not order him 
to perform the rak'ah again" which proves that it is sufficient for one if one 
catches up with the prayer when the congregants are bowing. 

If a latecomer to congregational prayer reaches the prayer while the imam 
is in the bowing position, he must pronounce the opening takb'tr (in prayer) 
while standing, then he should bow with the utuim preferably after a second 
takbir (saying, "Allahu-Akbar" i.e. "Allah is the Greatest"). If the latecomer 
pronounces the opening takbir, it will take the place of the takbir for bowing- 
This is because the opening takbir must be pronounced while standing erect, 
while it is better to pronounce the takbir for bowing after pronouncing the 
opening takbir. 

Tf the latecomer to congregational prayer gets the imjtm in any position 
(in prayer), he should follow him. This is stated in the hadith narrated by Abu 
Hnrayrah and others in which the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If you come to prayer while we are prostrating, prostrate yourselves 
along with us, but do not consider it a rak "ah (unit of prayer).'" 

When the imam pronounces the second taslim (the final Salams m prayer), 
the latecomer is to stand erect to perform whatever he has missed, yet he is not 
to stand before the second taslim pronounced by the imam. 

According to the soundest view of scholars, the beginning of the prayer of 
the latecomer to t be congregational prayer is the pari he catches up with the 
imam, and what he performs after the taslim (of the imam) is the last part of it. 
This view is according to the hadith related by the majority of the compilers, 
in which the Prophet (PBUH) said; 

"...And. complete whatever you have missed" 

It is known that completing a thing never happens unless it has a heady 
begun. The other narration of the h/idtth in which the Prophet (PBUH) said, 
K .,,And make up for whatever you have missed"' does not contradict the 



Chapter 20: The Latecomer ro Congregational Prayer 205 

narration stating "...And complete whatever you have missed." This is because 
making up for (whatever one misses in prayer) means performing it, according 
to the Quranic verse in which Atlah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And when the prayer has been concluded*,." 

(Quran: Al-jumu ah: 10) 

Arid His statement: 

"And when you have completed your rites,*" 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 200) 

Thereupon the Prophets statement ".-..And make up for whatever you have 
missed" can be paraphrased as performing and completing (the prayer); and 
Allah knows best. 

If the prayer is publicly- recited, the one led in prayer must listen to the 
recitation of the imam and it is not permissible for him Eo recite during the 
recitation of the imam, either the Sura of At-Ftitih,ah or any other sura. This is 
because Allah , Exalted be He, says: 

"So when the Quran is recited, then listen to it and pay attention 
that you may receive mercy." ( Qu r'a n : A I - A " r«lf: 204 ) 

Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him) said, ''Scholars unanimously 
agree that the recitation mentioned in this verse is thai recited during prayer." 
If recitation was obligatory on the part of the one led in prayer he would 
not have been ordered (by the Lawgiver) to abandon such an obligation to 
observe a supererogatory act, namely listening to the recitation of the imam. 

Besides, if the one led in prayer concerns himself with reciting, then the 
loud recitation nf the imam will be useless. 

Since saying 'Am in (Amen}' after the recital ion of the imam takes the place of 
the recitation, Allah, Exalted be He, said to Musa (Moses) and Ha run (Aaron); 

".. Your supplication has been answered.." 

(Quran: Yunus: 89) 

This was said while Musa was the one who invoked Allah saying; 

"...OurLora\ indeed You have given Pharaoh and his establishment 
splendor and wealth in the worldly life. . ," 

{Quran: Yunus; 88) 



206 11: 1'KAYKR 

Harun, on his side, said 'Amin which takes the place of the invocation. So, 
Allah, Exalted be He, addresses both saying, l \ t .Your supplication has been 
answered." (Quran: Yuri us: &9) This proves that the one who says 'Amin after 

an invocation is like that who says the invocation. 

On the other hand, it the prayer is secretly- recited or the one led in prayer 
does not hear the imam, then he is to rtcile Al-Fiitihah (the Opening Chapter 
of the Quran). In this way, all the legal proofs (related to that) accord with 
each other, i.c, the one led in prayer must recite Al-Fatihah in the secretly- 
recited prayer but he is not to recite it in the publicly-recited prayer; and 
Allah knows best. 

One of the important rulings on the congregational prayer is that it is 
obligatory on the one led in prayer to follow the imam completely and that 
it is prohibited for him to precede the imam. This is because Hie one led 
in prayer must follow the imam, and the follower is not to precede the one 
followed. In this regard, Al-RukhaYi and Muslim related that the Prophet 
(PBUH)saM: 

"Is he who raises his head before the imam not afraid that Allah 
may transform his head into that of a donkey or his figure (face) 
into thai of a donkey?"' 

So the one who precedes the imam (in prayer) is like the donkey which 
does not understand the wisdom behind whatever it does. If one precedes the 
imam, one then deserves to be punished. In a sahih (authentic) hadith, the 
Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"The imam is appointed to be followed; so do not bow until he hows 
and do not prostrate until he prostrates." 

Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud relate that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"The imam is appointed to be followed; so when he bows, you should 
also bow, and do not bow until he bows. Also, when he prostrates, 

you should also prostrate and do not prostrate until he prostrates" 

The Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) used not to bow their backs to 
prostrate until the Prophet (PBU H ) prostrated, then they would do the same . 
When Umar Ibnul-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) saw a man 

preceding the imam in prayer, he beat him saying: 



Chapter 2C: 'J he Latecomer to Congressional Prayer 207 

Tow neither performed the prayer alone nor did you follow your imam'." 

Some people do not give due attention to this matter; they precede the 
im&m (in prayer), thus they join those warned with the severe (Divine) pun- 
ishment. Besides, this might cnuse the invalidity of their prayer. Imam Muslim 
relates that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Do not precede me in bowing and prostration and ending of 

j) ■ i 
prays r 

Shaykhttl' Islam Ibn Taymiyah says: 

"Scholars unanimously agree that it is prohibited to precede the imam 

(in prayer). In addition, it is not permissible for the worshipper to 
bow before his imam or to raise one's head (after bowing) before he 
raises his head, or to prostrate before he prostrates. There are many 
well-known hndtths in which the Prophet (PBUH) forbade doing 
such an act" ' 

Preceding the imam in prayer is a kind of deception done by Satan to 
the ones performing payer, so that they might perform it improperly. What 
would the person who precedes the imam get?! He will not end his prayer 
until the imam pronounces taslim (the final Salami in prayer). Therefore, 
Muslims should pay attention to this and should adhere to the rulings on fol- 
lowing the imam. 

We invoke Allah to make all of us comprehend our religion and to have 
insight into its rulings, for He is the Hearing and the Responsive, This is be- 
cause if Allah wants to do good to somebody, He bestows on him the gift of 

understanding the religion (i.e. islam}. 



Endnotes 

1 There are a Sot ofhadiths concerning this topic as related by Abu Dswud (564) [ 1/571) 
and An-JMasai (854) [ 1/446] . 

2 Al-Bukha t-H7a3)| 2/7H3] - 
3AbfJDawtid(393)[l/3S7]. 

4 Al-flukhari (636) [1/1531 and Muslim (1358) [2/100]. 
5Afl-Nas4]{S60)[l/449]. 

6 The Lawgiver of Shar t ah (Islamic Law) is Allah, Exalted be He; the term can also refer 
to the Prophet (PBUH) as he never ordained but what was revealed to him by Allah. 



208 [1: PRAYER 

7 Al-BukhArt (691 \ [21216] and Muslim (962) [2/371], 

8 Muslim (929) [2/354], 

9 Ahmad (7 J 44) [2/229], Abu L>awud (603) (1/2361 in the same wording but Al-Bukh^rt 
(638) and Muslim (412) related it in a different wording, 

10 Al-Bukhari (690) [2/2341 and Muslim (1062} [2/413]. 

11 Muslim (960) [2/370]. 

12 Ste; 'Majnift'ul-Fatawa (23/336). 




CHAPTER 





Women's Attendance 
in Mosques 



Our religion is a perfect one that comprehensively covers our welfare 
and interests in this world and in the Hereafter, Islam came with good to ail 
Muslims, whether male or female as Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Whoever does righteousness, whether male or female, while he 
is a believer - We will surely cause him tv live a good life, and We 
■will surety give them their reward [in the Hereafter} according to 
the best of what they used to do" { Q ur an : A n -Nah 1 : 97) 

Islam takes an interest in women, conferring honor and respect upon 
them as long as they abide by ils rulinys and adorn themselves with its virtues. 
One of the things by which Islam honors woman is allowing her to attend 
the mosques to witness the congregational prayers and the assemblies for 
remembering Allah in order to win reward. However, at the same time the 
woman must do this with due decency and precautions that keep her away 
from any satank seduction and preserve her dignity as welL 



2ifl II: PRAYER 

It is detestable to prevent women from going to the mosque if they ask 
permission. The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Do not prevent the female servants of Allah (women) from (going 
to) the mosques of Allah, but they should go while they are not 
perfumed" 

(Related by Ahmad and Abu DSwud) 

This is because performing the prescribed prayers in congregation has a 
great reward for both men and women; moreover, walking to the mosque has 
a great reward 

It is authenticated in the Two Sfl/j&s" and other books of Hadith that the 

Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If your women ask permission to go to the mosque at night, allow 
them:'' 

The wisdom behind asking their husbands' permission is that it is among 
the rights of men upon their women (wives) to stay at home. Thus, going to 
the mosque, in this case, is only permissible, and they are not to abandon 
what is obligatory for the sake of what is permissible. When the husband gives 
permission to his wife to go to the mosque, he then gives up his right (upon 
his wife to stay at home). 

The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

" . . Yet their houses (women's) are better for them (to perform prayer 
therein):' 

The Prophet (PBUH) means that it is better for women to perform prayer in 
their houses to avoid any s titanic temptation. The Prophet (PBUH) also said: 

" ..But they should go while they are not perfumed" 

This means that women are allowed to go to the mosque (to perform prayer) 
on the condition that they should not be perfumed, lest ihey might tempt men 
with their perfume, thus diverting mens eyes to them. The intended meaning 
here is that perfume is something that tempts men towards women. Joined 
Co perfume (in prohibition) is what resembles it (with regard to temptation) 
like wearing attractive clothes, jewels and adornments. Thereupon, if a woman 
perfumes herself ur puis on attractive clothes, then she is prohibited to go to 
the mosque and must be forbidden from going out other home. It is stated in 



Chapter 2i: Women's Attendance in Mosaics 2tl 

Sahjh Muslim (Muslim's Authentic Book ofHadith) and other books aiHadkh 
that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Whoever woman perfumes herself should not Join us in the Isha 
(Night) Prayer^ 

Besides, if a woman went out to the mosque (for prayer) t she should keep 
away from crowded gatherings of men, Imam Ihmil-Qayyim (may Allah have 
mercy on him) said: 

"Those in authority must forbid mingling between met: and women 
in marketplaces and gatherings of men. The responsibility for this is 
upon those in authority, since mingling between men and women 
brings about a great affliction. This is according to thehadith in which 
tht Prophet (PBUH) said, ['After me, I have not left any affliction 
more harmful to men than women" ' 

Ibmil-Qayyim added: 

"Thus, those in authority must forbid women from going out adorned 
and beautified (in a seducing way). They must aha forbid those 
women who are dressed but appear to be uaked, such as in transparent 
clothes. Those in authority must also forbid women from talking to 
men in streets and forbid men as well from doing the same"' 

When a woman adheres to the high moral standards of Islam, such as 
bashfulness, covering herself, keep i tig away from attractive adornment and 
perfume {when going out) and keeping away from mingling with men, it 
becomes permissible for her then to go to the mosque for prayer and attend 
gatherings for the remembrance of Allah. However, it is better for her to stay 
at home, because the Prophet {PBUH) said: 

"... Yet their houses are better for them (to perform prayer therein)." 

Moreover, scholars unanimously agree thai it is better for women to perform 
prayer in their houses than in the mosque, to keep away from any satanic 
seduction, and for purposes of safety and for uprooting any source of evil. 

If a woman does not adhere to the high moral standards of Islam and does 
not avoid whatever the Messenger (PBUH) forbids of adornment and perfume 
when going out, then it is prohibited for her to go to the mosque, and she must 
be prevented from going out by her guardian or those in authority, It is stated 
in the Two &.ahjhj on the authority of ' A'ishah {may Allah be pleased with her) 
that she said: 



212 Tl: PRAVER 

"Had Allah's Messenger (PBUH) witnessed what the women were 
doing, he wouid have forbidden then: from going to the mosqtte as 
the women of the Children of Israel had been forbidden"* 

When a woman goes to the mosque, both the benefit gained behind this 
(for her and for the whole community) and the avoiding of any cause of evil 
are to be taken into account (by the Lawgiver). If the cause of evil is greater 
than the benefit gained, a woman, in this case, must be prevented from going 
to the mosque. 

If a woman is asked to observe these high moral standards when going out 
to the mosque, then it is more worthy for her to be cautious and to keep away 
from any cause of temptation when going anywhere other than the mosque. 
Nowadays, there are some people calling for the participation of the woman in 
jobs, as in the West and those imitating the moraJs of the West. Those people 
are in fact caJling for the spread of seductions, leading the woman to her 
misery and are depriving her of her dignity. Those people should be stopped 
and there should be an end to the views of the Pre -Islamic Period of Ignorance 
(the J&kiliyytih) they spread through their tongues or pens. It is sufficient as a 
proof for us the women in the West and those who model on them. They have 
gone Through a lot of calamities and they have painful lives from which their 
societies are suffering. Let them be an example for us, for the fortunate person 
is the one who takes a lesson from the fate of others. 

The only pretext those people offer for their view is that half of the society 
(women) would be idle (if prevented from work). They offer this pretext so 
that the woman could be on an equal foot with man in work, forgetting or 
pretending to forget that the woman is already doing a great job in her home. 

She is doing a great job for her society and only she could doit, since it is suitable 
for her nature and is in conformity with her natural disposition. She is the 
wife with whom the husband finds tranquility. She is the mother, the one who 
bears, breastfeeds, raises children and the one who performs domestic tasks. 
If she is to lea^e her home to share man his work, then who else will perform 
those tasks? Those tasks would not be performed at all, and the society would 
lose its other half; so what would the first half (i.e. men) do? Thereupon, the 
society's edifice would fall down and its pillars would collapse. 

We advise those people to come to their senses, and not to be of those 
who have exchanged the favor of Allah for disbelief and settled their people in 
the home of ruin. We also advise them to be of those advocating constructive 
views not destructive ones. 



Chapter 21: Women's Attendance in Mosques 213 

O Muslim woman! Adhere to the teachings of your religion. Do not iet 
yourself be deluded by the views advocated by the misleading people, who 
■want to deprive you of the dignity granted to you by Islam, and nothing other 
than Islam can grant you this, Almighty Allah says: 

"An d whoever desires other than Islam as religion - never will it 
be accepted from him and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the 
losersr (Quran: Alti * Imran: 85) 

May Allah grant fill of us guidance to whatever is good and useful in this 
world and in fhe Hereafter! 

Endnotes 

1 Ahmad (9615) [2/577J and Abu DawOd (565) [1/271]. 

2 The Two Sahiht: The Two Authentic Books of Al-Uiikhari and Muslim. 

3 Al-Sukhlri (865) 12/448] and Muslim (990) 1 2/383). 

4 Ahmad (5470) [2/1031 and Abu DJiwud (567) [1/271 1. 

5 Muslim (997) [2/383], 

6 Al-Bukhiri (50%) [9/ [72] and Muslim (6880) [9/57]. 

7 Seft 'M-luntqul-Rfiklttifih' [p.325] 

8 Al-Buktari (869) [2/451] and Muslim (998) [2/385]- 















'>.•'-.'**'*•*• *.*'•*• A: •*.:* "•'/ 




CHAPTER 




Imamate (in Prayer) 



Imamate (in prayer) is an. important religious position undertaken by the 
Messenger (PBUH) himself and the Rightly- Guided Caliphs after him. Many 
hadiths mention the favor of the imamate, such as the hadtth in which the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Three persons will be on the hillock of musk on the Day of Resur- 
rection: (i) the person who leads the. people in prayer and they are 

well-pleased with him..." 

In another J&dith, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"The reward of him (the imam in prayer) is like that of those who 
perform prayer behind him." 

That is why one of the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all) 
said to the Prophet (PBUH) "Appoint me to kad my people in prayer." 1 They 
have been aware of the reward and merit of the imamate. 

Yet, unfortunately, we witness nowadays many of knowledge-seeking 
students turning away and abstaining from the imamate, giving it up because 



216 if: PRAYER 

of nothing but laziness and the weak wish of obtaining goodness. However, 
it is Satan only who denies them the will to undertake imam ate. Knowledge - 
seeking students instead, should undertake imamate earnestly and vigorously 
and should seek the reward of this deed only from Allah. This is because they 
are more, entitled lu undertake il and undertake other good tasks, The more 
one enjoys die qualifications of the imamate, the more it becomes worthy of 
him to undertake it than any other person who is inferior to him with regard 
to these qualifications. Rather, the qualified person ought to undertake it if 
there is no other person but him worthy of it. 

The most worthy to lead people in prayer is the one who is most versed in 
the Rook of Allah (i.e. the Quran). The imam should be aware of the places 
of articulation of letters, make- no grammatical mistakes and apply the rules 
of recitation (of the Quran) without artificiality or stagy eloquence, besides, 
the imam should have Islamic juristic knowledge of prayer; its requirements, 
integral parts* obligations and what nullifies il in consideration of the hadith 
in which the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"The one who is most versed m the Book of Allah (the Quran) 
should had people in prayer" 

There arc also many other authentic htidiths reporting that the most worthy 
person of leading people in prayer is the most versed in the Glorious Quran, 
and who, at the same time, has juristic knowledge, of prayer. This is because the 
most versed one at the time of the Prophet (PBUH) used to be the one having 

the greatest religious knowledge. 

Tf people are equally versed in their knowledge of the Quran, the one with 
the greatest religious knowledge should lead the people, since he combines two 
merits: the good recitation (of the Quran) and the Islamic juristic knowledge. 

This is because the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If people are equal iti recitation (of the Quran), then the one with 
the greatest knowledge in the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) should 
lead them in prayer" 

This hadith points to the one having the greatest religious knowledge. This 
is because the need of those ltd in prayer for juristic knowledge (of prayer) 
is more than their need for the rules of recitation. That is because what is 
obligatory in prayer is limited as far as recitation is concerned, while there are 
many unlimited situations that may take place generally in prayer. 



Chfiprcr 22: Imamacc (in Prayer) 217 

]f people arc equally versed in juristic knowledge and recitation, rhe earliest 
one in Hegira should lead people in prayer. Hegira here means moving from a 

place of polytheism to a Muslim one. 

Jf people are equally versed in recitation, juristic knowledge and 
Hegira, the oldest one should lead the people in prayer, in consideration 

of a hadtth related hy Al-BukrulH and Muslim in which the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"Let the oldest one amongst you lead the prayer" 

This is because being old while being a Muslim is a merit; also because old 
age makes one closer to submissiveness in prayer and makes one's invocation 
more worthy of being accepted. 

What proves this sequence of those who should lead people in prayer is the 
hadith related by Muslim on the authoniy of Abu MaVud Al-Badri, in which 
the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"The arte who is most versed in Allah's Book (the Qur'cln) should act 
as the imam for the people, but if they are equally versed its reciting is, 
(hen the one who has most knowledge regarding the Sssnnah (is to lead 
(he prayer), ij they are equal regarding the Sunnah, then the earliest 
one to immigrate (to Medina) (is (o lead the prayer). If they are equal 
regarding immigration, then the oldest one (is to lead the prayer)" 

Shaykhul-Islam Ibti Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) says: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) gives preference in leading people in prayer to 
those having the greatest knowledge of the Quran and (he Sunnah. If 
people arc equal in this knowledge, preference should be given to those 
who outstrip the others in doing good deeds. The one who surpasses 
others in doing good deeds willingly (like the migrant) is given snore 
preference over one who is distinguished in doing good deeds because 
of natural reasons decreed by Allah; namely old age."' 

Yet, there are some considerations that are to be put into account and are 
given preference over people attending prayer as far as imamate is concerned, 
even if those people are better. These considerations are: 

Firstly, the assigned im&m (i.e. the one who leads peopJe regularly in 
prayer): If he is qualified for imamate, it is not permissible to lei another 
person lead the people in prayer, even if this person is better, except with the 

imam's permission. 



218 U: PRAYER 

Secondly, the householder: If he is qualified for imamate (in the prayer 
performed at his house), and it is not permissible to let another person be ihe 
imam except with his permission. 

Thirdly, the sultan (the ruler; the greatest person in authority) or his 
represent ative: It is impermissible to let another person lead people in prayer 
except with his permission; this is in case the ruler is qualified for leading 
people in prayer. 

What proves the preference of these people over others is xh.eh.adUh related 
by Abu Dawud in which the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"Wo man should lead another in prayer where (the latter) is in his 
house, or when he has authority, without his permission'" 

There is also a hadith in Stthjh Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book of Hadith) 
in which the Prophet {PBUH) says: 

"No man should lead another in prayer where (the latter) is in his 
house, or has authority, without his permission."' 

One's authority here means the place where one has the authority thereof 
or in ones estate. 

Al-Khaitfbi says: 

"This faadUh means that the householder is worthier to lead the 
prayer in h is ho use if he h as (he jurist ic kn owledge and the kn owledge 
of recitation (of the Quran) that qualify him to establish prayer 
properly." 

Tf the imam of the mosque is appointed by the ruler or his representative. 
Or the people (attending prayer) agree upon letting him be the imam, then he 
is the worthiest person for leading the prayer, since this is considered a special 
authority. Moreover, if another person precedes him in leading people in prayer, 
people may think ill of that latter person or have an aversion towards him. 

It is obvious from what has been demonstrated previously that the honor* 
the merit, and the position of imam ate in Islam are high. This is because the 
imam of prayer is an example to be followed. The imamate is an honorable 
degree, since it is a kind of distinction to do righteous deeds and it helps 
obeying Allah and adhering to the Muslim community. Through the imamate, 
the mosques of Allah are maintained with acts of obedience. The merit of 
imamate is also included in the general meaning stated in the verse, about the 
invocation of the servants of the Most Merciful, and in which Allah, Exalted 
be He, Says: 



Chapter 22: Irva.imaic (in I'j'iyer) 5,4, 

"And those who say> 'Our Lord t grant us from among our wives 
and offspring comfort to our eyes and make us a leader [i.e. 
example] for the righteous! " (Qur'an: Al-Furqan: 74) 

The imamate in prayer comes from the imamate in religious affairs, 
particularly in case the imam preaches, advises, and reminds people in me 
mosque of Allah. He is thus among those inviting people to Allah, as well as those 
who say and do what is good and righteous, Allah says about those people: 

"And who is better in speech than one who invites to Allah attd 
does righteousness and says, 'Indeed, I am of the Muslims! " 

(Qur'an: Fussilat: 33) 

Thus, only the deprived persons (of the merits of imamate and its reward) 
are the ones who are averse to undertake it; and there is neither Might nor 
Power except with Allah. 

Endnotes 

1 Ahniad (4800) [2/36] and At-Tirmidhi (1991) j 4/3551. 

Z Ahmad (16250) [4/29]; Abu Dawud(53l) [1/259 J and An-Nasai (671) [1/351]. 

3 Al-Bukhari related it as a commentary in the book of 'Adhari and Muslim (673). 

4 Ai-Bukhart (628) [2/145] and Muslim (1533) (3/179]. 

5 See: 'MajmiVul-Fatawa (19/26), 
6AbflDawfld(582)[l/277]. 

7 Muslim (1532) [3/178]. 

8 See; 'Ma 'atim As-Sunart' in the footnote of Sunan Aim Ddwitd (1/278 -279). 









i • si. ■'■ . 



IJU' ■■ 



* . . ■- 




CHAPTER 




■ISf!" 1 .^ 



Invalid Imamate 



Imsmate in prayer is a great responsibility that requires Some qualifica- 
tions in the imam or at least it is desirable to enjoy them. In addition, the imam 
should be free from some qualities preventing him from assuming this position, 
or reducing his efficiency to undertake it. 

It is not permissible to let the defiantly disobedient person lead the prayer. 
The defiantly disobedient person is the one who transgresses the right way by 
committing one of the major sins, which are less in degree than polytheism. 
There are two kinds of defiant disobedience; defiant disobedience in deeds and 
in belief. The first kind is defiant disobedience in deeds, such as zma (adultery 
or fornication), stealing, drinking intoxicants or the like. The second kind is 
defiant disobedience in belief, such as adopting the doctrine of the Rafidah, the 
Mutazilites (Mu'tazilah) or the Jahmiyyah . 

It is not permissible to assign a defiantly disobedient person as the imnm 
in prayer. This is because what is told by this person is rejected according to 

the verse in which Allah says: 



221 II: PRAYER 

"O you who have believed, if there comes to you a disobedient 
one with information, investigate.." (Quran: Al-Hujurat: 6) 

So, he cannot be entrusted with fulfilling the requirements and rulings 
of prayer, and he is thus a bad example, and making him lead the prayer will 

result in evil. Moreover, The Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"No woman should lead a man in prayer, nor should a Bedouin 
lead an immigrant (to Medina), nor should a wicked man lead a 
believer in prayer except when he overpowers him with his authority 
so he (the believer) is afraid of his sword and whip (i.e, he is afraid 
of his power)." 

(Related by Ibn Majah) 
What proves our view here is the Prophets statement: 

".>Nor should a wicked man lead a believer in prayer" 
Wickedness here means deviation from the right way. 

It is forbidden to perform prayer behind a defiantly disobedient person. 
Besides, it is not permissible to make him the imam in prayer when it is 
possible to do without him. It is prohibited for those in authority to assign 
a defiantly disobedient person as imam, for they are commanded to observe 
the legal interests. So, it is not permissible for them to let the people perform 
prayer behind a defiantly disobedient person. In addition, scholars disagree as 
to the validity of performing prayer behind such a person. So, people should 
be guarded against performing prayer behind a defiantly disobedient person. 

The imamate of the one unable to bow, prostrate or sit erect is invalid, 

except when leading a person similar to him in inability to do such acts in 
prayer. So is the case of the imamate uf the one unable to perform prayer 
standing when there is a person who can perforin it standing, except when the 
former is the assigned imam and is afflicted with an illness whose recovery is 
expected to be soon. In this case, it is permissible for people to perform prayer 
behind him while sitting. This is according to what A'ishah (may Allah be 
pleased with her) said: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) performed prayer in his house while sitting 
when he was ill and the people performed prayer behind him standing 
so he made a gesture to them to sit down. When he had finished the 
prayer, he said, "The imam is appointed so that he should be followed, 



Chapter 23: Invatid IhuiTi;tTe yi^ 

so bow down when he bows down, and rise up when he rises up and 
perform prayer sitting when he (the im&m) performs (it) sitting.' "* 

Besides, in ihehadith related by Al-RukMri and Muslim on the authority of 
Abu Hurayrah, the Prophet (PRUH) said: 

" . . Then perform prayer sitting all together'" 

Imam Muslim also relates (his hadlth wilh slightly different word i tig on the 
authority of Anas . Then, people led in prayer are to sit when the im&m sits 
because the imam should be the one leading the people in prayer. 

If some people perform prayer standing and others perform it sitting 
behind an im&m who performs it sittings their prayer will be valid according 
to the soundest view in this regard. In this case, if the imam appoints a person 
to lead the people standings it will be better so as to avoid any disagreement 
concerning this case, also because the Prophet (PBUH) appointed Abu. Bakr 
instead of himself to lead the prayer during the Prophets last illness'. The 
Prophet (PBUH) thus led people in prayer sitting and appointed Abu Bakr to 
lead them on his behalf, to show that it is permissible to do both things; and 
Allah knows best. 

The imamate of the one in a continual state of ritual impurity is invalid. 
This continual state of ritual impurity includes enuresis, uncontrolled passing 
of wind continuously and the like. Yet, it is only permissible for the one afflicted 
with such a disease to lead those in the same state as his. However, if a healthy 
person performs prayer behind such an imam, his prayer will be invalid, because 
in such a prayer there is a defect which is not to be mended, since he (the imam) 
performs prayer while he discharges impure matters, which contradicts ones 
purity. The prayer of such a person is valid only for necessity and his imamate 
is to be only with that who is like him, as they are the same concerning the 
continual discharge of the impure matter. 

If one performs prayer behind another one who is in a slate of ritual impurity, 
or his body, garment or place of prayer is impure, without knowing about this 
imam's impurity or ritual impurity until prayer is finished, this person's payer 
will be valid but not the imam s, This view is according to the faadith in which 
the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If the one in a state ofjanabah leads, the people in prayer, he is to perform 
his prayer agajn t while the prayer of those behind him is valid'.' 



224 H: PRAYER 

ShaykhuL-IsEant Ihn Taymiyah says: 

"This is the way in which the Rightly-Guided Caliphs have performed 
prayer. It could happen that they lead people in prayer and when they 
knew thai they had been junub after the prayer was finished, they 
would perform their prayer again and would not order those led in 
prayer to perform prayer again, if the imam or those led in prayer 
knew that he was in a state of ritual impurity or that there was impure 
matter present during the prayer, their prayer would be invalid!' ' 

The imam-ate of the illiterate person is invalid. Illiterate here means the 
one who does not memorize the Sura of Al-Fatihah (the Opening Chapter 
of the Quran) or memorizes it but recites it improperly, such as making 
grammatical mistakes in words, which change their meaning. These mistakes 
include, lor example, saying, " , r upon whom I have bestowed favor" instead 
of saying, "...upon whom You have bestowed favor.." (Qur'an: Al-Fatihah: 
7} They include wrong declensions. This illiterate person may mispronounce 
a letter for another because of a lisp. Thus, his imamate is not valid except 
when leading illiterate people, since they are equal regarding this defect and 
are unable to mend it. However, if the illiterate person is able tn mend his 
pronunciation in reciting the Quran, his prayer will not be valid nor that of 
those performing prayer behind him. This is because that person does not 
perform an integral part of the prayer though he is able to perform it. 

Moreover, it is detestable (hat one leads people in prayer while most of 
them justifiably dislike htm. The justification of this dislike may be due to a 

shortcoming in his religiosity. This is because the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"(There are) three persons whose prayer does not rise over their ears 
(i.e.. Allah does not accept it): (i) the escapee slave until he returns; 
(ii) a woman who sleeps while her husband is angry with her: (Hi) 
and a person who leads people in prayer while they are dissatisfied 
with him" 

(Related by At-Tirmidht who deems it a hasan (good) hadith) 

ShaykhuMslam Ihn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"If people dislike this person leading them in prayer because of 
something related to his religiosity, such as lying, injustice, ignorance 
of religion or innovating in religion and the like, while they like another 
religious person who is more righteous, truthful and versed than him, 
then the latter should assume the imamate, not the one whom thev 



Chapter 13: Invalid I mamaie 225 

dislike. This is because the Prophet (PBUH) (alio) said, /' '(There are) 
three persons whose prayer does not rise over their ears (i.e. Allah 
does not accept it): (i) a person who leads people in prayer while they 
are dissatisfied with him: (ii) a mors who comes to the prayer too 
late, after it is finished: (Hi) and a man who takes into slavery an 
emancipated male or female slave! 

Ibti Taymiyah added: 

"If there is hostility between the imam and those led in prayer, 
such as the hostility among the people of different inclinations 
and those of different juristic schools, then it is not permissible for 
him to lead them. This is because the wisdom behind performing 
prayer in congregation is achieving harmony and accord between 
Muslims. The Prophet (PBUH) said, 'Do not differ (while stand- 
ing in prayer i.e. straighten your rows); otherwise your hearts 
will differ! " 

On the other hand* if the imam is righteous and one of the adherents 
of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) but the people .still dislike him, his 
imamate is valid and acceptable and L he blame is on those people who dislike 
him. In any case, there should be accord and harmony between the imam in 
prayer and those led behind him, Both should cooperate in righteousness 
and piety putting aside any hostility or hatred caused by desires and evil 
ends. Tims, the imatn should do the duty that he owes to those led in prayer, 
not to cause hardship to them, and have regard for them. On the other 
hand, those led in prayer should do the duty they owe to their im&m and 
respect him. 

Finally, the imam and those led in prayer should tolerate criticism delivered 
by any of them toward the other, as long as this criticism does not degrade 
one's piety and sense of honor. All of us have defects; no one is perfect. A poet 
once said: 

Who is the one, with qualities all satisfactory! 
R is enough honor that one's defects arc countable. 
We ask Allah for guidance and success for all people. 



126 II; PRAYER 

Endnotes 

1 The Mutazilites (Mu'ta2ilah): II is an Islamic sect that claims that those who commit 
cardinal sins are in a state between faith and disbelief. This belief violates that of the 
Adherents of the Sutttmh and Muslim Community. 

2 The Jahmiyyah: It is an Islamic sett that denies some of the Attributes of Allah, claiming 
that those attributes are ascribed to people and cannot he ascribed to Allah, Thi* belief 
violates that of the Adherents of the Sunuah and Muslim Community. 

3IbnMajah(108l)(2/5). 

4 Muslim (925) [2/352J 

5 Al-Ruklwl (722) [2f270] and Muslim (929) |2/354j. 

6 Muslim (920) [2/351 J and its origin was related in Al-Bukhari (805) [2/357]. 

7 AI-BukhM (637) [2/224] and Muslim (935) [2/357J. 

8 Janabah: A state of major ritual impurity related to sesual discharge. 

9 Ad-Paraquini (1352) [1/354] and Al-Bayhatjt [2/400], 

10 See: 'Majmi'i 'ul-Fatawa (20/364-570), (23/352). 
U At-Tirmidhi (3(50) 12/193]. 

12 See: -Mapnii 'ul-Fat&vnV [23/373], 



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CHAPTER 







V -. ■■'' ' "'^ vs%'^^ 



Duties of the Imam 



The iffi^m in prayer shoulders a great responsibility and if he performs 
it properly, his reward will be great. The favor of imam ate in prayer is 
well-known; the Prophet (PBUH) and the Rightly-Guided Caliphs have 
assumed it and have not appointed for it except the best people. The 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Three persons wiii bs on the hillock of musk on the Day of Resur- 
rection: (i) the person who leads people in prayer and they are well 

pleased with Mm.,," 

In another hadtth the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"The reward of him (the imam in prayer) is like, that of those who 
performed prayer behind him" 

It is permissible for the one who knows that he is qualified and fit for the 
imamate in prayer to seek it. This is because one of the Companions of the 

Prophet (PBUH) once said to him: 



Tm II: PRAYER 

"Appoint me to be the imfan of my people in prayer." The Prophet (PBUH) 
replied, "You are their imam hut lend prayer (as light as) the weakest of them 
cars perform" 

What proves that one is allowed to seek imamate is what Allah* Exalted 
be He, says: 

". . , And make US a leader {i.e. example j for the righteous." 

(Quran: Al-Furqan: 74} 

The one who assumes imam ate in prayer should do the following: 

• Concern himself with it giving it its due in full as he possibly can, and 

for this he will be greatly rewarded. 

# He should put into his account the conditions of those led in prayer, be 

understanding of their circumstances and avoid making things difficult 
for them. He should also invite them to perform the congregational 
prayer and should nor. make them disinclined to perform it. This is 
according to the hadsth in which the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

If anyone of you leads people in prayer, he should lighten it because 
among them are the weak, the old and one busy with his needs. And 
if anyone among you perform;, prayer alone, then he may prolong (the 
prayer) as much as he wishes." 

(Related by the Group of Compilers of Hadith on the authority of Abu 
Hurayrah) 

There is also a hadith in the Two §ahjhj narrated on the authority of 
Abu Mas' ud in which the Prophet {PBUH} says: 

"0 people! Some of you make people dislike good deeds (the congrega- 
tional prayer). So whoever among you leads people in prayer should 

lighten it because among them arc the weak, the old and one busy with 
his needs."' 

Besides, Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 

"I never performed a light and perfect prayer as I performed behind 
the Prophet (PBUH):'* 

Thereupon, our Prophet (PBUH) is our example in this and in 
other regards. 



Chaprcr2^; Ducics of clif iimim 229 

Al-Hafiz says; 

"Whoever follows the way of the Prophet (PBUH) ami leads the people 
in prayer performing it as light mid perfect as the Prophet's prayer, those 
behind him (in prayer) will not complain. Lightening the prayer should 
go along with making it perfect in its integral parts, obligatory acts and 
actsofthcSumtah (Prophetic Tradition). Yet, lightening (i.e. shortening) 
the prayer is a relative matter traced back to what the Prophet (PRUH) 
used to do, maintain and order as with, and it should not be related to 
the wishes of those led in prayer'' 

Sortie scholars view I hill the required lightening of prayer is observing the 
least degree of perfection in Glorifying Allah and in the other acts of prayer. 
The least degree of perfection in Glorifying Allah in bowing and prostrating 
is saying, "Stibh&Ml Rabhiyal-'Azim" (i.e. "Glory be to my Lord, the Most 
Great" 1 ) and "Subk&na Rabbiyal-A'ld" {i.e. "Glory be to my Lord, the Most 
High") thrice in succession. If those led in prayer, though limited in number, 
preferred that the imam should prolong the prayer and agreed upon this, then 
it would be allowed for the imam to prolong the prayer. That is because the 
harm caused when prolonging the prayer and thereby making people shun the 
congregational prayer ia avoided in this case. 

Imam Ibn Daqtqul-' Id said: 

"The view offaqihs maintaining that the imdm should not pronounce 

tasbiif more than thrice, does not contradict what is reported of the 
Prophet (PBUH) that he said tasbih more than thrice (in prayer) . 
This is because the Prophet (PBUH) used to prolong prayer fulfilling 
his Companions' wish of gaining more good deeds which docs not 
make that prayer a prolonged one (in which those who are led 
complain)? 

ShaykhuI-lsL&m Ibn Taymiyah said: 

"The imdm should not exceed what is ordained for him. In most cases, 

he should do what die Prophet (PBUH) used to do in most cases and 
prolong the prayer or shorten it as befits the situation, which is the 
same as the Prophet (PBUH) used io do most of the time." 

Imdm Aji-Nawawi said: 

"Scholars said that the reported difference of the Prophet (PBUH) 
regarding the length of recitation (of the Quran during the congrega- 
tional prayer) was according to circumstances. The Prophet (PBUH) 



230 II: PRAYER 

used to be aware of the time at which the believers prefer long recita- 
tion and he would act accordingly. He alio used to be aware when to 
lighten the prayer upon their wish justified by an excuse and the like. 
The Prophet (PBUH) at times intended to prolong the congregational 
prayer but on hearing the cries of a child, he would cut it short (in 
case his mother was one of those led in the prayer), as related in the 
Sflt^h Books (Authentic Books ofHadith)." 

It is detestable to lighten the congregational prayer to the extent that those 
led in prayer could not perform the acts of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition), 
such as reciting a sura of the Qur'an (along with Al-Fatihah) or pronouncing 
tasbih thrice in bowing and prostrating. It is an act of the Sunnah for the 
imam to recite the Quran with measured recitation and to be deliberate in 
pronouncing tasbih and Tashahhud so that those led behind him would be 
able to perform the acts of the Sunnah related to tasbih and the J ike. It is also 
an act of the Sunnah for him to perform bowing and prostrating perfectly. It is 
an act of the Sunnah as well for the imam to prolong the first rak ah (unit of 
prayer), as Abu Qatadah narrated: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used to prolong the first rak" ah." 7 

(Related by AJ-Bukhari and Muslim) 

Besides, it is desirable for the imam to prolong bowing when he feels that 
there is someone about to catch up with the rak aft. The imam thus helps that 
person to join in the rak' ah. This is according to the hadlth related by Imam 
Ahmad and Abu Dawud on the authority of Ibn Abu Awft describing the form 
of the Prophets prayer stating: 

"He (the Prophet) used to stand in the first rak 1 ah of the Zuhr 
(Noon) Prayer (for a long time) until no footfall could be heard" 6 

This is unless it would become difficult on those led (in prayer) to wait. If 
it is difficult for those led in prayer to wait that long, the imam should not wait, 
for he should pay more respect to those behind him than those who have not 
joined the prayer yet. 

To conclude, the im&m should put into his account the circumstances 
of those performing the prayer behind him. He should keep to completing 
and perfecting the prayer duly, following in this the guidance of the Prophet 
(PBUH), working upon his advice and obeying his orders, in which there is 
good for all. 



Chapter 24: Duties of the httdm 23) 

However, so tine imams, may not give the imam ate its due right and respon- 
sibility, for they may remain absent from the mosques or come late for the 
prayer, which causes difficulty to those led in prayer and gives rise to discord 
and diverts the attention of those led in prayer. Thus, such an imam would 
be a bad ex a tn pie (who would he) followed by the lazy and those who do not 
shoulder the responsibility duly Such an imam should be rebuked, so that 
he would perform the tasks of imam ate properly without causing those led 
in prayer to shun (the congregational prayer) or hinder the function of the 
imamate. Besides, he should be dismissed from this position if he does not 
come to his senses. 

O Allah! Grant us success in doing whatever Ynu like and whatever pleases Youl 
Endnotes 

1 Al-Rukhari(7u3) [2/258], Muslim (1046) [2/407], Ahmad (10285) [2/G43j,Abu D3w0d 
(794) [1/352], At-Tirmidhi (236} (1/461], An-Nasai (322) (1/429] and Ibn Majah with 
the same wording of the next badith. 

2 Al-Rukhari (702) [2/256] mid Muslim (1044) [2/406], 

3 Muslim (1061) [2/412J. 

4 Faqih: A scholar or' Islamic Jurisprudence, 

5 Tasbifi (in praytr): Saying, "'Stibhana Rabbiyal- Aziru" (Le, "Glory be to my Lord, the 
Most Great") while bowing, and ,l Stibk&n$ Rabbiyal-A 7j" (i.e. "Glory be tq my Lord, 
tht Most High'*) while prostrating. 

6 As related in Abu Dawud (888) [1/386] and An- Masai (1134) [1/574]. 

7 Al-Bukhari (759) [2/315] and Muslim (10)2) J2/392J. 

8 Ahmad (19097) [4/484] and Abu Dawud (802) [1/354], 






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CHAPTER 



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Prayer of Those Having 
Legal Excuses 



Those with legal excuses are the sick, the traveler, and those who fear 
they cannot establish prayer as completely as those without excuses. The 
Lawgiver has lightened the hardship for the excused Muslims and ordered 
them to perform prayer as much as they can. This ruling shows the ease 
and relief intended for Muslims in the Shari'ah (islamic Law), as it always 
eliminates hardships. Allah says: 

"...He has chosen you and has not placed upon you in the religion 
any difficulty. . ." (Qui an: Al -H,aj j i 7 8 ) 

Allah, Exalted be He, also says: 



"...Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hat 
dship..." (Qur an: Al- Baqarah: 185) 



2M 



li: P RAVER 



In addition, Allah, Exalted tic He, says: 

"... Allah does not charge fl soul except [with that within] its 
capacity... 1 ' (Qur'ail: Al-Baqarah; 2&6) 

Further, He says: 

"So fear Allah as much as you are able.." 

(Qur'ait: At-Taghabun: 16) 

Moreover, (he Prophet (PRUH) saidr 

"If I order you to do something, then do of it as much as you can" 

This is to be added to many other legal texts that i ndicate the favor of Allah 
upon His servants and how He granted them ease in whatever He ordained for 
them. Among the things made easy for Muslims is the prayer of the persons 
with excuses of sickness, travel, or fear. 

First: The Prayer Performed by the Sick 

Prayer is not to he abandoned under any circumstances. The Muslim 
patient must perform prayer standing if he can h and it is permissible for him to 
lean on a stick, or the like, if be needs this since the related fundamental rule 
states, "TJic means to fulfill an obligation are to he considered obligatory" It is 
permissible for a Muslim patient to sit in prayer if he cannot stand due to one 
of the following reasons (or the like): 

• If he is unable to stand 

. Tf it is difficult for him to stand 

• If he fears to increase his illness or delay his recovery by standing up 

So, the inability of a Muslim patient to stand in prayer is not a condition of 
the permissibility to sit in prayer. However, little difficulty is not a legal excuse 
to sit in prayer; only real difficulty is considered in this respect. Scholars 

unanimously agree that if a Muslim person is unable to stand in obligatory 
prayer, it is permissible for him to sit. Moreover, there is no need for him to re- 
perform his prayer again when he gets well; his reward does not decrease; and 
the way he sits is to be according to the way he desires, for the Lawgiver does 
not ordain a specific way of sitting (for the patient), so in whatever manner he 
sits, it is permissible. 



Chaprer 25: Player of Those Having l-tgal Ekcuscs i *.- 

If a Muslim patient cannot sit in prayer and it causes him a real difficulty 
to sit, then it is permissible for him to lie on his side facing the qiblah\ It is 
desirable for him in this case to lie on his right side. If there is no one to heJp 
him face the qiblah and he cannot face the qibiah himself, then it is permissible 
for him io perform prayer facing whatever direction he can face. 

If a Muslim patient cannot lie on his side in prayer it is permissible for 
him to lie on his back, making his legs face the qibiah if possible. If a Muslim 
patient sits in prayer or if he lies on his side or back and cannot prostrate, 
then it is sufficient for him to beckon bowing and prostration with his bead, 
making his head a bit lower to beckon prostration than in bowing. If a Muslim 
patient sits in prayer and can prostrate, it is obligatory for him to prostrate and 
it is not sufficient then to beckon prostration ivith his head. 

The proof of the legal permission detailed previously is the hadith related 
by Al-Bukhaii and the Compilers of Suiian on the authority of lmran Ibn 
Husayn (may Allah be pleased with him) who narrated: 

"I had hemorrhoids so I asked the Propiiet (PBUH) how I could 
perform prayer. He (PBUH) replied, 'Perform prayer white standing 
and if you cannot, perform it. while sitting and if you cannot do 
(even) that, then perform il lying on your side! "* 

An-Nasa'i added in his narration that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"...And if you cannot, perform prayer lying on yourbacL" 

In addition, Allah says: 

"... Allah does not charge a $oul except {with that within} its 
capacity..." (Qur'3n: Al-Baqarah; 286) 

Here, we should draw the attention to those Muslims who give 
up prayer when they are sick or when they have had surgical 
operations, claiming that they can nut perform the acts of prayer 
properly, or they cannot perform ablution, or their clothes are 
impure or any other excuses. They commit a big mistake since 
a Muslim is not permitted to give up prayer when he cannot 
perform some of its conditions, integral parts, or obligations, but 
he must perform prayer as much as he can as Allah says: 

"So fear Allah as much a$ you are able..." 

(Qur'an: At-Taghibun: 16) 



236 



II: PRAYER 



A Muslim patient may say, "When I get well, I will make up for the prayers 
T missed during ike days of my illness." This is, legally considered, either 
ignorance or negligence in religion for the prayer is to be performed at its due 
time as much as one can and iL is not permitted to be delayed until one misses 
its due time. Hence, there should be much attention paid to such a matter and, 
besides-, there should be religious awareness in hospitals. Moreover, hospitals 
should recognize the patients' conditions concerning performing prayer and 
other legal obligations that they are in need to know. 

The aforementioned legal rulings concern whoever has a legal excuse from 
the beginning of prayer until its end. However, there are some cases in which a 
Muslim may have a legal excuse for only a part of his prayer such as: 

* One may start prayer when one is standing and then feels that one 

cannot stand anymore while performing it. 

* One may start prayer when one is not able to stand and then feels that 

one can stand while performing it. 

• One may start prayer when one is sitting and then feels that one cannot 

sit anymore while performing it 

• One may start prayer when one is lying on one's side and then one feels 

that one can sit. 

In such cases, one must shift to the position that legally suits one's ability 
and it is obligatory then to complete one's prayer in this state. This is because 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"So fear Allah as muck as you are able. . ." 

(Qur^n: At-Taghabun: 16) 

Thus, one is to shift to the standing posture when one is able, and one is 
to shift to the silting posture when one is unable to stand, and so on. If one is 
able to stand and sit but canmit bciw or prostrate, one is to beckon bowing with 
one's head while standing, and beckon pros I ration with ones head while sitting 
to make a difference (between bowing and prostration) as much as one can. 

A Muslim patient is permilted to perform prayer lying on his back chough 
he is able to stand if a trustworthy Muslim doctor tells him that he cannot 
recover except when he performs prayer while tying on his back. This is 
because the Prophet (PBUH) performed prayer while sitting when the right 
side of his body was injured 4 . Also, Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with 
her) did not prostrate in her prayer when she suffered from ophthalmia', 



Chapter 25: Prarer of Those I laving Legal Kkllisl;* 237 

Prayer enjoys a great importance in Islam and a Muslim must establish 
prayer whether he is healthy or sick, as a patient is not legally excused to give 
up prayer, but rather, it is obligatory upon him to perform it in whatever 
condition, So, a Muslim must establish prayer as Allah, Exalted be He, has 
ordained. Wc invoke Allah to guide us to what satisfies Him, 

Second: The prayer of riders 

A Muslim rider is considered otic of the excused as long as he can be hurt 
when dismounting his animal. Some cases of possible harm are: 

• When there is mud or it is mining 

• When he cannot remount his animal if he descends 

• When he fears to miss his companions 

■ When he fears an enemy or a wild animal 

In such cases and the like, it is permissible for a rider to perform prayer 
while riding his animal or the like. This came in the hadith narrated on the 
authority of Ya'la Ibn Murrah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: 

"The Pwphet (PBUH) and his Companions were on a journey 
when the time of prayer became due and it mined. At that time 
they were on a pathway, the sky was raining from above them and 
it was wet below. Therefore, Allah's Messenger (PBUH) ordered that 
the prayer call (adhan) and the immediate prayer call (iqamah) be 
pronounced while he was on his she-camel and then he proceeded 
on his she-camel and led them in prayer (only) beckoning (bowing 
and prostration) and making the prostration gesture lower than the 
one for bowing" 

(Related by Ahmad and At-Tirmidhi)* 

It is obligatory for a Muslim who performs prayer while riding his animal 
(or what takes the same ruling like a car, ,, etc) to face the qiblah if possible, 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"...And wherever you [believers] are, turn your faces [i.e. your- 
selves] toward it [in prayer]. . ." (Q u r an: Al - Ba qarah: 1 44 } 

One must also do whatever one is able to perform of bowing, prostrating 
and tranquility in prayer as Allah, Exalted be He, says: 



238 II: PRAYER 

"So fear Allah as much as you are able..." 

(Qur'an; At Tagh^bun: 16) 

Tims, one is not legally required to do what is beyond one's capacity. If a 
Muslim riding his animal cannot face the qibiah, then it is not obligatory upon 
him to face it and he is to face any direction in prayer. Likewise, a passenger 
on a plane is to perform prayer as much as he can; he may sfand s sit* bow, 
prostrate or beckon (bowing and prostration) with his head (according to the 
situation), but he must face the qs'blnh for it is possible (to do so). 

Third: The Prayer of a Traveler 

A traveler is one of the excused persons for it is permissible for him to 
shorten the prayer consisting of four rak'ahs (units of prayer) to only two 
rak'ahs as stared in the Noble Qur'Aru the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition}, and 
the consensus of Muslim scholars. Allah, Exalted he Me, says: 

"And when you travel throughout the land, there is no blame 
upon you for the shortening of prayer,," 

(Qijr'an:An~Nis&':101) 

Moreover, the Prophet (PBUH) performed only shortened prayers on his 
journeys'. Furthermore, on journeys, shortening the prayer is better than completing 
it according to the majority of scholars. It is narrated in theTwoSc#frs that A'ishah 
(may Allah be pleased with her) said: 

"When the prayer was enjoined (by Allah), it was two rak'ahs (units 
of prayer) only (in every prayer) both when in residence or On a 
journey. Then the prayers performed on journey remained the same, 
but (the rak ah$ of) the prayer jar non- travelers were increased." 

Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 

"The prayer performed on journeys is of two rak'ahs. This is the 
complete p rayer w ithoi 1 1 sh or te 1 1 ing." 

A Muslim on a journey is to start shortening the prayer as soon as. he leaves 
his town or city as Allah permits the shortening of prayer for those who travel 

through the land. Before leaving his town, a Muslim is not legally considered 
a traveler through the land (and hence he is not permitted to shorten the 
prayer). The Prophet (PBUH) used to shorten the prayer as soon as he ieft his 
hometown. So, if a person does not travel from the residential land, he is not 

considered a traveler. 



Chapter 25: Prayer of Those Having 3. c-gal Excuses 210 

A traveler is permitted \o shorten the prayer even if he frequently travels, 
as in the case of a mail carrier or a taxi driver who spends most of his time on 
the way between towns. 

It is permissible for a traveler to combine the Zuhr Prayer and the "Asr 
(Afternoon) Prayer at the due time of either of them, and, likewise, to combine 

the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer and the 'hha (Night) Prayer at the due time of 
either of them. That is because what makes it permissible for the traveler to 
shorten prayer makes it permissible for him to combine prayers as well. 

However, shortening prayer is a temporary permission valid when there is 
a necessity, as in the case when a traveler is in haste on his journey. Mu'adh 
(may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: 

"On the Battle ofTabuk when the Prophet (PBUH) hud gone forth 
before the sun passed the meridian, he would delay the Zuhr Prayer 
and combine it with the "As.r Prayer, performing them together. But 
when he proceeded after the sun had passed the meridian, he would 
perform the Zuhr and the "Asr Prayers (at the time of the Zuhr) 
and then he would proceed. (He acted similarly for the Maghrib 
Prayer.) When the sun had set before he proceeded, he would 
delay the Maghrib Prayer and combine it with the "hhif Prayer, 
performing them together. But when he proceeded after sunset, he 
would perform the "hha Prayer and the Maghrib Prayer at the 
time of the Maghrib Prayer." 

(Related by Ahmad and At-Tirmtdhi) '" 

When a traveler stops on his journey to take a rest, it is better for him to 
perform each prayer shortened at its due time, not to combine prayers. If it is 
difficult for a Muslim patient to perform each prayer at its due time, then he is 
permitted to combine the Zuhr Prayer and the 'Asr Prayer (at the due time of 
cither of them), and to combine the Maghrib Prayer and the 'hha Prayer (at 
the due time of either of them). 

Shaykhul- Islam Ibn Taymtyah said; 

"Allah has ordained shortening of prayer to remove difficulties and 
make things easy for the Muslim, nation. So, a Muslim is permitted to 
combine prayers when necessary. All hadiths (related to thi$ matter) 
imply lhai it is permissible to combine two prayers at the due lima 



24U [1: PRAYEiR 

of either of them in order to remove, any possible hardship caused to 
the Prophets notion. Thus, it is permissible to combine prayers if it is 
to cause hardship if not done. This proves that it is. permissible with 
greater reason for a Muslim patient to combine (two) prayers at the 
due time of either of them as long as it is difficult for him to perform 
each prayer at its due time" 

Ibn Tnymiyah also sakl 

"Patients ean combine the prayer according to the Sunnah for it 
is narrated in two hadUhs that the Prophet (PBUH) ordered a 
mustahadah " to combine the prayer," ' 

By means of analogical deduction with the case of a mustahadah, the 
combining of prayer is permitted tor every Muslim who cannot purify for 
every prayer, such as those inflicted with enuresis, a continuously Needing 
wound s or a permanent nosebleed. The Prophet (PBUH) said to Hamuah 
Rinr jahsh when she asked him about istihadah ' (vaginal bleeding other than 
menstruation): 

". , . But if you are strong enough to delay theZuhr Prayer and advance 
the 'Asr prayer, to wash, and then combine the Zuhr and the 'Asr 
Prayers; (and) to delay the Maghrib Prayer and advance the 'Isha* 
Prayer, to wash, and then combine the two prayers, do so." 

(Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and At-Tirmidhi and deemed 
sahi'h (authentic) by the latter) ' 

It is permissible to combine the Maghrib Prayer and the 'isha Prayer, in 
particular, if there is rain that wets clothes and causes difficulty (for those who 
go to the mosque). The Prophet (PBUH) combined the Maghrib Prayer and the 
""IshA' Prayer in a rainy night* * and so did Abu Bakr and ' Umar afterwards '. 

ShaykhuL-Ulihm Ibn Taymiyah. (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"According to the soundest view of scholars, it is permissible for a 
Muslim to combine prayers because of mud or strong cold wind in a 
dark night, even if it has stopped raining. This is more incumbent than 
perform h ig ea ch p rayer at its due time at h ome. Moreover, to abandon 
combining congregational prayers in mosques to perform prayer at 
home is a bid 'ah (a matter innovated in religion) that contradicts the 
Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition). It is an act of the Sunnah to perform 
the Five (Obligatory) Prayers in congregation in the mosque, and 
this is more due, according to the unanimous agreement of Muslims, 



ChapKr2'>: Prayer of Those Hjivjng l.tgji! Excuses 241 

than performing prayers at home. In addition, congregational prayer 
combined in the mosque in mare due than performing prayers at home 
individually, according to the unanimous, agreement of the scholars 
who nuiintam the aforementioned permissibility to combine prayers 
(due to bod weather), such as Malik, Ash-Shaji'f, and Ahmad" 

It is better for one permitted lo combine prayers to combine them according 

to what suits his/her situation most. On the Day of ' Arafah, it is better (for 
the pilgrims) to combine the Zuhr Prayer and the As.r Prayer at the time of 
the former, but in Muzdalifah h it is better (for tire pilgrims) to combine the 
Maghrib Prayer and the "Isha Prayer at the time of the latter, according to 
what the Prophet (PBUH) did {in his Hajj)'". On the Day of l Arafah, pilgrims 
combine the Zulu- and the Wsr Prayers at the time of the former in order to 
continue staying at Arafah Mount (without interruption), but in Muzdalifah, 
they combine the Maghrib and the "Isho Prayers at the Lime of the latter to 
continue moving toward Muzdalifah- 

ln general, it is an act of the Sunnph for pilgrims to combine prayers on 

the Day of 'Arafah and in Mu/dalifrth but in circumstances other than that, 
it is permissible when necessary. However, when there is no necessity, it is 
better for a traveler to perform each prayer at its due time. During the days of 
his Hajj, the Prophet (PBUH) combined prayers only on the Day of 'Arafah 
and in Muzdalifah, but he (PBUH) did not combine prayers in Mini because 
he was to stay there. So the Prophet (PBUH) used to combine prayers only 
when he was in a hurry on a journey. We invoke Allah to guide us to useful 
knowledge and good deeds. 

Fourth: The Fear Prayer 

The Fear Prayer is ordained for Muslims during every legal fight ing such ns 
fighting with the disbelievers and the oppressors, us Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"..> If you fear that those who disbelieve may disrupt for 
attack] you.,," (Qur'an: An-Nisa 1 : 101) 

Those with whom Muslims are permitted to tight are determined by means 
of analogical deduction with this Quranic verse. However, the Fear Prayer is 
not permissible during prohibited fighting. The proof of the legality of the 
Fear Prayer is stated in the Noble Quran, the Snnnah (Prophetic Tradition), 

and the consensus of Muslim scholars, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And when you [he, the commander of an army] are among 
them and lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand [in 
prayer J with you and let them carry their arms* And when 



242 II: PRAYER 

they have prostrated t let them be [in position} behind you and 
have the other group come forward which has not [yet} prayed 
and let them pray with you, taking precaution and carrying 
their arms..." (Quran: An-Nisa: 102) 

Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him) states, "Five or six ways 
of performing the Fear Prayer are authentically narrated about the Prophet 
(PBUH)" The Fear Prayer was ordained during the lifetime of the Prophet 
(PBUH) and it is still legal to be performed until the end of the time. The 
Companions and most of the Muslim scholars unanimously agree on that, 
with the exception of a slight inconsiderable dispute. 

The Fear Prayer is to be performed when necessary, both on journey and 
in residence, if Muslims fear that the enemy may attack them, as the cause of 
its permissibility is the fighting not the traveling. In residence, it is permissible 
to shorten only the way of performing the fear Prayer, not the number of 
rak'ahs (units of prayer)- Yet, on journeys, the Fear Prayer is to be performed 
bv shortening the number of rak 'ahs, if the prayer consists of four rak 'ahs* and 
by shortening the way of prayer. The Fear Prayer is ordained in two conditions: 
The first is when the enemy is of those whom Muslims are permitted to fight, 
and the second is when Muslims fear to be attacked while performing prayer, 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

",..lf you fear thai those who disbelieve may disrupt [or attack} 
you.." (Quran: An-Nisa'- 101) 

And He says: 

"„, Those who disbelieve wish that you would neglect your 
weapons and your baggage so they could come down upon you 
in one [single} attack. . ." (Quran: A n - Nisa*: 1 02) 

One way of performing the Fear Prayer is narrated about the Prophet 
(PBUH) in the hadith on the authority of Sahi Ibn Abu Hathmah Al-Ansiri 
(may Allah be pleased with him). Imam Ahmad considers this way (narrated 
by Sahl) as the preponderant view for it is similar to the way mentioned in 
the Noble Qur'in. This way of performing the Fear Prayer is distinguished by 
carefulness in performing prayer, caution with regard to fighting, and causing 
uncomfortable^ ess to the enemy, The Prophet (PBUH) performed the Fear 
Prayer in the aforementioned way during the Battle of Dhdlur-Riqa "■ It is to be 
performed as Sahl narrated: 



Chapter 25: Prayer of Those Having Legal Ekcuscs 24 J 

"One row lined up behind him (PBUH) while another row (lined up) 
facing the enemy. The Prophet (PBUH) led the row that was with 
him in one rak'ah (unit of prayer), and he stayed in the standing 
posture while that row performed (another rak'ah) by themselves 
and went away lining in the face of the enemy. The other group 
came and he (the Prophet) offered hi* remaining rak'ah with them, 
and then, remained sitting until they completed their prayer by 
themselves, and he then finished the prayer along with them"' 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

Muslim related another way of performing the Fear Prayer on the authority 
of Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: 

"J witnessed the bear Prayer with Allah's Messenger (PBUH). We 
drew ourselves up in two rows, while the enemy was between us and 
the qiblah. Allah's Messenger (PBUH) pronounced takbir" and we 
all pronounced if. He then bowed and we all bowed. He then raised 
his head from bowing and we all raised (our heads). He then went 
down in prostration along with the row dose to him, and the rear 
row faced the enemy. When Allah's Messenger (PBUH) completed 
the prostration and stood up and the row near to him atso did this, 
the rear row prostrated themselves; then they stood up. Then the 
rear row went to the front and the front row went to the rear. Then 
Allah's Messenger (PBUH) bowed down and we all bowed. He then 
raised his head from bowing and we raised (our heads). He and the 
row close to him, which was in the rear (in the first rak'ah), went 
down in prostration, whereas the rear row faced the enemy. When 
Allah's Messenger (PBUH) completed the prostration and stood 
up and the row near to him also did this, the rear row prostrated 
themselves. Then Allah's Messenger (PBUH) pronounced the final 
salutations and we all pronounced the salutation."" 

A third way of performing the Fear Prayer is narrated on the authority of 

Tbn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: 

"The Prophet (PHUH) led one of the two groups in one rak 'ah (unit of 
prayer) in the Fear Prayer, performing bowing once and prostration 
twice, while the other group faced the enemy. Then the members of 
the first group went hack and replaced their companions, facing the 
enemy. Then they came and the Prophet (PBUH) led them in one 



244 ": PRAYER 



rakah. Then he pronounced the taslhrt" and then the members of 
the first group performed one rak\ih and those (i.e. the members of 
the second group) performed one rak ah" 

(Related by AUBukhari and Muslim) 

Ahmad, Abu Di\wud, and An-Nasai" relate a fourth way of performing the 
Fear Prayer in which the Prophet (PBUH) performed the Fear Prayer leading 
each group separately and pronouncing tastim (with every group before he 
started prayer with the other one), 

A fifth way of performing l he Fear Prayer is narrated on the authority of 
Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: 

"We went with the Prophet (PBUH) until we readied Dhdtur-Riqa \..* 

Jabir continued the narration until he said: 

"Then the immediate prayer call (iqamah) was announced and the 

Prophet (PBUH) performed two rak 'ahs (of the Fear Prayer) with 
one of the two groups, and that hatch went back, and he performed 
two rak 'ahs with the other group. Thus, Adah's Messenger (PBUH) 
performed four rak'' ahs but the people performed two rak ahs 
only,"" 

(Related by Ai-Bukharl and Muslim) 

The aforementioned ways of performing the Fear Prayer are to be 

performed as long as fear does not increase, But when fear increases, through 
continuous acts of fighting such as stabbing beating, attacking and retreating, 
and it becomes impossible to divide the Muslim soldiers to perform prayer 
at its due time mentioned previously, then, Muslims are to perform prayer 
as possible as they can. They may perform prayer while standing or riding, 
facing the qiblah or not, beckoning bowing and prostration with their heads 
as much as they can. They are not permitted to delay prayer as Allah, Exalted 
be He, savs: 

"And if you fear (an enemy, then pray], on foot or riding..." 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 239) 

While performing the Fear Prayer, it is desirable for a Muslim to carry a 
weapon to defend himself as long as such a weapon is not too heavy for him, 

as Allah, Exalted be He, says: 



Chapter 25: Prayer of'Ihosr: Having Legal Fxcllsk 245 

H ' . . And let them carry their arms,." (Quran: An-Nisa : L02) 

In addition, the same rulings concerning the aforementioned case of great 
fear are ordained for Muslims while escaping from the enemy, torrents or wild 
animals, or while chasing the enemy. In such cases, a Muslim is permitted to 
perform prayer riding Or on foot, to face the qiblah or any other direction, and 
to beckon the bowing and prostration with his hend. 

In conclusion, we can get some important lessons from the previously 
explained astonishing and accurate arrangement of performing the Fear Prayer: 

l.The importance of prayer in Islam, especially the congregational prayer, 
for they were not abandoned even in such critical situations. 

2. The perfection of the Shari 'ah (Islamic Law) is evident as it ordains for 

every case what best suits il. 

3. No difficulty is intended tor the Muslim nation as the Shari 'ah is 
moderate and valid for all eras and in all places. 

We invoke Allah to help us adhere to His Shari" ah until we die, for He is 
the Hearing and the Responsive. 

Endnotes 

1 The Lawgiver of Shari 'nh (Islamic Law) id Allah, Fxalted he He; the term can also refer 
10 the Prophet (PBLJH) as he never ordained but what was revealed to him by Allah. 

2 Tlie qiblah: Ihe direction of prayer, namely towards the Ka'bah, 
3Al-Bukhar1(1117) [2/758). 

4 Al-Bukhari (805) 12/35] and Muslim (920) [2/3511 

5 Ibn Abu Shaybah (2801) [1/243] and Al-Bayhaqi (3674) [2/436}. 

6 Ahmad (17503) [4/1741 and At-Tirmidbi (411) 1 2/266] - 

7 Ad -[Squint (2275,2276) |2/168] and Al-fiayhaqi |3/14ll. 

8 Al- Bu kharl (350) 1 1/601] and Muslim (1568) [3/199). 

9 An-Nasai{1419) [2/1231 and Ibn Majah (1036) 1 1/556]- 

10 Abu Dawud (120S) [2/10] and At-Tinnidht (552) (2/433). 

1 1 See: M<tjiftu"ul Fatawa (26/64). 

12 Mustahadah: A woman in a state of istlhadah (i.e. a woman having vaginal bleeding 

other Lhan menstruation). 

13 See: Majmu 'u! Fat&wti (24/72.74) 

14 Utihadah: Vaginal bleeding other than menstruation, 

15 Ahmad [6/381 ,3 82,439-440] and At-Tirmidhi (123} [1/221 ] 

16 Al-Bukbari {543) and Muslim (705). 



24 fi II: PRAYER 

17 ' Abdur-Razz&q in his MH8Htmi/(4440) [2/556]. 
IB See: Afa/mfi'wf-Fjsffln'n (24/38,29). 

19 Muslim (2941) [4/402]. 

20 Al-Bukhari (1674) [3/660] and Muslim (309} [5/38], 

21 Al-Bukhari (4129) [77S26] and Musi im (1945) [3/366), 

22 Tflfc&fn Saying, "AHMn-Zlftfow" (i.e. Allah is ihe Grralcsl^ 

23 Muslim (1942) [3/364], 
24Tastim:Sayia%theftna[SalanKiniprayer[Myin%/ l As-sal&mu 'aiaykumwaRo&matuilAh" 

i.e. HL Peate he upon you, and ihe mercy of All ail") when concluding prayer, 

25 Al-Bukhari (4 133) 17/527] and Muslim ( 1939) [3/3631 

26 Abu Dawud(l248) (2/29] and An-Nasa'i (1552) U/198]. 

27 Al-Bukhari (4136) (7/532] and Muslim (1946) [3/367]. 



■; :■■ K"''-'-^t- ? f-> ■■■' -^ 
■ ^ ■ ■ * 








Jumu'ah (Friday) Prayer 



The day of this prayer, Friday, is the best day of the week, as the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"Among the most excellent of your days is Friday" 

In another kadith he (PBUH) said: 

"We (Muslims) are the last (to came) but. (will be) the first on the 
Day of Resurrection though the former nations were given the 
Scriptures before us. This (Friday) was their day of celebration 

which was made compulsory for them but they differed about it. So 
Allah gave us the guidance for it (Friday) and all the other people 
follow us in this respect.'*' 

Imam Muslim recorded that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"It was Friday from which Allah diverted those who were before us. 
For the fem (the day set aside for prayer) was Saturday and for 
the Christians it was Sunday. When Allah sent us (Muslims), He 
guided us to Friday (as the day of prayer) for us" 



24 a II: PRAYfcft 

Allah ordained the meeting of Muslims on Friday to draw their attention 

to His great favor, 1 ; upon them. The Friday sermon is ordained to remind 
Muslims of the favors of Allah and indie them to be grateful (to Him). The 
Junta ah (Friday) Prayer H ordained to be performed by midday to give the 
Muslims (living in the same residential area) the chance to gather in one 
mosque. In addition, Ailah ordered the believers to attend this meeting, listen 
to the sermon t and perform the Junm 'ah Prayer as He says: 

rt O you who have believed, when {the adhan] is called for the 
prayer on the day of Juntu'ah [Friday], then proceed to the 
remembrance of Allah ami leave trade. That is better for you, if 
you only knew." (Quran: Al-Juiiiu'ah: 9) 

IbmiL-Qayyim said: 

"// is of the guidance of the Prophet (PBVIF) to honor this day (Friday), 
and to favor it with special acts, of worship which he does not perform 
on other days. Scholars, as well as the followers ofAsh-Shf'iji'i, differ 
on which day is better. Friday or the Day of 'Arafah? The Prophet 
(PBUH) used to recite the Suras oj As-Sajdah (the Prostration) and 
Al-insan (Mau) in the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer on Friday". ' 

Ibnul-Qayyim added: 

"I heard Shaykhul- Islam Ibn I'ayniiyah saying, 'Tin': Prophet (PBUH) 
used to recite these two Suras (As-Sajdah and Al-lnsan) in the Fajr 
Prayer on Friday as they deal with events that happened or will happen 
on Friday such as the creation of Adam (Adam), the Resurrection, 
and the gathering of servants (to the account in the Hereafter). Thus, 
reciting these two Suras every Friday reminds (he Muslim nation of 
the aforementioned events- and consequently conies the prostration of 
recitation (in the Sura of As-Sajdah)- So, the prostration of recitation is 
not intended in particular here and the one performing prayer should 
not mistakenly recite a prostration-containing verse j'rom whatever 
sura in the Quran (believing that it is an act of the Sunnak (Prophetic 
Tradition] for Fridays'' 

There are some special features to be observed on Friday or on the night 

preceding it: 

It is desirable to confer blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH) frequently Al- 
Bayhaqi records thai the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"Confer blessings upon me frequently on Friday and the night 

preceding it. 



Chapter 26: Jumn'ab (I'ridfiy) Praytr 249 

The fumu'ith (Friday) Prayer is one of the most distinguishing acts of 
worship of Friday, as it is of the most stressed obligations of Islam and of the 
greatest assemblies of Muslims, The Prophet (PBUH) said that he who leaves 
the jumu "ah Prayer (continuously) three times on account of slackness, Allah 
seals over his heart . 

Among the acts of worship to be observed on Friday is bathing to attend 
the Friday Prayer, as it is a stressed act of the Sutwah. Some scholars view this 
bathing as obligatory and others maintain that it is obligatory only for one 
who needs to remove bad sin el I from his body. 

In addition, it is desirable to apply perfume cm Friday, which is better than 
applying perfume on the other days of the week. 

Moreover, it is desirable to go early to the mosque for the Jumu 'ah Prayer 
and occupy oneself with performing supererogatory prayers, remembering 
Allah, and reciting the Noble Qui an until the imam (i.e., leader in prayer) 
comes to deliver the sermon. 

It is obligatory to listen to the sermon, and if one does not listen to it 
(occupying oneself with anything other than the sermon), then one commits 
an evil act. The Prophet (PBUH) says; 

"He who commits an evil act will have no (reward for) Friday" ' 

Speaking is prohibited during the sermon us il is related in the Mitsrtad 
(Ascribed Traditions of Hadith) of Imam Ahmad that the Prophet (PBUH} said: 

"Whoever asks his companion to keep quiet (while the imam is 
deliveritig the sermon) will have no (reward for) Friday." " 

Furthermore, among the acts of worship to be observed on Friday is 
reciting the Sura of Al-Kahf (the Cave)™, It is authentically narrated that the 
Prophet (PMJH) said: 

If anyone recites the Sura of Al-Kahf on Friday, a light will shine 
from under his feet up to the heaven and it will shine for him on the 
Day of Resurrection, and the sins he committed between the two 
Fridays will be forgiven." ' 

(Related by Al Hakim and Al-Bayhaqi) 

There is an hour (a period of time) on Friday during which Allah definitely 
responds to supplications. In the Two Sahihs it is recorded on ihe authority of 
Abu Hurayrah {may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 



250 II: 1 J KAYLK 

"There is an hour (a period of time) on Friday and if a Muslim gets 
it while performing prayer and asks something from Allah, then 
Allah will definitely meet his demand'' 

And lie (the Prophet) pointed out the shortness of that time with his hands. 

Among the significant acts of worship on Friday is the sermon which is intended 
to praise A i! ah and glorify Him, declare the Lestimony of His Oneness and His 
Messengers message, and to remind His servants (of the affairs of religion]. 

There are so many special acts of worship to be observed on Friday (or 
its preceding night) which Ibnul-Qayyim, in his book entitled Zadul-Ma'ad 
{Provisions for the Hereafter), mentioned, making them one hundred and 
thirty three. Nevertheless, many Muslims neglect this day giving it no more 
attention than any other day, some devote it for sleep and sloth, and others 
make it a day of diversion, play and heedlessness, away from remembering 
Aliah. Consequently, the number of Muslims performing the Fajr Prayer (of 
Friday) in congregation in the mosques is noticeably decreasing. There is 
neither might nor power except in Allah! 

It is desirable for a Muslim to go early to the mosque for the Jumuah 
Prayer and perform two rak'ans (units of prayer) when he enters the mosque 

as a prayer of greeting. He is permitted to perform more voluntary prayers if 
it is early for the Jumu 'ah Prayer, as the Safa/(early Muslim scholars) used to 
go early to the mosque for the jumu "ah Prayer and perform voluntary prayers 
until the imam came to deliver the sermon. 

Shay khul -Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"It is more entitled for a Muslim who goes early (o the mosque for 
the jumu* ah Prayer to perform voluntary prayers until the imam 
comes (to deliver the sermon). It is stated in a sahik (authentic) 
hadtth that the Prophet (PRUH) said, '...Then he may perform 
prayer as much as (Allah has) willed for him...' ' Moreover, the 
words of (he Prophet (PBUH) urge Muslims to perform voluntary 
prayers when they enter the mosque before the sermon on Friday, 
without determining a specific time (to do that). It is also narrated 
that the Companions used to perform voluntary prayers as much 
as they could when they entered the mosque before the sermon on 
Friday . It could happen that one of them perform ten, twelve 



Chapter 26: juwutth (Friday) Prayer 251 

or night rakahs (units of prayer), and sometimes more or less 
than that. That is why the majority of scholars agree that ihere 
is no specific time or number for the voluntary prayer before the 
Jitmu'ah Prayer and this voluntary prayer is considered a good 
deed, not a sunnah ratibah (n regularly- observed supererogatory 
prayer). Thus, according to the soundest view, a Muslim is not 
legally blamed whether or not he performs voluntary prayer before 
the Jumu 'ah Prayer. However, if ignorant people believe that it is a 
sunnah ratibah, then, in this case, giving up this voluntary prayer 
will be better"™ 

It was mentioned previously thai; there is no sunnah ratibah before the 
Jumu'ah (Friday) Prayer (but only a voluntary prayer). However, there is a 
sunnah ratibah after the Jumu' ah Grayer for it is recorded in Sahih Muslim 
(Muslim's Authentic Book ofHadith) that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When anyone of you performs the Jumu 'ah Prayer, he should perform 
four (supererogatory rak'ahs (units of prayer)) afterwards." 

It is also recorded in the Two Hahi^s that the Prophet (PBUH) used 
to perform Two (supererogatory) rak'ahs after the Jumu" ah Prayer . To 
reconcile the two hadiths, it can be said that when the Prophet (PBUH) 
performed this supererogatory prayer at home, he made it two rak "ahs and 
when he (PBUH) performed it in the mosque, he made it four rak'ahs. It is 
also permissible for a Muslim to perform six supererogatory rak'ahs after 
the Jumu'ah Prayer according to Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with 
him) who narrated: 

"When the Prophet (PBUH) performed Jumu ah Prayer, he used to 
proceed to perform two (supererogatory) rak'ahs, and then proceed 
to perform four (supererogatory) rak "ahs!" 

A Muslim who goes early to the mosque is more entitled to sit in the front 
rows. It is not right that a Muslim reserves a place in the mosque by putting a 
prayer rug, a stick or a pair of shoes, and then comes later because this behavior 
deprives those who come early from this place. Some scholars maintain that 
it is permissible for whoever comes early to the mosque to perform prayer 
in such a reserved place and to remove anything (put in it for reservation) 
because those going early to the mosque are more entitled to perform prayer 
in the first row. Besides, such reservation is considered an act of unlawful 
seizure of a, place. 



252 11= PRAYER 

Shaykhul-lslam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"Before going for the jumu'ah Prayer, or any other prayer, many 
people send sheets (carpets) and the like to reserve a place in the 
mosque, which is forbidden according io she unanimous agreement 
of Muslims; rather it is prohibited. Scholars have two different views 
whether the prayer of such people is valid on such a sheet or not, as 
they unlawfully seize a place in the mosque by spreading such an 
object, depriving others from their right io sit in such a place when 
ihey come early, A Muslim is to go, himself, to the mosque and. hence, 
if he sends a sheet (to reserve a place) and comes later he violates 
the Shari'ah in two ways. The Just is his delay, though he is ordered 
to go early, and the second is his unlawful seizure of the place and 
depriving those going early j rorn performing prayer therein and from 
completing the rows in succession, One after another. Moreover, such 
a person commits another mistake when he disturbs the people, who 
came before him, while surpassing their rows, passing over their necks 
to reach the reserved place."" 

It is among the rulings on the Jumu'ah (Friday) that a Muslim should 
perform two short (light) rak'ahs (units of prayer) if he enters the mosque 
while the imam is delivering the sermon. The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If any one of you comes for the jumu^ah Prayer when the imam 
has already come out (to deliver the sermon), (even then) he should 
perform two rak *ahs."~ 

This hadith is recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim and in the narration 
of Musliin s he (PRUH) added, "...and should make them short."'' However, 
if he sits before performing the two supererogatory rak'ahs> he should stand 
and perform them, for the Prophet (PBUH J told the man who sat before 

performing these two rak'ahs, "Get up and perform two rak"ahs"" 

It is not permissible for a Muslim to speak while the imam is delivering the 
sermon as Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"So when the Qui 'Art is recited, then listen to it and pay attention 
that you may receive mercy" (Quran: Al - A u raf: 204) 

Some exeyetes of the Quran maintain that this verse was revealed 

concerning the Friday Sermon, and this sermon is called Quran as there 
are always Quranic verses reel ted in it. Concerning the other view that this 
verse was revealed concerning prayer, it can be said rhat if (Jumu'ah Prayer) 
generally includes the sermon, Ahmad relates that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 



Chapccr 26: Jamuah (HridayJPraytr 253 

"If anyone even says (to his companion sitting besides him), 'Sahin 
(i.e, shush)'*' (white Lite imam is delivering the sermon), it will be 
considered uttering ill speech. And whoever utters ill speech, there 
wilt be no (reward for) fumu 'ah for him" 

In another haditK the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Whoever talks while the imam is delivering the (Friday) sermon 
is like a donkey that carries volumes (of books), and whoever asks 

him to keep quiet and listen, there will be no (reward for] Friday 
for him-"" 

What is me a n r 111 this hadith is that rhere will be no complete reward 
for Friday Prayer for him. Besides, it is recorded in the Two Sahlhs* on the 
authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Alton be pleased with him}, that the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"If you ask your companion to keep quiet and listen while the im&m 
is delivering the sermon, then you have uttered an ill speech"* 

This ill speech is considered a sin even if the speech is the mere word 

"listen" that is originally considered enjoining what is right. So other words 
uttered while the imam is delivering the sermon are more entitled to be 
prohibited. 

While delivering the sermon, the imam is permitted to talk to any of the 

persons ted in prayer and they are permitted to speak to him for any legal 
interest. It happened 111 many situations that the Prophet (PBUH) talked and 
listened to an inquirer"". Also, the Prophet (PBUH) talked and listened to some 
Companions for the sake of a legal interest or to teach them religious rulings. 
This kind of speaking is permissible, as it does not distract peoples attention 
while listening to the sermon. 

While listening to the sermon, one is not permitted to give chanty 
to a beggar, as he (the beggar), in this case, does an impermissible act so 
one should not help him to such an act, i.e. speaking while the sermon is 
delivered. When the preacher confers blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH), 
it is an act of the Sitnritih (Prophetic Tradition) for a Muslim to confer 
blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH), but without raising his voice in order 
not to distract the attention of others. When the preacher invokes Allah, it 
is an act of the Sunnah for a Muslim to say 'Aniin (amen)', raising neither 
his voice nor his hands. 



254 II: PRAYRR 

Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"While the preacher is delivering the sermon, it is detestable or 
prohibited by uniform agreement for a Muslim to raise his voice, and 
neither the prayer caller (muezzin) nor anyone else should raise his 
voice with conferring blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH) or by doing 
anything else!"' 

It is noteworthy that such wrong acts* which Ibn Taymiyah pointed out, 
are still committed in some countries. Some examples of inch acts are raising 
one's voice when conferring blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH), or some 
supplications during or before the sermon or between the two sermons. 
Moreover, some preachers may order those present to commit such acts. This 
is considered ignorance and innovation in religion which is not permitted to 
be done. 

A Muslim must not greet others if he enters the mosque while the imam 
is delivering the sermon; rather, he should proceed calmly to any available 
place in the rows, perform two short rak'ahs (units of prayer) as mentioned 
previously and sit to listen to the sermon without shaking hands with those 
near him. During the sermon one is not permitted to play with his hand, foot, 
beard, clothes and the like, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Whoever touches pebbles (while the itnarn is delivering the Friday 
sermon paying no attention to the sermon) has made an evil act." 

At-Tirmidhi deemed it a sahih (authentic) hadith' . In another narration, 
the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

". ..And whoever makes an evil act, no Friday (i.e. no reward for the 
Friday Prayer) will he recorded for him'" 

This is because playing prevents devoutness. 

During the sermon a Muslim should not turn right or left, nor look at the 
people (around him) in order not to be distracted from listening to the sermon. 
Rather, he should face the preacher (looking at him) as the Companions (may 
Allah be pleased with them all) used to face the Prophet (PBUH) during his 
sermon . Tf one sneezes, one should praise Allah secretly, For the sake of a 
legal interest, a Muslim is permitted to talk before or after the sermon, or 
during the interval between the two sermons. However, one should not talk 
about worldly matters. 



CLiapicr 26: jumush (Friday) Prayer 255 

In general, the two sermons of Friday (the sermon of Friday is divided 
into two parts) are extremely important in Islam as they contain the 
recitation of the Noble Quran, some hadiths of the Prophet (PBUH), useful 
guidance, good instruction, and remembrance of the days of Allah . So, the 
preacher and listeners must pay attention to the two sermons. The Friday 
sermon is not an ordinary speech delivered in clubs, or during celebrations 
or usual meetings. 

It is worthy mentioning that during the Friday sermon, some listeners raise 
their voices, seeking refuge with Allah when they hear a warning, or invoking 
Allah, when they hear some mentioning of the Paradise or of the rewards of 
Allah. This act is not permissible and it is included in the acts forbidden to 
be done during the sermon. The legal texts indicate that talking during the 
Friday sermon renders goo J deeds worthless and whoever talks during Friday 
sermon will have no reward for the Friday Prayer, and will be like a donkey that 
carries volumes (of books). So, one must guard oneself against such forbidden 
acts and warn others to guard themselves against them. 

Faqihs (may Allah have mercy on them) mention that the Jutnu 'ah (Friday) 
Prayer is an independent obligation, not a substitute for the Zuhr Prayer. 
"Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said; 

"The prayer of the traveler is two rak l ahs (units of prayer), the 
jumu'ah Prayer is two rakahs, the Feast Prayer is two rakahs. 
These prayers are complete not shortened according to what your 
Prophet (PBUH) said." 

The /umiTflh Prayer differs from the Zuhr Prayer in many ways (concerning 
legal rulings) since the former is better and mare stressed than the latter, and 
more warnings are narrated concerning whoever leaves the Jumu'flh Prayer. 
In addition, the ]umu"ah Prayer has some conditions and specialties which 
the Zu.hr Prayer does not have. It is not sufficient for any Muslim, for whom 
the Jumu'ah Prayer is obligatory, to perform the Zuhr Prayer instead of the 
Jumu"$h Prayer, unless the due time of the latter is over; and only then the 
Zuhr Piayer becomes a substitute. 

The Junw' ah Prayer is an individual duty for every legally competent, free 
and resident male Muslim. Abu Dawiid relates, with his chain of transmitters, 
on the authority of Iariq rbn Shihab thai the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"(Performing) the futnu 'all (Friday) Prayer in congregation is obliga- 
tory upon every Muslim, with four exceptions; a slave, a woman, a boy, 
and a sick person"' 



256 II: PRAYER 

The transmitters of this hadith are trustworthy, and it is deemed idh}h 
(authentic) by many scholars. Ad-Daraqutni also relates, with his chain of 
transmitters, on the authority of Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) that 
the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day must perform the 
Jumu ah Prayer in congregation, with four exceptions; a sick person, 

a traveler, a boy or a slave"' 

Shsykhul-Isl&m Tbn T&ymiyah said: 

"The Jumu ah Prayer is obligatory upon every group of people living 
in permanent houses dose together, whether such houses are built 
with mud. wood, reeds, palm branches, or any other material, as long 
as they do not depart from such a place in summer or winter. The kind 
of material is insignificant to the aforementioned legal obligation. 
The original rule concerning this is that they should be permanently 
resident and not like nomads who live in tents and move from one 
place to another, carrying their houses with them whenever they go 
seeking rain" 

Thejumu "ah Prayer is not obligatory upon travelers, who are permitted to 
shorten prayers as the Prophet (PBUH) and his Companions used to travel for 
Ha}} or any other purpose and none of them performed the Jumu 'ah Prayer 
during travel. The Jumu L ah Prayer is not obligatory upon whoever goes on a 
picnic (and the like) and finds no mosque around and he is to perform the 
Zuhr Prayer (instead of the Jumu "ah Prayer), In addition, the Jumu 'ah Prayer 
is not obligatory upon women. 

Ibiiiil-Mundhir, as well as other scholars, said: 

"Scholars unanimously agree that the Jumu' ah Prayer is not obligatory 
upon women and that if women go to the mosque, listen to Friday 
Sermon, and perform the Jumu ah Prayer, this serves instead of 
performing the Zuhr Prayer"' ' 

Likewise, a traveler or an ill person is permitted to perform the Jumu "ah 
Prayer, instead of the Zuhr Prayer, if he is able, for Allah excuses such persons 
(from performing the Jumu 'ah Prayer) to lighten difficulties for them. 

It is not permissible for a Muslim upon whom the jumuah Prayer is 
obligatory to travel on Friday after meridian unless he performs prayer. 
Moreover, it is detestable for him to travel* even before meridian, if he is not to 
perform the Jumu 'ah Prayer on his way 



Chaprcr 26: jitmst'tth (Friday) Prayer 257 

There are some legal conditions which make the Jumu. "ah Prayer valid: 

1. The jumu' ah Prayer must be performed at its due time which is a 
condition for it as the case with other obligatory prayers. Thus, the 
Jumu ah Prayer is not valid if performed either before or after its due 
time as Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of 
specified times " ( Q u r an : A n - Nisa T : 1 03 ) 

It is better and more cautious to perform the jumu ah Prayer 
after meridian as it is the time when the Prophet (PBUH) used 
to perform this prayer. Tt is a controversial issue to perform the 
jumu' ah Prayer before meridian. There is no dispute that the end 
of the time for the Jumu' ah Prayer is the same as the end of the 
time for the Zuhr Prayer. 

2. Observers of the/ujnw ah Prayer must he residents in houses built with 

any usual material, riot like nomads who live in tents and move with 
their houses from one place to another seeking rain. This is because the 
Prophet (PBUH) did not order the Arab tribes living around Medina 

to perform the jumu "ah Prayer. 

If a Muslim catches up with one rak* ok (unit of prayer}, he can 
complete his prayer as he has already caught up with the fumu'ah 
prayer, Al-Bayhaqi records on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may 
Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Whoever could get one rak 'ah of the Jumu \ih Prayer (m its proper 
time) has got the prayer." 

The origin of this hadith is recorded in the Two $ahlhs. 

A Muslim misses the Jumu'ah Prayer if he gets less than one rak'ah 
of the Jumu' ah Prayen i e< if he joins the prayer after the imam (i.e., 
leader in prayer) has risen from bowing in the second rak" ah. Then he 
is to intend to perform the Zuhr Prayer and perform four rak ahs as 
the Zu fir Prayer after the imam pronounces the final salutation. 

3. The two sermons are considered a condition of the Jumu'ah Prayer as 

the Prophet (PBUH) used to deliver two sermons before performing the 
jumu 'ah Prayer. Ibn ' Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 



258 fl: PRAYER 

"The Prophet used to deliver two sermons while standing and sit in 
between them,"" 

(Related by Al-Bukharl and Muslim) 

In addition, among the conditions that make the two sermons of the 
fumit ah valid is that they must contain words of praise of Allah, declaring the 
Two Testifications of Faith, conferring blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH), 
giving advice to fear Allah, as well as good instruction, and the recitation of 

the Noble Qur'an (even one verse), Many sermons of preachers nowadays lack 
some or most of rhe aforementioned conditions. 

Imam IbnuJ-Qayytm (may Aliah have mercy on him) said: 

"Contemplating the sermons of the Prophet (PBUH) and those 
oj his Companions, one finds, such lessons sufficient to make dear 
the guidance and the Oneness of Allah. These sermons also explain 
ihe Attributes of the Lord, Exalted be He, and the comprehensive 
principles of faith, call to Allah, show Allah's favors that draw His 
servants near to Him and mention His days (when His punishment 
afflicted some of the previous nations) that make His servants fear 
His punishment. These sermons call Muslims to remember Allah and 
thank Him so that He may love them. Also, these sermons mention 
the Majesty of Allah, His Attributes and Names to draw His servants 
near to Him, and call Muslims to obey, thank, and remember Him 
so that He may love (ham. Thus, those who listen to such sermons 
would leave the mosque while they love Allah and Allah loves them. 
Years passed and the light of prophcthood faded until the laws and 
orders of Allah become like ceremonies that are performed without 
fulfilling their objectives. Some recent preachers have considered 
their own (invented) ceremonies as if they were acts of the Sunnah 
(Prophetic Tradition) that must be observed, and violated the 
obligatory objectives of the SharVah (islamic Law). These preachers 
adorn the sermons with so much rhyme and rhetoric that cannot 
reach the hearts of people and hence they (the sermons) do not fulfill 
their objectives" 

This is what Ibnul-Qayyim said about the sermons at his time and> of 

course, things have gone worse than what he said, for, nowadays, we find most 
of the sermons worthless and full of wordiness. Some, or many, contemporary 



Chapter 26: ]wnu'&h( Friday) Prayer 259 

preachers regard the sermon as a scholastic composition and improvise 
whatever matter that comes to their minds, either related to the topic or not, 
making their sermons long and dull. Moreover, some preachers neglect all the 
legal conditions of the sermon {or at least some of them) and do not adhere 
to the legal regularities of the sermon (according to the Sunnah). Thus, they 
have SO badly affected the standard of the sermons that they (the sermons) no 
longer fulfill their effective and useful objectives. 

Some preachers force irrelevant topics into their sermons that may be 
difficult for most of those present to understand; they include topics of press, 
politics, and current events, which do not (religiously) benefit the worshippers. 
preachers, you must imitate the model sermon of the Prophet (PBUH) as 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"There has certainty been for you in the Messenger of Allah <m 
excellent pattern. . ." (Qur an: Al-Ahzab: 2 1) 

You should focus your subjects on the topics of the Noble Qur'an and the 
Sunnah that best suit the situation, Your sermon should include the advice to 
fear Allah and follow good instruction. You should treat in a brief and clear 
way the (spiritual) diseases of your societies. Often recite the Noble Qur'an 
which grants true life to hearts and light to eyes. 

It is not a matter of two mere sermons but, rather, what is really meant is 
their expected effects on society as Shaykhul-IsJam Ibn Taymiyah said: 

"if is not enough for preachers to dispraise worldly life and mention death. 
Conventionally, there must be a specific topic for every sermon? ' 

Thus, a sermon can move hearts to good deeds. Moreover, it is not enough 
for preachers to dispraise and warn against the worldly life as this is- the 
technique of all the denieraof SharVah. Rather, a preacher should incite people 
to obey Allah, warn them against disobeying Him, call them to Allah, and 
remind them of His favors. 

Ibn Taymiyah added, "The objective of a sermon is not fulfilled through 
detrimental brevity that makes the listeners miss such an objective" When 
Allahs Messenger (PBUH) delivered a sermon, his eyes would become red, his 
voice would rise, and his anger would increase so that he was like one giving a 
warning against the enemy and saying: 

"The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the 
evening too. 



260 Tl: PRAYER 

The/fl^fe (may Allah have mercy on them) view that it is an act of the 
Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) for the preacher to Stand on a pulpit while 
delivering the Friday Sermon as the Prophet (PBUH) used to do. This is more 
effective for instruction as the worshippers can see the preacher clearly while 
he is delivering the sermon. An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said, 
"The preacher's standing on a pulpit is a unanimous act of the Sunnah! 1 ' 1, 

For the preacher, there are some acts of the Sunnah concerning the Friday 
Sermon: 

He may greet those present in the mosque when he ascends the pulpit. 
Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 

"When Allah's Messenger (PBUH) ascended the pulpit, he used to 
give a salutation." 

This hadhh is related by Ibn Majah and there are similar narrations of the 

same meaning. 

The preacher may sit on the pulpit until the prayer caller (muezzin) finishes 
the prayer call (adhan). Abu Dawud records on the authority of Ibn 'Umar 
(may Allah be pleased with him) who said; 

"When the Prophet (PBUH) ascended the pulpit t he used to sit until 
the prayer caller finishes (the adhan). Then, he (the Prophet) would 
stand and deliver the sermon!' ' 

Among the acts of the Sunnah to be observed by the preacher is sitting 
between the two sermons, for the hadsth recorded on the authority of Ibn 

'Umar who said: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used to deliver two sermons while standing 
and sit in between them" 

(Related by Al-Rukhari and Muslim) 

In addition, the preacher can deliver the sermon while standing to follow 
the example of the Prophet (PBUH) as Allah, Hxalted be He, says, "...And left 
you standing,." (Quran: Ai-Jumu'ah; 1 1) and Muslims acted according to 
this Sunnah. 

Also, according to the Sunnah, the preacher may lean on a stick or the like. 

Moreover, the preacher should look in front of him as the Prophet 
(PBUH) used to do. Turning right or left is regarded as ignoring the other 
side and contradicting the Smmah, The Prophet (PBUH) used to look in front 



Owpier 26: jutHuah (1 'rid ay) Pimvct 261 

of him while delivering Friday sermon and the worshippers (from among the 
Companions) also used to face him. At-Tirmidru related, on the authority of 
ibnMas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him), saying: 

"When the Prophet (PBUH) stood on the pulpit, we used to face him" 

Furthermore, the preacher should make the sermon moderately brief for 
fear that the worshippers might become bored, However, he should not make 
it too brief to the extent that they might not benefit from it. Imam Muslim 
records on the authority of Ammar Ibn Yasir {may Allah be pleased with 
him) that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"A man's prolongation of the prayer and shortening of the sermon 
are signs of his understanding (of faith). So prolong the prayer and 
shorten the sermon?* 

The preacher should raise his voice while delivering the sermon, for the 
Prophet (PBUH) used to raise his voice and his anger increased while delivering 
a sermon. This is more effective on the hearts of the listeners. 

The language of the preacher should he clear, strong and effective* and 
phrases should be eloquent. 

In addition to this, the preacher should invoke Allah to amend the religious 
and worldly conditions of Muslims. He should also invoke Allah to guide the 
Muslim ruler and those in authority and lead them to success.. Invoking Allah 
during Friday sermon to lead to success those in authority was well known and 
always observed among Muslims, for it is observed by the Adherents of the 
Sunnah and Muslim community. However, it is the custom of I he innovators 
in religion to leave this invocation (for those in authority). 

Imfrm Ahmad Ibn Hanbal said, "If we had ti supplication that was certain 
to he accepted, we would say it for the leader of the Muslims." This is because if 
the leader of the Muslims is good, this will benefit all Muslims. However, this 
act of the Simnah has so long been neglected that people consider it strange 
and think ill of' me one who invokes Allah for those in authority. 

It is also an act of the Sunnah to pronounce an immediate prayer call 

immediately after the second sermon, and then start the prayer without a long 
interval. 

The Jumu^ah (Friday) Prayer unanimously consists of two rak'tths (units 
of prayer) and the imam must raise his voice while reciting the Noble Quran. 



m II: PRAYLK 

Tn the first rak" ah, it is an act of the Sunnah that the imam recites the 
Sura of Al-Jumu 'ah {Friday) after reciting Ai-F&tihah, and in the second 
rak 'ah he may recite the Sura of Al-Munaftqun (the Hypocrites)' alter reciting 
Al-Fatihah according to the hadith Imam Muslim related on the authority 
of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him)' . The imam also may 
recite the Sura of Al-A "la [the Most High)" in the first rak' of} and the Sura 
of Al-Ghashiyah [the Overwhelming EventY" in the second rak' ah. It is also 
authentically narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) used to recite the Suras of Al- 
Jumu'ah and A l-Mu nafiq un in the Jumsi "ah (Friday) Prayer and sometimes he 
(PBUH) recited the Sura of Al-A 'la and the Sura of Al-Ghashiyah*. 

The imam should not divide one sura of the aforementioned between the 
two rak'ahs as this is contrary to the Sunnah. The apparent wisdom behind 
raising the voice while reciting the Noble Quran in thejumu "ah Prayer is that 
it is more evident and effective for achieving the desired objectives. 

Endnotes 

1 Abu Dawucf {1047) [1/443], An- Nasi"! (1373) [3/10 i], and Ibn MajahU085) [2/8], 

2 Ai-Bukbari (876) and Muslim (1975) j 3/33 1 J, 

3 Muslim (1979) [3/382], 

4 Chap Lor No. 32 of the Qur an. 

5 Chapter No. 7ft of the Q grain. 

6 AL-RukMri (891) [2/435] and Muslim (2031) [3/406], 

7 See: ZadnUMa 'ad[lf\\). 
& See: Zadul-Ma "rirf [T/120). 

9 Al-Baytiaql (5994) [3/353], Ahmad, Abu DawLid, An-Nas«1"u and Ibn Majah 

10 See: Zadul- Ma* ad (if 425). 

11 Al-Bukhari (1052) fl/4^51, AtTirmidhi (499) [2/373], An-Nasai <i36K) [2/97], Ibn 
Majah (1 125) [2/26| and Muslim (199?) [3/391 ]. 

12 Ahmad (719) j 1/931, ' Abdur-Razriq in his M«#Jrtrlrt/(5420) [3/223]. 

13 Ahmad (2033) [1/230]. 

14 Chapter No. 18 of the Quran. 

15 Al-Hakim (2 125) 1 1/766 1. See Nn. (2126) and No. (8627 and Al-Byhaql {5996} [3/353J. 

16 Al-Bukhari (935) [2/534] and Muslim (1967) [3/378]. 

17 Al-BukharU383) [2/476], 

18 See: Abdur-Raz;:aq in his 'Musannaf [3/246] and ibn Abu Shaybah (1/469). 

1 9 See: Majrtiit " ul- Fata mi ( 22 / 1 $9 -90 ). 

20 Muslim (2033) [3/407], 

21 Al-Bukhari (1172) [3/65] and Muslim (169S) [3/252]. 

22 See; Majnt&'ul-FatAwA (22/193). 

23 Al-Bukhari (1166) [3/63] and Muslim (2019) [3/401], 

24 Muslim (2021) [3/402]. 



Chapter 26: jumtt'ah (Friday) Prayer 263 

25 Al-Bukhan (930) [2/5231 and Muslim (2015) J3/400], 

26 This niling applies to any talk that may be uttered during the sermon, 

27 Ahmad (2033) [1/230]. 

25 Al-Rukliari (934} [2/53 J I and Muslim (1962) [3/376]. 

29 Al-J3ukhari (930, 931) and Muslim (875/39). 

30 See: Majmu ul-Fatdwd (22/469, 470), (24/2 1 7, 21 8). 

31 Muslim (1985) [3/385] and At-Timiidhi (497) [2/371], 

32 At -Tint) id hi (508)12/383]. 

33 "The days of Allah": They refer here to llie favors of Allah and the happenings that 

took place in the past, 

34 Abu Dawud (1067) f 1/449]. 

35 Ad-Daraqulni (1560) [2/3] and Ai-Bayhaqi (5634) [3/261], 

36 See: Mtynuul-haMwa (24/166. 170). 

37 See: IbnuJ-Mundhir in Al-ijm&* (70, 71). 

33 Al-Bayhaql (5735) [3/237]; see also Al-Rukhari (580) [2/76] and Muslim (1370) [3/106], 

39 Al-Bukhari (920} [2/920], Muslim (1991) [3/387], An -Nasal (1415) [2/121] and Ibn 
Majah (1103) [2/18]. 

40 The Two Testifications of Faith: Snyin^, "1 testify that there is no deity- but Allah and 
that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." 

41 See: 'Zadul-Ma 'M (1/523) 

42 Seer 'Ai-Ikhtiyarat* [pp. 120]. 

43 See the previous, source. 

44 Muslim (2002) [3/392], 

45 See: Al-Ma)m& ' [4/398], 

46 lbn Majah (1109) [2/20]. 

47 Abu Dawiid (1092) [ 1/458]. 
43 Muslim (2009) [3/396]. 

49 Chapter No. 62 of the Quran. 

50 Chapter No, 63 of the Qur'an. 

51 Muslim (2023) [3/404], 

52 Chapter No. 87 of the Qur an, 

53 Chapter No. 88 of the Qur'an. 

54 Muslim (2025) [3/405], 







CHAPTER 




■> i 



'■^"^'.''■.VlT'' 



Two Feasts ( 1 1ds) Prayer 



The Prayer of the Two Feasts ( "Ida}, namely the Fast-breaking Feast ( ^Idul- 
Fitr) and the Feast of Sacrifice ( 'Idul-Adhd), is ordained by the Noble Qu ran , the 
Sunnah and the consensus of Muslim scholars, Polythdsts used to observe feasts 
at certain t tines and places. So, when Islam came, it invalidated such acts. In 
recompense* Islam ordained the Fast-breaking Feast and the Feast of Sacrifice as 
& means of showing thankfulness to Allah, Exalted be He, for the performance 
of those two great acts of worship, namely fasting during the month of Ramadan 
and performing Hajj to Al-Masjid Al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque}. 

It is authentically narrated that when the Prophet ( PRUK) came to Medina 
and there were two days that people used to celebrate, he (PBUH) said: 

"Allah has given you instead of them what is better, they are: the 
Feast of Sacrifice and the Fast-breaking Feast"* 

Hence, it is not permissible to exceed these two feasts by inventing other 
feasts, such as birthdays and the like, as this is viewed as exceeding what 
is ordained by Allah. Moreover, such acts are viewed as bid" ah (a matter 



266 11: PRAYER 

innovated in religion), contradicting the Prophetic Sunrtah and imitating 
the disbelievers, Such innovated leasts are not among the practices of Islam, 
whether they are called feasts, com mem orations, days, weeks, years, etc., rather 
they are considered among the practices of the people of the Pre- Islamic Period 
of Ignorance (the Jahiliyyah) as well as an imitation of the foreign disbelieving 
nations and other nations. In this regard, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If anyone imitates the manners of any people, then he is considered 
one of them" 

In addition, he (PBUH) said: 

"The best of speech is that oflhe Book of Allah, and the best of the 
guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad, and the most evil 
affairs are those innovated (in religion); and every innovation (in 
religion) is an error."' 

We ask Allah to let us see the right as right and guide us to follow it, and 
let us see the wrong as wrong and guide us to avoid it. Linguistic ally, the word 
Id (feast) in Arabic means repeating the act, and that it returns (every year) 
with joy an d happiness. Moreover, Allah returns it with beneficence and favor 
on His servants as a reward for their performance of the two acts of worship: 
Fasting and Hajj. 

The proof of the legality of observing the Feast ("Id) Prayer is stated by 
Allah, Exalted be He, as He says: 

"So pray to your Lord and sacrifice {to Him alone]'" 

(Quran: Al-KaWthar: 2) 

And He also says: 

"He has certainty succeeded who purifies himself- and mentions 
the Name of his Lord and prays." (Quran: Al- A la; 14-15) 

The Prophet (PBUH) and his Caliphs used to observe it (Feast Prayer) 
regularly. Even women were commanded by the Prophet (PBUH) to attend it. 
So it is an act oflhe Sun nah (Prophetic Tradition) that women attend the Feast 
Prayer, but they are neither to be perfumed nor to wear adorned clothes that 
attract others' attention, as the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"They (women) must go while they am not perfumed." 

In addition, women should seclude themselves from the places of men. As 
for the menstruating women, the Prophet (PBUH) says: 



Chapter 27: Twn Feasts {' lek] Prayer 2g7 

"The menstruating women should keep away from the plane of 
prayer" 

Umm ' Atiyyah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated: 

"We were ordered to come out on the Day of Feast and even bring 
out the virgin girls from their houses and the menstruating women. 
They (menstruating women) would stand behind people and say 
takbir (saying, "Allahti-Akbar" i.e, "Allah is the Greatest") along 
with them, and invoke Allah along with them, and hope for the 
blessings of that day and for purification from sins" 5 

In this respect, coming out to perform the Feast Prayer in accordance with 
this manner, witnessed by everyone, is considered a means of showing and 
declaring the rituals of Islam, That is, these rituals are among the manifest 
signs of the religion. 

The first Feast Prayer performed by the Prophet (PBUH) was in the second 

year after Hijrah (the Prophets Immigration to Medina). The Prophet (PBUH) 
kept observing it until his death. Muslims also kept performing it, generation 
after generation, Thus, if it happened that people in any country abandoned 

performing Feast Prayer, the ruler should fight them, as it is among the 
manifest signs of Islam, similar to the prayer call (adh&n), 

The Feast Prayer should be performed at a spacious place near the town, 
as the Prophet (PBUH) used to perform the Prayer of the Two Feasts ('/(is) 
at the place located near the entrance of Medina, It is narrated by Abu Sa id 
that Allans Messenger (PBUH) used to proceed to the place of prayer on the 
Day of Fast-breaking and the Day of Sacrifice (as related by Al-Bukh&ri and 
Muslim)'. Moreover, it is not reported that he (PBUH) performed the Feast 
Prayer at the mosque, except with an excuse. The reason behind performing it 
in a place outside the town is to show the strength of Muslims and Islam and to 
show and declare the rituals of the religion. Furthermore, this act (performing 
the Feast Prayer in a spacious place out of the town) does not involve hardship, 
as it does not take place except for two times in the year, unlike the fumit 'ah 
(Friday) Prayer. However, at Mecca, the Feast Prayer is to be performed at Al- 
Mnsjkl Al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque). 

The due lime of the Feast Prayer is when the sun rises to the length of a 
spear above the horizon, as it is the lime at which the Prophet (PBUH) used 
to perform it. In addition, its due time extends until the meridian. However, 
when Muslims do not know about the time of the Feast until after the sun 



26S _^__„ „ II: PRAYER 

lias passed the meridian, they are to make up for it the next morning. That is 
because Abu 4 Umayr Ibn Anas reported on the authority of some of his uncles 
from the Ansar' who said: 

"The new moon of (the month of) Shawwal was overcast so we 
observed fasting. By the end of die day some people came to the 
Prophet (PBUH) and testified that they had sighted the new moon the 
previous day. He (the Prophet), therefore, commanded the people to 
break the fait and to go out to their place of prayer in the morning. 1 ' 

(Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and Ad-Daraqutni who deemed 

ixfcasan (good) hadith) 

This hadith is also viewed as ±ahih (authentic) hadith by a group of the 
mem a risers among the scholars of Hadith. Hence, if it were permissible to 
perform the Feast Prayer after the meridian, the Prophet (PBUH) would not 
delay it to the next morning. Another reason is that the Feast Prayer is to be 
performed in public congregation; therefore, there should be enough time to 
let people get ready for it. 

It is considered an act of the Sunnah to perform the Prayer of the Feast of 
Sac riftce early and to delay that of the Fast-breaking Feast. With regard to this 
issue, Ash-ShafTi related a mursal {incompletely transmitted) hadith* that the 
Prophet (PBUH) sent to ' Amr fbn Hazni saying: 

"Perform the prayer of the Day of Sacrifice early, delay that of the 
Day of Fast-breaking, and remind people (to mention Allah)." 

'lliat is to allow enough time to offer the Sacrifice by performing the prayer 
of the Day of Sacrifice early; and to allow enough time to give Zakatnl-Pitr' 
before performing the Prayer of Fast -breaking. 

Furthermore, it is regarded as an act of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) 
to eat some dates before going out to perform the Prayer of Fast-breaking and 
not to eat on the Day of Sacrifice until one performs the prayer. Tn this respect, 
fluraydah n a r rated: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used not to go out (for prayer) on the Day 
of Fast -breaking before eating, and he used not to eat on the Day of 
Sacrifice before performing (the Feast) Prayer." ' 

(Related by Ahmad and other compilers of Hadith) 

Shaykh Taqiyyud-Pin said: 

"Allah ordained per forming prayer before sacrificing in His 
statement, 'So pray to your Lord and sacrifice [to Him alone].' 



Chapter 27: Two Feis.ms (7^J IVaycr 26y 

(Quran: Al-Kawthar: 2) Allah aisc ordained giving the charity 
before performing prayer on the Day of Fast-breaking in His 
state menu 'He has certainly succeeded who purifies himself- and 
mentions the Name of his Lord tmd prays.' (Quran: Al-AIa: 14- 

1 5) Therefore, it becomes evident that the Surmah is to give charity 
before performing the Prayer of Fast-breaking and to sacrifice after 
performing the Prayer On the Day of Sacrifice." 

In addition, it is an act of the Sunnah to go out early in the morning when 

proceeding to perform the Feast Prayer, so that one is able to be near the imam 
(leader in prayer) and to get the reward of waiting for the Prayer, and so ones 
reward increases, Moreover, it is an act of the Sunnah tor the Muslim to attend 
the Feast Prayer looking mce and wearing one's best clothes. In support of this, 
Jabir said: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) had a loose outer garment, which he used to 
wear on the Two Feasts and on Fridays'' ' 

(Related in Sahib Ibn Khuzaymah (Ibn Khuzaymahs Authentic 
Book ofHadith)) 

Also, Ibn n Umar narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) used to wear his best 
clothes on the Two Feasts (as related by Al-Rayhaql with a good chain of 

transmitters). 

Residence is a condition for the Feast Prayer That is, those who intend to 
perform it must be settled in normal dwellings, as the case with the jumu'ah 
(Friday) Prayer, In other words, the Feast Prayer is not to be established except 
whenever it is valid to establish the Jumu'ah Prayer. In support of this, it 
happened that the Feast came while the Prophet (PBUH) was performing Hajj 
and he did not perform it (the Feast Prayer) neither did his Caliphs. 

The Feast Prayer is to he performed with two rak*ahs and to be performed 
before delivering the sermon. Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) 
narrated: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH), Abu Bakr, ' Umar and Uthman used to 
perform the prayers of the Two Feasts before delivering the sermon." 

(Related by Al-Rukhari and Muslim) " 

The Sunnah tackled this issue elaborately and most men of knowledge are 

of that view. 



270 II: PRAYER 

At-Tirmidhi said: 

"According to the view of the men of knowledge among the Prophet's 
Companions and others, the prayers of the Two Feasts are to be 
performed before delivering the sermon." 

The wisdom behind delaying the delivery of the sermon after performing 
the Feast Prayer, unlike thai of the Jurnu 'ah (which is delivered before the 
prayer) is that the Jumu "ah Sermon is a condition for the prayer; the condition 
is to precede the act which depends on il. This is not the case with the Feast 
sermon, as it is an act of the Sunnah. 

According to Muslims consensus, the Feast Prayer is to be performed in 
two rak ahs. It is stated in the Two Sahihs and other books of Hadith that Tbn 
'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) performed a prayer of two rak ahs (units of 
prayer) on the Day of Fast-breaking and he did not perform prayer 
before or after them!' 

In addition, ' Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 

"The Prayer of the Fast-breaking Feast and that of the Feast of 
Sacrifice (ire to be performed in two rak' ahs, without shortening 
and this is said by the tongue of your Prophet (PBUH); and he has 
failed who invents (falsehood)? 

(Related by Ahmad and other compilers of Hadith) ' 

Neither prayer call (adhan) nor immediate prayer call (iqamah) is ordained 
for the Feast Prayer J mam Muslim related that Jabir (may Allah be pleased 
with him} said: 

"I performed the Feast Prayer along with Allah's Messenger 
(PBUH) several times and he performed prayer before delivering 
the sermon, without pronouncing adhan or iqamah" 

When performing the Feast Prayer, one is to start with announcing takbir 
in the first rak'ais after the opening takbir and invocation, Then, one is to 
announce six takbirs before seeking refuge with Ailah and reciting the Quran. 
The opening takbir \s one of the integral parts of prayer that must be established 
(i.e. announced); prayer is not valid except with it. The other takbirs are among 
the acts of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition), After the opening takbir, one 
is to say the opening invocation tit the beginning of prayer, then say the six 
additional takbirs and seek refuge with Allah, as seeking refuge with Allah 
precedes the recitation, and then one is to recite the Qur'tln, 



Chjjpftr 27: Two FeEtft-S ['Ids) Prayer 



In the second rak 'ah, one is to say five takbirs, before the recitation, other 
than that uttered when moving from the prostration position to the standing 
position. Imam Ahmad related on the authority of Arar Ibn ShiTayb, from 
his father, from his grandfather ('Abdullah Ibn v Amr) who narrated: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) pronounced takbir in a Peast Prayer twelve 
times: seven times in the first rak' ah and five times in the second 
one 

This hadith is related with a good chain of transmitters. Concerning the 
number of takbirs^ there are other narrations related from the Prophet (PBUH). 

Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him} said: 

"The Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) disagreed concerning the 

number oftakbirs. All of their views are permissible!' 

One is to raise the hand upon pronouncing every takbin as the Prophet 

(PBTJH) used to do so" . It is an act of the Sunnah to say between every 
two takbirs: 

"Allah is truly Great; and praise be to Allah in abundance; and glory 
be to Allah in the morning and the evening-, and may Allah confer 
blessing upon the Prophet Muhammad and upon his household 
greatly" 

' Uqbah Ibn 'Amir said that he asked Ibn MasTiid about what one should 
say after the takbirs of the Feast. Ibn Mas' iid answered: 

"One may praise Allah, extol Him and confer blessings upon the 
Prophet (PBUH)."" 

This hadith is- related by Al~Bayhaqi with his chain of transmitters on the 
authority of Ibn rvfas'ud, both in wording and action. 

Hudhayfah said concerning this hadUlu "WhatAbfi ' Abdur-Rahm&n (Ibn 
Mas' ud) said is true" If one says another invocation, there will be no harm, as 
there is no specific invocation to be mentioned. 

Ibnul-Qayyun said; 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used to keep silent for a little while between 
every two takbirs. There is no specific invocation related from him to 
be uttered between every two takbirs." 

With regard to the aforementioned Issue, if the person is not certain about 
how many takbirs he has uttered in his prayer, he is to depend on what he is 



272 ]I:PKAV1-;R 

certain about, namely, the lesser number of takbim. Moreover, if the person 
forgets to pronounce the additional takbirs and starts reciting the Qur'iin, they 
are to he overlooked, as l hey are only supererogatory acts and their due time 
has been missed. Furthermore, it' the one Jed (in prayer} catches tip with the 
imdm (leader in prayer) after the latter has started the recitation, one is not to 
say the additional takbtrs. Also, if one gets the imam while he is in the bowing 
position, one is to say the opening takbir and then bow without saying the 
additional lakblrs. 

As mentioned before, the Feast Prayer consists of two rak'ahs (units of 
prayer), in which the imam is to recite the Quran aloud. In support of this 
view, Tbn "Uniar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used to recite the Qu/an aloud in the prayers 
of the Two Feasts and the Prayer for Rain" 

(Related by Ad-Daraqutni)"' 

Scholars unanimously agree on this opinion. Moreover, it was followed by 
Muslim generations up till now and compiled by successors from their ancestors. 

In the first rak Vft t one should recite, after Al-Fdtihah (the Opening Chapter of 
the Quran), the Sura afAl-A 'Id (the Most High)' . And in the second rah' ah, one 
should recite the Sura of Al-Ghashiyoh {the Overwhelming Event)' , This is based 
on the hadith narrated by Samurah (may Allah be pleased with him) saying: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) used to recite in the prayers of the Two 
Feasts the Sura ofAl-A 'la and the Surd of Al-Gh&shiyah" 

(Related by Imam Ahmad)" . 

Furthermore, one may recite the Sura of Qdf in the first rak" ah, and 

the Sura of Al-Qamar (the Moon)' in the second rak' ah. This came in Sahjh 
Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book of 'Hadith), the Sunan, and other books of 
Had'ith that the Prophet (PBUH) used to recite the Sura of Qdf and the Sura of 
Al-Qamar {in the Feast Prayer)" . 

Shaykhul- Islam Ibn Taymtyah said: 

"Whatever one may recite (in the Feast Prayer) is permissible,, as 
h the case with other recitations in other prayers. However, if one 
recites (he Sura of Qdf and the Sura of Al-Qamar or any other 
sura that came in the Prophetic traditions, it will be better. In great 
celebrations, the Prophet (PBUH) used to recite the suras that involve 



Chapncr27: Two Feasts (' /as] Prayer 273 

verses of monotheism, commands of Aliak and things He prohibits, 
the Beginning of the Creation and the Hereafter. He (PBUH) abo 
used to recite verses that contain the stories of the previous prophets 
with their nations and how Aliah punished those who denied them. 
In addition to this, he used to recite the verses relating to those who 
believed their prophets and how Aliah rewarded them with salvation 
and a better life" 

When the imam says taslim (final salutation in prayer), he is to deliver 
two successive sermons, separating them by sitting for a while. In this respect, 
'Ubaydullah Ibn ' Ubaydullah Ibn Utbah related: 

"ft is among the acts of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) that the 
imam delivers two sermons in each of the Two Feasts and that he 
would separate them by sitting for a while" 

(Related by Imam Ash-ShaiTl)" 

Ibn Majah related on the authority of Jabir that Allah's Messenger (PBUH) 
delivered the sermon while standing, then he sat for a while, and then he stood 
{again to complete delivering the sermon) , It is also stated in &ahih Muslim 
(Muslim's Authentic Book ofHadith) and other books ofHadith that the Prophet 
(PBUH) commenced with prayer before delivering the sermon. He then stood 
up leaning on Bilal, and he commanded (them) to fear Allah, and exhorted 
(them) to obey Him , Imam Muslim related a h&dtth in which it is stated: 

", .After finishing the prayer, the Prophet (PBUH) would stand in 
front of the people and the people would keep sitting in their rows." 

Moreover, when delivering the sermon on the Day of Fast-breaking, the 
imam should exhort people to give in Zakah pointing out its rulings, amount, 
when to give it and the type of things which can be given. Also, at the time of 
the Feast of Sacrifice, he should exhort people to offer sacrifices and explain 
to them the rulings on the sacrifice™ This is because the Prophet (PBUH) 
explained many of the rulings on sacrificial animals in the sermons he delivered 
011 the Feast of Sacrifice. Similarly preachers should focus, in their sermons, 
on (special) occasions, such as feasts, in order to explain to people the matters 
they need to know at the due time of such occasions. This should be after 
commanding people to fear Allah, preaching, and reminding them of Allah, 
especially in such great gatherings and sublime occasions. In addition, sermons 
should involve that which may benefit the listener, remind the unmindful 
and teach the ignorant. Moreover, women should attend the Feast Prayer, 



274 II: PRAYER 

as mentioned before, ^nd a special sermon, embedded in the Feast sermon, 
should be directed to them. With regard to this, when the Prophet (PBUH) 
found that he could not make women hear his sermon because he wa& far from 
them, he went to them, and advised and ordered them to give charity". Thus, 
women should have their share of the topic of the Feast sermon, as they need 
this and as this is considered a means of following the Prophefs tradition. 

Among the relevant rulings on the Feast Prayer is that it is viewed detestable 
to perform supererogatory prayer before or after it in the place of prayer, until 
one leaves this place. This is based on the hadith narrated by Ibn ' Abb&s (may 
Allah be pleased with him)* in which he said: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) performed a prayer of two rak'ahs (units 
of prayer) on the Day of the Fast-breaking and he did not perform 
prayer before or after them*'" 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

Thus, tire Feast Prayer has tio supererogatory prayer to be performed 
before or after it. 

Imiim Ahmad said, "The people oj 'Medina do not perform any supererogatory 
prayer, neither before nor after the Feast Prayer." In addition, Az-Zuhrl said: 

"/ knew that none of our scholars mentions that any of the Salaf (early 
Muslim scholars) of this nation would perform any supererogatory 
prayer before or after the Feast Prayer. Ibn Mas ' Ctd and Hudhayfah 
used to forbid people from performing any prayer before it. '" 

However, when one returns home, there will be no harm in performing 
any prayer there, hi support of this view, Ahmad and other compilers of 
Hadith related: 

"After finishing the Feast Prayer, the Prophet (PBUH) used to 
perform two rak'ahs (units of prayer) on returning home"' 

It is an act of the Sunnah for the one who misses the Feast Prayer or part 
of it to make lip for it according Lcj its prescribed form and manner, namely to 
perform it as two rak 'aha with its additional takbirs, that is because making up 
for it is similar to the actual performs nee. This is based on the generality of the 
Prophets hadith, in which he (PBUH) says: 

"Pray whatever you gal, and complete whatever you missed" 

For instance, if one misses one rak' ah with the imam (leader in prayer), 
one is to complete prayer by performing another one. Moreover, if one comes 



Chapter 27: Two Fmses Vffh) Prayer 275 

while the im&m is delivering the sermon, one is to sit and listen to it and when 

the imam finishes the sermon, one may make up for the prayer, and there will 
be no harm whether one makes up for it alone or in congregation, 

It is also an act of the Sunnah to utter general takbir, which is not limited 
in time. In this takbir, men only are permitted to raise their voice loudly not 
women. Therefore, one is to pronounce takbir in the two nights preceding the 
days of the Two feasts as well as on the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah, as Allah. Exalted 
be He, says: 

"..7b complete the period and glorify Allah for that [to] which 
He has guided you..." {Quran: Al-Baqarah: 1R5) 

Thus, takbir is to be pronounced loudly in houses, markets, mosques and 
anywhere in which the Name of Allah, Exalted be He, can be pronounced. 
Takbir also is to be pronounced loudly when one goes out to the place of 
prayer. In this regard, Ad-Daraqutni and other compilers ofHadith related that 
whenever Ibn "Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) went out to perform 
the Feast Prayer on the Day of Fast-breaking and the Day of Sacrifice, he used 
to pronounce takbir aloud until he reaches the place of prayer, then he would 
pronounce takbir until the imam came . It is recorded in Sahjh Al-Bukbart 
(Al-Bukhari's Authentic Book ofHadith) that Umm h Atiyyah said: 

"We were commanded to make the menstruating women go out to 
witness the Feast Prayer..!* 

And she added: 

". . . They (the menstruating women) would stand behind people and 
pronounce takbir along with ihenC 

Tt is stated in another narration by Imam Muslim as: 

"...They (the menstruating women) used to pronounce takbir along 
with people."' ' 

Hence, it is viewed desirable to pronounce takbir, as it involves the 
declaration of the Islamic rituals. 

Furthermore, the act of pronouncing takbir on the Feast of Fast- breaking is 
more stressed upon than in the Feast of Sacrifice, as Allah, Exalted be He, says, 

"...To complete the perutd and glorify Allah for that [to J wltiult 
He has guided you,." (Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 185) 



276 II: PftAYER 

Consequently, takbir is more stressed upon with regard to the Fast -breaking 
Feast, as it is enjoined by Allah, 

In the Feast of Sacrifice, limited takh'ir is ordained; namely the takbir 
which is said after every obligatory prayer performed in congregation. In such 
an act, the imam is to face people, after uttering the final salutation in prayer, 
and utter takbir along with them. Ad-D&raqulm, Ibn Abu Shaybah and other 
compilers of Hadith related on the authority of Jabir who said: 

"When the Prophet (PBUH) performed the $nbh_ (Morning) Prayer 
in the morning of 'Arafah (the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah), he used to 
pronounce takbir.." 

In this case, one is to start pronouncing the takh'ir immediately after prayers. 
As for the non-muhrim person, the due time of the limited takbir starts from 
the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer on the Day of Arafah (Mount) until the afternoon 
of the tost day of the Days of Tashriq (days 11% 12" 1 , 13 ,h of Dhul-Hijjah). 
Concerning the muhrim, the time of the limited takbsr starts from the Zuhr 
Prayer on the Day of Sacrifice until the 'Asr (Afternoon) Prayer of the last day 
of the Tashriq Days, as before that time a pilgrim should be busy pronouncing 
talbiyah '. In relation to this, Ad-Daraqutni relates from Jyhir saying: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used to pronounce takbir immediately 
after finishing obligatory prayers, starting from the Fajr Prayer 
on the Day of 'Arafah until the "Asr Prayer on the last day of the 
Tashriq Days." 

In another narration* the words of this hadith are: 

"When he (the Prophet) finished Subh Prayer on the Day of 'Arafah, 
he would face his Companions and say, 'Stay in your places.' Then 
he would say, 'Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest: there is no 
deity but Allah; Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, and (all) 
praise is due to Allah! " '' 

In this regard, Al.Uih, fcxalted be He, says, "And remember Allah during 
[specific j numbered days*. " (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 203) The days mentioned 
in this verse refer to the Days of Tashriq. 

Imam An-Nawawi com men ted, "This opinion is the soundest opinion 
according to which Muslims act in all countries" 

In addition, Shuykhul-lslam Ibn Taymiyali said: 

"The soundest opinion according to the majority of the Salaf and 
faqihs, from the Prophet's Companions and scholars, is that the 



Chapter 27; Two Feasts (Jfk) Prayer 277 

time of takbir is to start from dawti of the day of 'A rajah until the 
last day of the Tashrtq Days, and that it is to be after each prayer. It 
is stated in the Sunan that the Prophet (PBUH) said, ['The Day of 
"Arafah, and (he Day of Sacrifice and the Days oj'Mina (days U'\ 
12 th . I3 lh ofDhul-Bijjah) are our feast, we Muslims. These days are 
for eating and drinking (what is lawful) as well as the remembrance 
of Allah" Lh The reason behind starting the limited takbir, for the 
muhrim, from the Zuhr Prayer on the Day of Sacrifice, is that 
pronouncing talhiyah should be stopped when throwing jamratul- 
'Aqabah™. The time of Jamratul- 1 Aqabah stated in the Sunnah 
(Prophetic Tradition) is in the forenoon on the Day of Sacrifice. 
Therefore, the muhrim will be equal to the muhill (non- muhrim), 
so if he throws famratul- "Aqabah before dawn, he is not to start 
takbir except after performing the Zuhr Prayer. This is according to 
the most prevailing opinion."' 

As for the manner according to which takbir is to be performed, one is to 
say "Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest: there is no deity but Allah; Allah 
is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, and (all) praise is due to Allah.'' There 
will be no harm in exchanging felicitation among people, saying, ' l May Allah 
accept good deeds from you and from us," In this regard, Shaykhui- Islam Ibn 
Taymiyah said, "It was related that, some of the Companions used to do such an 
act Imdm Ahmad and others view such an act as legally permissible" The aim 
behind exchanging felicitation is to show affection and delight towards one's 
Muslim brothers, Imam Ahmad said, "S do not start giving this felicitation, 
but if a person felicitate} me, 1 will answer him" This is because answering 
greetings is a duty; however, starting felicitation is not an act of the Sunnah 
that a Muslim is. commanded to do nor is it a forbidden one. Yet, there is no 
Iwm in a handshake. And Allah, Exalted be He, knows best. 

Endnotes 

1 Ahmad (11945) 1 3/1031 and An -Nasal {1555} [2/19?]. 

2 Ahmad (51 15) [2/68] and Abu PS wad {4031) 1 4/204]. 

3 Muslim (2002) 13/392]. 

4 Ai-Bnkhar] (324) 1 1/548 J and Muslim (2051) [3/418], 

5 Al^Bukhari (971) [2/5941 and Muslim (2053) [5/4191. 

6 Al-Bukhar! (956) [2/578 1 and Muslim (2050) [3/417]. 

7 The- ArtSfir. "I he Supporters: tht inhabitants of Medina who had accepted Islam and 
supported the Prophet (PBUH) and all the MuhajirCm (the Emigrants) upon their 
arrival there. 



278 U: PRAYLR 



3 Abu Dawud (115?) [1/4771, An-Nasai (1556) [2/19?], Tbn Majah (1653) [2/303] and 
Ad-Daraquini (2183) [2/149]. 

9 Mursal (incompletely transmitted) hitdiih is a With whose chain of transmission lacks 
a Companion transmitter, "i.e.nhadUh thai a Successor of the Companions has directly 
attributed to the Prophet without mentioning a Companion. 

10 Abd«r-Razzaq(5651) [3/2361. 

1 1 Ztikfitstt-Fitr (Fast-breakmgZafc^i): An obligatory charity to bo paid by the rich to the 
poor, In a juristic view, it is to be paid at any rime throughout Ramadan, whereas it is 
most preferable to give it two or three days right before the fast -breaking Feast ( "Idul- 
Fitr). A third view maintains that it is to be given before going out for performing the 
Prayer of the fast- breaking Feast. 

12 Ahmad [5/352], Ibn Majah ( 1 75(5), At-Tirmidhl (542) and Ibn Kbuzaymah (1426). 

13 Ibn Khuitaymah (1766) [3/132]. 

14 Al-Bayhaqi (6143) [3/3981. 

15 Al-Uukhari (963) [2/584) and Muslim (2049) [3/416). 

16 Al-Bukhari (964) [ 2/584) and Muslim (2054) (3/420J. 

17 Ahmad (257) 1 1/37], An-Nasai (1419) [3/I23J/J1565) [3/203| and Ibn Majab (1063, 
1064) (1/556, 557 j. 

IS Muslim (2045) 13/414], See also Muslim (2048) [3/416]. 

19 Ttikbfr; Saying, " AUahu- Akbm" (i.e. Allah is the Greatest). 

20 Ahmad (6688) (2/1 ao], Abu Dawud (1151) [1/475], Ibn Majab (127ft) [2/102] and 
Ad-Daraqulni (1712) [2/36]. 

21 Al-Daylmqi (3/293). 

22 Al-Bayhaql (6136) [3/410], 

23 Ad -D Llraqu.ini (1735) ]2/54|. 

24 Chapter No, 87 of the Qur'an. 

25 Chapter No. 88 of theQur'an. 

26 Ahmad (20093) |5/19], Abu Dawud (I ] 25) 1 1/463] and An-Nasa't (1421) [3/124). Ahmad 
(18343) [4/369]/(18390) [4/376] and Ibn Majah (1233) [2/104]. Muslim (2025) [3/4051. 

27 Chapter No, 50 of the Quran, 

28 Chapter No. 54 of the Quran, 

29 Muslim (2056) [3/4211, Abu Dawud (1154) f!/476|, At-Tirmidhi (533) 14I5J, An- 
Nasai (1566) 12/204| and [hn Majah (1232) J2/103J. 

30 See: Mojmu'ul-Fatawn (24/205, 219), 

3 1 Tasihn: Saying the final .WhIhk in pmycT (saying, "A s-.wlamti \tfoykum nw Ruhmatullah" 
i.e, "Peace be upon yon, and Ihe mercy of Allah") when concluding prayer, 

32 Al-Bayhaqi (6213) [3/420]. 

33 Tbn Majah (12S9) [2/l06|, Abu Dawud (1093) [J/458], An-NasffHHlrt) [2/122]; see 
also Muslim (1993} [3/3881. Al-Bukhari (920) [2/515] and Muslim (1991) (3/387], 

34 Muslim (20-15) [3/4 1 4 1. 

35 Muslim (2050) [3/417]. 

36 Al-ttukhari (965, M5) |2.'5H4, 6S0] and Muslim (5049,5033) [7/117,112]. 

37 Al-BuMiari (1449) [ 3/393 1 and Muslim (20-12) [3/413|. 
33 Al-Bukhari (964) and Muslim (834). 

39 *Abdur-Razzaq(5S06) [3/273], 



Chaptet 27: Two Feasts ( 'tin) Piaycr 279 

40 Ibn Majah (1293) 1 2/108], Ahmad [yi#> 40] bind Ibn Kluszaymah ( 1 469). 

41 Ad-Daraqutni(1700) [2/341 and Al-USkim (1 14?) [1/298], 

42 Muslim (2052)|3MI9], 

43 Ad-Darsqulni (1719) [2/37] and Ai- Hakim (1 152) [1/299], 

44 jWu/y/m: One in a state of ritual consecration during Hrjjrj or 'Vmmh. 

45 'JiiJI>yw/i: A formula recired by a pilgrim during fffljj/ or 'Utnmh after assuming the 
state of ih,r&m; a pilgrim sayi: "Here i am at Your service, O Allah, here 1 am at Your 
service. Here I am ill Your service, You have no partner, here 1 am at Your service. 
Verily, al! praise, blessings, and dominion are Yours. You have no partner." 

46 Ad-Daraqutni (1719) [2/37]. 

47 Ad-Daraqumi (1721) [2/381. 

4fl AbuDawud (2419} [2/553], Al-'i'irmidhi (772) [3/H3| and Muslim (1142). 

49 fanirntuI-^Aqabak; A small stout:- made pillar in a wailed place. There are three 
pmrahs situated in Mina, The closest one Lu Mecca is known as fmnrctlul-' Aqabah; it 
is also called the Great Jatartih and the Last Jmnrah. 

50 See: "Majmuul-FatAwA" (20/364), (24/220), 

51 See: "Majmii 'ut-Fatawa" (24/253). 




^V.'.^' : 

-■.■.■■ :■ 



Eclipse Prayer 



Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"ft is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a 
derived light and determined for it phases - that you may know 
the number of years and account [of time]. Allah has not created 
this except in truth. He detaih the signs for a people who know." 

{Quran: Yuri us; 5) 

Allah, Exalted be He, also says: 

"And of His signs are the night and day and the sun and moon. 
Do not prostrate to the sun or to the moon, but prostrate to Allah, 
Who created them, if it should be Him that you worship." 

{Quran: Fu.ss.ilat 37) 

The Eclipse Prayer is a stressed act of I he Sumtah according to the unanimous 
agreement of scholars, Its proof is derived from the confirmed act of \heSunnah 

of Allah's Messenger (PBUH). Eclipse is a sign amongst the signs of Allah, which 
He reveals to warn and alarm His servants, as Be, Exalted be He, says: 



282 13i PRAYER 

"...And We send not the signs except as a warning." 

(Qur'an: Al-lsra': 59) 

There was an eclipse in the lifetime of the Prophet (PBUH) and so he 

hurried to the mosque filled with fear and dragging his garment out of haste. 
He led Muslims in prayer and told them that the eclipse is a sign amongst the 
signs of Allah by which He warns His servants. He also told them that it might 
be the reason for a severe torment that might befall people. Therefore, the 
Prophet (PBUH) ordered people to do arts that may eliminate it. That is, to 
perform prayer, supplicate, ask for Allah's forgiveness, give charity, emancipate 
(slaves), and other good deeds, so that people may be relieved. 

Eclipses are considered a kind of warning from Allah directed to people 

in order to make them turn to Allah in repentance and follow His right path, 
In the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance (the fahiliyyah), people used to believe 
that the reason behind eclipses was due to the birth or death of a great person. 
Therefore, the Messenger (PBUH) invalidated such beliefs and showed the 
Divine wisdom behind eclipses, AL-RukMri and Muslim related a had'dh 
narrated by Abu Mas'ud Al-Ansari who said: 

"There was an eclipse on the day when Ibrahim, the son of the 

prophet (PBUH), died, and so people said that the sun had eclipsed 
due to the death of Ibrahim, Therefore, the Prophet (PBUH) said, 
'The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah, 
so they do not eclipse because of the death or life of somebody. So, 
when you see that, seek refuge with the remembrance of Allah and 
perform prayer.' " 

There is another hadith stated in the Two Sahihs in which the Prophet 
(PBUH) says: 

"Invoke Allah and perform prayer until the. eclipse clears!' 

There is also a similar hfidith related in Sahih Al-Rukh&rt (Al-Bukharfs 

Authentic Book of Hadith) on the authority of Abu. Miisa, saying: 

"These signs, which Allah sends, do not occur because of the death or 
birth of somebody, but by them Allah warns His servants So when 
you see anything thereof, resort to remembering Allah, invoking 
Him and asking for His forgiveness"' 

Hence, Allah, Exalted be He a causes eclipses of these two great signs, 

namely the sun and moon, to let people take warning and know that the sun 



Chapter 28: Eclipse Prayer 2 S3 

and moon are creatures, just like the other creatures, that may be afflicted 
with imperfection and change. Thus, Allah does this to show His servants 
His sublime, perfect Might and to confirm that He is the OrtJy One deserving 
worship. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And of His signs are the night and day and the sun and moon. 
Do not prostrate to the sutt or to the moon, but prostrate to Allah, 
Who created them, if it should be Him that you worship." 

(Qur'an: FuiSilat: 37,1 

As for the time of the Eclipse Prayer, it is to start from the begin n ing of the 
eclipse until it is clear, as the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"When you see the eclipse, perform prayer," 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)' 

It came in another hadith related by Muslim as: 

"When you see any of this (i.e. eclipse), perform prayer until it dears."* 

The Eclipse Prayer is not to be performed after the eclipse is over, for its 
due time has been missed. Also, if the eclipse is over before people know of it, 
they are not to perform the Eclipse Prayer. 

According to the soundest opinion of scholars, Eclipse Prayer is to be 
performed with two rak'ahs (units of Prayer), in which one is to recite the 
Quran aloud. As for the first rak "ah y one is to recite Al-FMhah (the Opening 
Chapter of the Quran) and another long sura, such as the Sura of Al-Saqarah 
(the Cow) or any other long sura. Then, one is to perform a prolonged bowing, 
and raise one's head and say tasmi* and tahjnid s in the same way one does in 
other prayers. After that, one is to recite AlFatihah and another long sura, but 
shorter than the first, such as the Sura of Alu Imr&n (the Family of Imr&nf, 
Next, one is to perform a long bowing, but shorter than the first one, and raise 
ones head and say: 

"Allah listens to the one who praises Him, O our Lord! (All) praise is 
due to You> many good and blessed praises, (the praise) with which 
is filled the heav&ns and the earth, and with which is filled anything 
that Ycu desire after this." 

After saying so, one is to perform two prolonged prostrations and not 

to prolong sitting between them. Then, one is to perform the second rak' ah 



2B4 H: PRAYliR 

similar to the first, namely with two prolonged bowings and two prolonged 
prostrations. Finally, one is to recite Tashahhud and say taslim . 

This is how the Eclipse Prayer is to be performed, according to the way 
practiced by Allah's Messenger (PBUH), and according to what was reported 
about him through many ways of transmission. Some of these ways of 
transmission are included in the Two Sahiks; lb r example, ' A'ishab (may Allah 
be pleased with her) narrated: 

"In the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (PBUH), the sun eclipsed and 
he went to the mosque and the people aligned behind him. He 
pronounced takbtr and prolonged the recitation (of the QltT'&n) 
and then said takbtr and performed a prolonged bowing-, then he 
(lifted his head and) said, Allah listens to the one who praises Him.' 
He then did no! prostrate hut stood up and recited a prolonged 
recitation, but shorter than the first one. He again pronounced 
takbtr, then performed a prolonged bowing, but shorter than the 
first one and then said (after rising from bowing), Allah listens to 
the one who praises Him, O our Lord! (All) praise is due io You.' 
Then, he prostrated and then he did the same in the second Ttlk'tth; 
thus he completed four bowings and four prostrations. The sun 
(eclipse) had cleared before he finished the prayer'' 

(Related by Al-bukhari and Muslim) 12 

It is an act of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) to perform Eclipse Prayer 
in congregation, as done by the Prophet (PBUH), yet it is permissible to 
perform it alone, like the case with the other supererogatory prayers. However, 
it is preferable to perform it in congregation. Moreover, it is an act of the 
Sunnah, for the imam, to preach people after performing the Eclipse Prayer, 
and warn them against heedlessness with regard to Allah's commands, and 
against unawarencss. The imam should also command them to invoke Allah 
frequently and ask for His forgiveness. 

In the Two Sahihs, ' A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated' 

"The Prophet (PBUH) came to the people, after the sun became 
visible again after the eclipse, and delivered a sermon, in which he 
praised Allah and extolled Him. Then he said, 'The sun and the 
moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah; they do not eclipse 
on the death or birth of anyone. So when you see the eclipse, invoke 
Allah, pronounce takbir, perform prayer and give charity..! " 



Chi*pi:cr 26: Eclipse Pr.iytr 235 

If the prayer is finished before the eclipse is over, one is to resort to 
remembering and invoking Allah until if is over, and not to repeat prayer. 
However, if the eclipse is dear during prayer, one is to complete it Lightly and 
not to finish it straight away, ns Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

".,, And do not invalidate your deeds." 

(Qur'an: Muhammad: 33) 

Hence, prayer is to be during the time of eclipse, as the Prophet (PRUH) 
says, "...until the eclipse is dear" and, "...until the eclipse is over,"" 

Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Tayiniyah said: 

"The tittie of the eclipse may be long at times, and short at others, 
This is according to (the amount of) the part eclipsed of the sun; 
the sun may be entirely or partially eclipsed. Thus, if the eclipse 
takes a long time, one is to prolong prayer arid recite the Sara of 
Al-Baqarah (the Cow), or any other kmg$ura> in the first rak'ah. 
After performing the second bowing, one is to recite a sura shorter 
than the first. There are sahjh (authentic) hadsths narrated about 
the Prophet (PBUH) in support of what we have already mentioned. 
Moreover, the prayer is to be completed lightly when the reason 
behind performing it is over (i.e. when the eclipse is over). Similarly, 
one is permitted to lighten the prayer when one knows that the 
eclipse will not take a long time. In addition, if the eclipse begins to 
be dear before one commences prayer, one is to commence it and 
make it light. The majority of scholars uniformly agree upon this, for 
the Eclipse Prayer is ordained for a specific reason, which is about 
to finish. If the eclipse clears entirely before the commencement of 
prayer, one is not to perform it" 

Endnotes 

1 Al-Bukhgri (1041, 1057, 3204} and Muslim (91 1 ). 

2 A]-Blikhan(1060) 1 2/705] and Muslim (2119) [2/457], 

3 ANBukhart(1059) 1 2/7041 andMuslEin (912). 

1 Al-Bukhiii (1043) 1 2/679] and Muslim [2] 19) [3/457], 

5 Muslim (2099) [3/447] 

6 Chapter No. 2 of the Qur'an. 



2M II: PRAYER 

7 TasmV: Saying " Sams' allAkit timan hamidah" i.e. "Allah Listens to the one wlio praises 
Him" when standing fullowitlg bowing Li) pntyOr. 

8 Tahjnld (in prayer): Saying as a reply to Uamt\ "RabbanS-watakat-foimd?' i.e, "Our 

Lord, to You he (all) praise." 

9 Chapter No. 3 of the Qnr'an. 

10 Tiis/im: Saying the final Sti/amsinprayti (saying, "As- sal funis 'alnykum wa Rtthnmtuttali" 
i.e. "Peace be. upon you, and she mercy rf Allah") when concluding prayer. 

1 1 Takbir. Saying, " Attaint- AkbaT n (i.e. Allah is the (jneatcst). 

12 Al-Bllk]l<\ri (1046) \1/WX} and Muslim (20HK) |3/440]. 

13 Al-Bukhari (104-1) [2/682] Had Muslim (2086) [3M38J. 

14 Al-Bukhari (1063) 1 2/706]. Al-Bukhirt (1041) [2/678] and Muslim (2111) [3/453]. 

15 See: "MajnuYwl-FutawiT J24/260]. 



'SsfeS ■■-■;■'■■...■-:■■.■■. ' ' " . 





- 1 W 



CHAPTER 







. ■ v 



Rain Prayer 



This prayer i& a means of seeking rain from Allah, Exalted be He t during 
rimes of drought. That is, people are naturally disposed to ask help from the 
One Who is able Co support them; Allah Alone. This prayer wa& known among 
the previous nations, It is regarded also as one of the acts of the prophets (peace 
be upon them all), as Allah, Exulted be He, says: 

"And [recall] when Moses prayed for water for his people..." 

(Quran; Al-Baqarah: 60) 

Similarly, the Seal of Prophets, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) performed 
Prayer for Kain for his people many times, and in many vvays. In addition, 
Muslim scholars unanimously agree on the legality of such an act. 

The Prayer for Rain is ordained during times of drought and times when rain 
fails, which causes harm to people. Then there is no way out except by supplicating 
their Lord and asking Him for water (rain). People may supplicate Allah in 
various ways. For instance, people may supplicate Allah in Prayer, whether in 
congregation or alone. They may also supplicate Him by invoking Him during 



288 



IIiPRAYKR 



the sermon of the /him u "ah (Friday) Prayer, in which the imdtn may invoke Allah, 
^nd Muslims say, "Amin (Amen)" Furthermore,, it may be by invoking Allah after 
performing prayers, or by supplicating Him in seclusions with neither prayer nor 
sermon. All such acts are related about the Prophet (FBUH), 

The Prayer for Rain is regarded as a stressed Sumiah, as 'Abdullah Ibn 

Zayd (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) went, out to invoke Allah for rain. He faced the 
qiblahy invoking Allah. Then he traversed his cloak ami performed 
two rak Wis and recited the Quran aloud in them!' 

(Related by Al-Bukhaii and Muslim)" 

There arc many hadiths in support of ihis practice. 

The Prayer for Rain is similar Ui thai nf the Feast concerning its relevant 
rulings and the place where it is performed. That is, it is viewed desirable to 
perform it in the place where the Feast ('Id) Frayer is performed; outside the 
mosque. Moreover, its rulings and practices are the same as those of the Feast 
Prayer, namely the number of rak Wis, the loud recitation of the Quran, being 
performed before delivering the sermon, and the additional takbirs in the first 
and second rak 'aha before the recitation of the Quran, as illustrated before. 

Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) performed two rak'ahs as he does in the 
Feast (Prayer)." 

Al-Tirmidhi says that this is ahasan (good) and idhit (authentic) hadith, 
and Ai-Hakim and others' view it as a sahih (authentic) hadith, as well, The 
one performing the Prayer for Rain is to recite the Sura of Al-AUa (the Most 
High)* in the first rak 'ah, and the Sura of Al-Ghashiyah {the Overwhelming 
Event) in the second one. People are to perform it in a vast spacious place, 
away from the place of residence, as the Prophet (PBUH) did not perform it 
except iii the desert. This is because performing it in such a place is a means of 
showing much need to Allah, Exalted be He. When the imam wants to proceed 
to perform the Prayer for Rain, he should start with reminding people of what 
may soften their hearts by mentioning Allah's reward and punishment. They 
should also be commanded to turn lo Allah in repentance and return rights 
to whom they are due. This is because sins are amongst the main reasons that 
cause rain and blessings to be withheld, On the other side, repentance and 
asking Allah for forgiveness are reasons for Allah's answering of supplication, 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 



Chapter 29: Rain Prayer 239 

"And if only the people of the cities had believed and feared Allah, 
We would have opened [i.e. bestowed} upon them blessings front 
the heaven and the earth; but they denied [the messengers}, so 
We seized them for what they were earning" 

(Quran: Al-Araf: 96) 

Furthermore, the imdm should command people to give charity to the 
poor and needy, as this is regarded as a cause for sending Allah's mercy. After 
that, he is to set for them a certain day, at which they are to come OUT and be 
prepared for such an honorable occasion, and according to that which best 
suits it as an act of the Sunnah. At that date, people are to go out to the place of 
prayer showing humbleness, submissiveness and neediness of Allah, Exalted 
be He, as Ibn "Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) went out to perform the Prayer for Rain 
showing humility, humbleness, and submissiveness, and supplicate 

mg(AtIah). u 

(At-Tinnidhi said that this is a Hasan, sahjh (good, authentic) hadttk) 

No Muslim should stay behind {from going out) while able, even boys and 
women, whose presence does not cause temptation, are to go out to perform 
it. Then, the imam is to lead people performing two rak'ahs, as mentioned 
before. After doing so, he is to deliver one sermon. However, some scholars 
view that the imam is to deliver two sermons. Both opinions are permissible, 
but the soundest opinion is to deliver one sermon, according Co the most 
preponderant legal proof. In most cases, the Prophet (PBUH) delivered the 
sermon after performing the Prayer for Rain, and Muslims acted according 
to this. However, it is related that the Prophet (PBUH) delivered the sermon 
before performing the prayer*. This is the view of some scholars, but the first 
view (delivering the sermon after performing prayer) is more preponderant; 
and Allah knows best. 

In Che sermon o f asking for rain, the imam should ask for Allah s forgiveness 
as well as recite the verses that command asking for forgiveness, in abundance, 
as this is considered a cause for sending rain, Moreover, Che imam should 
supplicate Allah, Exalted be He, with much invocation, asking for rain. When 
supplicating Allah, Che imam should raise his hands, as the Prophet (PBUH) 
used to raise his hands when invoking Allah in the Prayer for Rain, so much 
that the whiteness of his armpits became visible. The imam should also confer 



290 _ [J; PRAYER 

blessings upon the Prophet (PBUH), a5 this is a cause for (Allah) answering 
his supplication. He may invoke Allah with the supplication related about 
the Prophet (PBUH) in such situations, as a means of foil owing him. In this 
regard, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"There has certainly barn for you in the Messenger of Allah an 
excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last 
Day..." (Quran: Al-Ahzab: 21) 

It is viewed as an act of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) to face the qiblak 
{direction of prayer) at the end of supplkalion, and to traverse one's clothes, as 
related in the Two Sahibs' that the Prophet turned his back toward the people and 
faced the qihlah asking Allah (for rain). Then lie traversed his cloak' The wisdom 
behind this - Allah knows best - is that it is like a good omen that the present hard 
condition may turn into prosperity and the sending 0/ rain. People should also 
follow the imam and traverse their clothes, as Imam Ahmad related, ",, the people 
followed him (the Prophet) and traversed their clothes" 1 ' In addition, what is .stated 
as done by the Prophet (PBUH) is to be done by his nation, unless it is proved that 
he alone is particularized with such a thing. 

This would be until Allah sends down rain; otherwise, Muslims should 
repeat asking for rain, as long as there is a need for that, it is considered an act 
of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) that when rain starts to fall, one is to stand 
and receive some of it" and say "O Allah! let it be a strong fruitful rain,"" and 
say, "The rain is due to the Favor and Mercy of Allah"" However, when rain 
falls heavily and there is fear that it might cause harm, one should say as the 
Prophet (PBUH) used to say: 

"O Allah! (Let the rain be) around us, not on us. O Allah! (Let the 
rain be) on the plateaus, on the mountains, on the hills, on the 
hillocks, in the valleys, and on the places where trees grow" 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

Allah knows best. 



Endnotes 

1 Thi qiblah: The direction of prayer, namely towards the Ka'bah. 

2 Al-Bukhari £1024) [2/663] and Muslim (20(57) [.1/427], 

3 Abu DawJd 165) (iMSOj, At-Tirmidhl (558) [2/445], An-Nasai (1 505) [2/173], Ibn 
Majitli (1266) J2/94], and Al-Hakim in his "Al-Musfndrak" (1220) [1/466]. 



Chapter 29: Rain Prayer 291 

4 Chapter No. 87 of the Quran- 

5 Chapter No. 88 of the Quran. 

6 Al-Rukhari (1024) [2/663] and Muslim (2068) [3/428]; see also Al-Bayhaqf in his 

"Sundtt" [3/486]. 

7 Al-Ruklwi{103l) [2/667] and Muslim (2074) [3/4301. 

8 Al-Bukhari (1013) [2/6461 and Muslim (2075) 13/431 ]. 

9 The Two Srifpfts: 'line Two Authentic Books of Al-Bukhari and Muslim. 

10 Al-Bukhari (1025) and Muslim (894). 
LI Ahmad (16417) [4/411, 

12 Muslim (2080) [3/435], 

13 Al-Bukhari (1032) [2/668]. 

14 AUBukhari (810) [2/673] and Muslim (228) [1/247]. 






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Death and Burial 



Our 5/wri oA (Islamic Law), thank Allah, is so perfect and comprehensive 
that it covers ail man's affairs related to his life as well as his death. Among 
the issues that our SharVah covers are the rulings on deathbed and death, 
starting from ones last illness and death, until one's burial. Our Short ah 
also covers the rulings on visiting a dying person and instructing him to say, 
"There is no deity but Allah" washing the body of the deceased, enshrouding 
his body, performing the Funeral Prayer over him, burying him, settling his 
debts, carrying out his will, distributing his properties legally; and assuming 
guardianship over his young children. 

Imam Ibnul-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him} said: 

"The Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) regarding sick and dying people 
is the most perfect one, which is different from that of all othernations. 

The Sunnah in this regard includes the following: 

. Showing servitude and submissiveness to Allah, Exalted be He, as 
perfectly as possible. 



294 II: PRAYER 

# Giving the dying and deceased person the kindest treatment, that 
benefits him in his grave and on the day when he Is resurrected. 
Such a kind treatment includes many acts, such as visiting the 
dying person, instructing him to utter "There is no deity but Allah 1 ' 
before breathing his last. Kind treatment also includes purifying the 
deceased by washing his body and preparing him for meeting Allah, 
Exalted be He, in his best form and stale, standing in rows while 
performing the Funeral Prayer over him, praising Allah and extolling 
Him while praying over the deceased* and asking Allah to confer 
His blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH) to forgive the deceased, to 
have mercy upon him and pardon his sins. Among the acts of the 
Sunnah is standing on the side of the deceased person's grave asking 
steadfastness for him (when questioned by the Two Angels), visiting 
his grave, invoking Allah for him, being good to his family and 
relatives, and so on." 

It is worth mentioning that it is an act of the Sunnah to mention death 
frequently and prepare oneself for it through repentance and contrition, returning 
the (unlawfully acquired) rights to their rightful owners, and hastening to do 
good deeds lest one dies unexpectedly, The Prophet (PBUH) saidr 

''Mention the pleasure destroyer (le. death) frequently! 1 

(Related by the Five Compilers of Hadith 1 with authentic chains of 
transmitters, and deemed s_ahih (authentic } hadith by Tbn JJibban, 
Al -Hakim, and other compilers of Hadith) 

Moreover, At-Tirmidhi and other compilers of Hadith related on the 
authority of Ibn Masud the following marfu (traceable) hadith 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said, 'Show due bashfulwss to Allah: 
We (the Companions) said, V Messenger of Allah! We show 
bashfulness, thank Allah' He (PBUH) said. It is not that (as you 
think). True bashfulness to Allah is to keep the head and what it 
contains (i.e. to keep the eyes, ears, tongue, etc., away from sins) 
and to keep the abdomen (away from unlawful food) and what is 
related to it (i.e. to keep the private parts and the legs, etc, away 
from committing what is prohibited), and to remember death and 
decay (in grave); and whoever seeks the Hereafter should abandon 
the adornments of the worldly life. Whoever does so will be the one 
showing due bashfulness to Allah! " 3 



Chapter 30: Dcatli ami Atrial 295_ 

Firstly: Rulings on Sickness and Dying 

When one is afflicted with an illness, one should bear it patiently hoping 
for divine reward and should not be impatient or discontented with fate and 
Divine Decree. Yet, one is allowed to tell others about ones illness and its kind, 
provided one is satisfied with Allah's predestination. Also, complaining of 
ones illness to Allah and asking Him for recovery does by no means contradict 
patience; on the contrary, it is desirable arid highly recommended in Islam to 
complain (to Allah) and ask Him for recovery Prophet Ayyub (Job; PBUH), 
for example, called to his Lord, as revealed by Allah in the Qur'Sn, saying: 

"Indeed, adversity has touched me t and You are the Most Merciful 
of the merciful'* (Qur'an: Al-Anbiy£: 83) 

Moreover, there is no harm in receiving lawful medical treatment; some 
scholars strongly recommend resorting to lawful medication to the degree 

that it seems to be obligatory. This is because there arc many hadiths stressing 
adopting reasonable means to reach an end and seeking medical treatment 
when necessary, for this does not contradict one's reliance on Allah and trust 
in Htm. It is just like satisfying hunger and thirst by means of food and drink. 

Yet, it is not permissible to use prohibited things for medical treatment 
according to what is related in SaMkALBukhari (Al-BukhdrVs Authentic Book 
ofHadith) that Ibn Mas' id (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 

"Allah has never made your remedy in what He has prohibited 
for you. 

Besides, Abu Dawud and other compilers of Hadith related the following 
marfu * (traceable) hadith on the authority of Abu Hurayrah: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) said, 'Allah has sent down both disease 

and cure, and He has appointed a cure for every disease, so treat 
yourselves medically, but use nothing prohibited.' " 

In addition, it is stated iti S.ahih Muslim (Muslim's Authentic Book ofHadith) 
that when the Prophet (PBUH) was asked about using an intoxicant as remedy, 

he replied, "if is not a remedy; it is a malady!' 

Likewise, it is prohibited to use whatever might affect the correctness 
of one's creed, as a remedy, such as wearing amulets containing polytheistic 
words, superstitious names, nonsensical writings, and the tike. It is also 
prohibited to wear beads, strings, earrings, or pendants on one's arm, upper 
arm, or elsewhere, believing that they are means of protection against the evil 



2% II: PRAYKR 

eye and affliction. The idea behind prohibiting such things is that one's heart 
would be attached to them instead of Allah, seeking their aid and protection 
against harm, which is a kind of polytheism or one of its causing factors. The 
same prohibition applies to seeking a remedy through resorting to sorcerers, 
witchdoctors, shamans, clairvoyants, and those employing the jinn, as a 
Muslims creed is more important to him than his health. 

Allah, Rxalted be He, has appointed lawful means of remedy which pre 
useful to ones body, mind and creed, the first of which are the Glorious Quran, 
the legal Quranic incantations, and the legal invocations. Ihmil-Qayyim said: 

"The best of remedy is performing goad deeds, remembering Allah, 
supplicating and imploring Him, and turning to Him in repentance, 
the effects of which are much greater than medicine. Yet, their effects 
depend on how much one returns to Allah and Allah's acceptance of 
one's supplication." 

There is no harm in receiving medical treatment, at hospitals or elsewhere, at 
the hands of qualified doctors who know how to diagnose diseases and treat them. 

It is an act of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) to visit the sick and the 
dying, for the Prophet (PBUH), as stated in the Two Sajiihs, stressed that there 
are five duties of every Muslim toward his fellow Muslim, among which is 
visiting him when sick'. When one visits a sick person, one should ask him 
about his health, as the Prophet (PBUH) used to come close to the sick person 
he visited and ask him about his health. 

One should visit the sick person every two or ihree days, unless the sick person 
wants one to visit him daily. On the other hand, one should not stay long with the 
sick person unless it is his will. When visiting the sick person, one should say to 
him, "Do not worry, it (your illness) is a means of purification (from your sins), 
if Allah wills."" He should also try to make him happy, invoke Allah to cure him, 
and recite legal Quranic incantations tor him, particularly the Sura nfAl-Fatihah 
(the Opening Chapter of the Quran), the Sura of Al-Ikhlds {Sincerity of Faith)? 
and Al-Mu "awwidhatan, namely the Suras of Al-Falaq {Daybreak)™ and An-Nds 
(Mankind) . 

It is also an act of the Sunnah for the sick person to bequeath some of his 
money to be given in charity. He should also determine in his will how his 
money should be divided; the bequests lo be fulfilled the debts to be settled, the 
deposits and trusts to be returned to their owners. Even healthy people should 

da the same and write their wills beforehand, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 



Chapter 30: Death und Burial ^cn 

"It is not permissible for any Muslim who has something to declare 
in testimony to stay for two nights without having his (last) will 
written and kept ready with him." 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)' 1 

"Two nights" in the above hadith is not meant literally, but it refers to any 
short period of time. That is to say, it is impermissible for a Muslim, who has 
something to write down in a will, to stay - even for a short period of time 
- without having his will written and kept ready with him, for one does not 
know when death may overtake him. 

A sick person must think highly of Allah, and be confident of His mercy, 
as Allah says in a Qudst (Divine) hadith": 

"I am just as My servant thinks of Me, (i.e. lam Able to do far him 
what he thinks I can do for him).""* 

Thar must be the feeling of every Muslim, especially at deaths door, when 
he is about to meet his Lord, 

It is an act of the Sunnah for visitors to make the dying person desirous of 
Allans mercy rather than being afraid of His punishment, for he may become 
desperate. However, when one is healthy, one should be both desirous of Allah's 
mercy and afraid of His punishment. Both hope and fear are needed for the 
healthy because being just overcome by fear of Allah's punishment makes one 
give up hope (in Allah's Mercy). On the other hand, being overwhelmed by 
hope in Allah's Mercy without fearing His punishment, makes one feel secure 
from Allah, and thus feel no remorse. 

When the dying person is breathing his last, it is an act of the Sunnah to 
exhort him co say, "There is no deity but Allah" for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Exhort the dying among you to say 'There is no deity but Allah' " 

(Related by Imam Muslim) 

The idea behind that is to make "there is no deity but Allah" 'his last words; 
in a marfu (traceable) hadith, MuSdh lbn Jabal narrated that the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"Whoever his last words are 'there is no deity but Allah' will enter 
paradise" 

It is important to bear in mind that instructing the dying person to say so 
should be done gently so as not to annoy or exhaust him while he is breathing 
his Last. 



29S II: PRAYER 

It is also an act of the Sunnah to make the dying person face the qiblah 
(direction of prayer), and to recite the Sura of Ya Sin ' over him, for l he Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"Recite the Sura ofYa Sin over those dying among you" 

(Related by AbC Dawud and Ibn Majah, and deemed sahih 

(authentic) by Ibn iJibban) 

It is worth me »t toning that the Quran is to be recited over the dying, not 
the dead, as the latter case is bid 'ah (a matter innovated in religion) whereas 
the former case is an act of the Sunnah. Accordingly reciting the Qur'3n at 
funerals or graves over the dead is among the innovated acts in religion that 
have never been revealed or permitted by Allah. Therefore, Muslims- should 
stick to the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) and give up such innovated acts 
in religion. 

Secondly: Rulings on the Deceased 

Once a person dies, it is desirable for the attendant one to close his (the 
deceased) eye*, for the Prophet (PBUH) did the same to Abu Saiamah when 
he died, and said: 

"When the soul is taken away, the sight follows it. So, do not pray 
for anything but good (in the presence of a dying person), for the 
angels say 'Amen to what you say" 

(Related by Imam Muslim) 

It is also an act of the Sunnah to cover the body of the deceased immediately 
after his death with a garment, for "A'ishah (the Prophets wife, may Allah be 
pleased with her) narrated: 

"When the Prophet (PBUH) died, he was covered with a decorated 
garment made of linen (or cotton)" 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)" 

Muslims should hasten in preparing I he corpse of the deceased for burial 
when they are certain about his death, for the Prophet said: 

"The corpse of a Muslim should not remain withheld among his 
family (without being buried)" 

(Related by Abu Dawud)" 

Moreover, hastening in burying the deceased is intended to avoid waiting 
until the corpse changes (emitting odor) Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbai said, 



Chapter 30: Dearh and Burial 290 

"A sign of honor to the deceased is to hasten his burial" Yet, there is no harm 
in waiting until the coming of the deceaseds guardian or anyone else (whose 
presence is necessary) provided he is near and there is no fear that the corpse 
of the deceased might undergo change. 

Besides, it is pe rm issible to announce the death of a Musi Lm for the purpose 
of gathering people to prepare him for burial, attend his funeral, perform the 
Funeral Prayer over him, and pray lo Allah for him. Yet, announcing someone's 
death by wailing and lamentation, as well as enumerating his good qualities, is a 
misbehavior belonging to the Pre-Tslamic Period of Ignorance (the Jahiliyyoh); 
the same goes for funeral orations and funeral ceremonies. 

It is desirable to hasten in carrying out the dead person's will; Allah, Exalted 

be He, has called for carrying out the deceased's will prior to settling his debts, 
enjoining people to take an interest in writing wills and carrying them out. 

The debts of the deceased should be settled as fast as possible, whether they 
are due to Allah or to people. The debts due to Allah include unpaid Zakdh, 
unperformed Hajj, unfulfilled vows of worship, and unfulfilled expiation. 
However, those due to people include trusts, ill-gotten things or gains, loans 
and borrowed ihings, arrears, and the like. Such debts are to be settled on 
behalf of the deceased, whether stated in his will or not. This is because the 
Prophet {PBUH) said: 

"The soul of a (dead) believer is suspended to his debt until it (the 
debt) is settled." 

(Related by Imam Ahmad and At-Tirmidhi; the latter deems it a 
hasan (good) hadithf 1 

Thus, the deceased person's soul is asked to pay off his debt and is suspended 
until the debt is settled. Therefore, the Prophet (PBUH) urges us to hasten in 
settling the debt of the deceased; this is when the money I eft by the deceased is 
enough to settle his debts. As for one who does not have enough money to pay 
off his debts, and dies while having the intention of settling them, Allah will 
settle them for him as indicated in many hadiths. 

Thirdly: Rulings on Washing the Body of the Deceased 

Washing the deceased is obligatory for those acquainted with the rulings 
and conditions of washing a deceased person and able to perform it. To illus- 
trate, when the Prophet (PBUH) was informed of a man who fell down from 



300 



fl: PRAYER 



the back of his camel and broke his neck and died, he (PBUH) said, n ,.,wash 
him with water and sidr..."~ (Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)" Washing 
the deceased is reported to have been recurrently enjoined and observed by 
the Prophet (PBUH)". Moreover, I he body of the Prophet (PBUH) himself, 
the pure and purified Messenger, was washed (when he died)/ what then will 
be the tase of other Muslims? 

Wash i 33 g the deceased is a collective duty on those acquainted with his 
death (and able to perform it). Besides, washing the body of a deceased man 

should be performed by a man (and that of a deceased woman by a woman). 
In addition, it is better and highly recommended that the washer should be 
a trustworthy person who is well -acquainted with the rulings on washing 
a deceased person. This is because such a kind of washing is a legal ruling 
that has a special way of application and performance, and only those well- 
informed about it can perform it in the proper, legal way. 

If one determines in ones will to be washed by a certain person when one 

dies, then that person should be given priority in washing one, provided he is a 
fair, trustworthy person. This is because Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with 
him) stated in his will to be washed (after his death) by As ma Bint 'Umays, 
his wife 1 ' . Thus, it is permissible for a woman to wash the body of her deceased 
husband and for a man, likewise, to wash his deceased wife's body. Anas (may 
Allah be pleased with him), for example, determined in his will to be washed 
(after his death) by Muhammad lbn Sirin. 

The one stated in the dead person's will has the priority to wash him; after 
him conies the father, as a father is the worthiest person of washing his son. 

This is also because of a father's deep affection, tenderness, and sympathy for 
his son. After the deceased's father (regarding priority of washers) comes the 
grandfather, as he has the same affection for the deceased, then comes the 
closest kin, the closer, and so on. The closest person outside the family comes 
next in this regard, and then come last those unrelated to the deceased. It is 
important to point out that such prioritization of washers is to be applied 
if they are aware of the ridings on such washing and claim it; otherwise, 
priority should be given to those acquainted with its rulings over those 
unacquainted. 

As for females, a body of a deceased female is to be washed by a female. 
Priority here is also given to the one siaLed in the will of the deceased woman. 
In other words, a woman determined in the will is to be given preference in 
washing her over anybody else, provided she is legally qualified for that, then 



Chapter 30^ Dcirli and Burial iqj 

comes next the closest female relative to the deceased, then the closer, and so 
on and so forth. 

In general, a body of a deceased woman is to be washed by a woman, and 
that of a man by a man, in the aforesaid sequence. Slill, it is permissible for 
a husband to wash the body of his dead wife and vice versa, for Abu Rakr 
(may Allah be pleased with him}, as mentioned above, stated in his will to be 
washed by his wife. In addition, 'AM Ibn Abu Jalib (may Allah be pleased with 
him) washed the body of Faiimah (his wife) . The same is also reported to 
have been done by many other Companions*'. 

Besides, it is permissible for men and women to wash the body of a young 
child under seven years, whether male or fern file. Ibmil-Mundhir said, "Alt 

scholars, at whose hands we have learnt, unanimously agree that it is permissible 
for the woman to wash the body of a young boy" ' This is because nothing of the 
young boys body - who is under seven - is regarded as \twrah ' in his life, so 
this should be the case after his death also, To illustrate, the body of Ibrahim, 
the baby son of the Prophet (PRUH), was washed by women when he died. 
However, it is impermissible for a woman to wash the body of a deceased 
seven -year-old boy or upwards, and for a man to wash the body of a deceased 
seven-year-old girl or upwards.. 

It is also impermissible for a Muslim to wash the dead body of a disbeliever, 
carry his coffin to the grave, enshroud his body, perform the Funeral Prayer 
over him, or attend his funeral procession. This is because Allah, Exalted be 
He, says: 

"O you who have believed, do not make allies of a people with 
whom Allah has become angry..." (Quran: Al-Mumtahjnah: 13) 

The general meaning of the verse indicates that it is prohibited to wash the 
body o fa deceased d i sb e 1 ievc r, carry h is co f II n , or follow r h is fu n e ra I process ion . 
In addition, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And do not pray fthe Funeral Prayer? O Muhammad,} over any 
of them who has died - ever - or stand at his grave. Indeed, they 
disbelieved in Allah.," (Quran: At-Tawbah: 84) 

Allah also says: 

"It is not for the Prophet and those who have believed to ask 
forgiveness fo rihe polytheists* < " ( Q u ran: At - Tawb ah : 113) 



J02 II: PRAYF.lt 

Thus, it is impermissible for Muslims to bury the body of a disbeliever, yet 
if there is no fellow disbeliever to bury him, a Muslim should throw his body 
into a hole SO that it causes no harm to others. ITiat was done by the Muslims 
to the bodies of the polyth cists killed in the Battle of Badr, when they threw 
them into the well of Al-Qalih The same applies to apostates, like one who 
abandoned prayer intentionally and one who innovated a bid'tth (a maEter 
innovated in religion) that leads to disbelief. 

That should always be the Muslim's attitude toward a disbeliever, which 
indicates denial and hatred. Reporting the story of Prophet Ibrahim {Abraham) 
and those who believed with him, Allah reveals: 

"... When they said to their people, 'Indeed, we are disassociated 
from you and from whatever you worship other than Allah. We 
have denied you, and there has appeared between us and you 
animosity and hatred forever until you believe in Allah Alone...' * 

(Quran: Al-iVlumtahinah: 4) 

Allah, Exalted be He, also says: 

"You will not find a people who believe in Allah and the Last Day 
having affection for those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, 
even if they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or 
their kindred..." (Qur'an: Al-Muj&dilah: 22) 

This is because of the enmity existing between faith and disbelief, and because 
of that hatred born by the disbelievers toward Allah, His Messengers (peace be 
upon them all), and His Religion. Thereupon, it is impermissible for Muslims 

to support the disbelievers, whether alive or dead, We invoke Allah to make our 
hearts firm in sticking to the truth, and to guide us to His straight path. 

On the other hand, when washing the body of a deceased Muslim the water 
used must be pure and legally permissible, and it is better to be cool. Yet, there 
is no harm in using hot water to remove any dirt from the body of the deteasedj 
or in case of extremely cold weather. Besides, washing the deceased must be 
carried out in a sheltered, roofed place so that the deceased cannot be seen by 
others (except the washer), such as a house, a tent or the like, if possible. 

Tt is obligatory to cover the parts between the navel and the knees of the 
deceased body before washing, then the whole body is to be uncovered (except 
the aforementioned parts J. After that, the deceased is to be laid down in a 
sloping position on the washing (wooden) bed so that water and whatever 

comes out of the deceaseds body flows down. 



Chapter 30: D«nh nnd iiurial ^i 

Washing the body of the deceased must be attended only by the washer 
and chose assisting him; it is detestable for anyone else to attend the washing. 
The washer should raise the head of the deceased that I he latter becomes in a 
semi- sitting position. Then, he passes his hand over the deceased's abdomen 
pressing it gently to allow anything withheld therein (such as excrements) 
to come out. While so doing, he should pour much water over the body to 
overflow and remove such excrements coming out (if any}. After that, the 
washer wraps his hand with a coarse piece of cloth and cleans the stool and 
urine exits and the anus of the deceased with water. 

After that, the washer declares his intention of washing the deceased, says 
tasmiyah (saying, "BismiUdh" i.e. "Tn the Name of Allah"), and purifies the 
dead person with the ablution performed for prayer. As for rinsing the mouth 
and the nose with water, it is sufficient to wipe over the teeth and nostrils with 
two wet fingers or pass a wet piece of cloth over them without letting any water 
enter the dead persons mouth or nostrils, Then, the washer washes the head 
and beard of the deceased with sidr ' or soap. The washer then starts washing 
the deceaseds body beginning with the right parts; he should first wash the 
right part of his neck, his right hand and shoulder, the right half of his chest, 
the right thigh, the right leg, and the right foot, After that, the washer rolls the 
deceased body to its left side and washes the right side of his back, Then the 
washer rolls him on his right side and washes the left side of his back in the 
same way. 

During washing the deceased, the washer is to use sidr or soap, and it is 
desirable to wrap his hand at this time with a piece of cloth, Tl is obligatory to 
wash the deceased at least once, provided his body is thereby well purified, but 
it is desirable to wash him thrice, If the body of the deceased is still impure* it is 
permissible to wash him up till seven times. Jt is also desirable to use camphor 
in the last wash, as it makes the body stiff, fragrant, and cool. Besides, camphor 
is to be used at the last wash so that its effect remains. 

Afterwards* the washer dries the body with a garment or the like, then cuts 
the moustache and clips the nails, if long, and removes the hair of the armpits, 
bearing in mind to keep all the cut hair and clipped nails to be put with the 
deceased in his shroud. As for a deceased woman* her hair is to be braided into 

three braids falling down backwards. 

Sometimes it is difficult to wash the deceased because water is unavailable 
or for fear that his body would be torn apart because of washing, such as the 
cases when the deceased is a leper, or one killed by fire, Or a woman whose 
husband is not present to wash her, or a man whose wife is not present to 



304 II: PRAYER 

wash him. In such cases* tayammum (performing dry ablution with clean 
earth) is to be performed for the deceased, wiping over the deceased's face 
and two palms with clean earth, using a piece of cloth or the like to hinder the 
washer's direct contact with the deceased's body. However, if it is difficult to 
wash only certain parts of the deceaseds body, the washer then is to wash what 
is available and perform tayammum for those unwashed parts. It is desirable 
for the washer to have a ritual bathing following washing the deceased, yet it 
is not obligatory to do so. 

Fourthly; Rulings on Shrouding 

After washing and drying the body of the deceased, it is to be put in a 
shroud that must cover all his body, Tt is desirable to use a white clean shroud, 
whether new - which is better - or not. The obligatory size of the shtoud is that 
which covers the whole body of the deceased. 

It is desirable to shroud the deceased man in three shrouds of cloth and 
the woman in five pieces of cloth; a loincloth, a veil, a shirt, and two shrouds. 
As for deceased children, a boy is to be shrouded in one shroud, yet three 
are permissible, and a girl in one shirt and two shrouds. It is also desirable to 
subject the shroud to a censer, after being sprinkled with rose water or the like, 
so that the scent of incense would remain in the shroud. 

The man is to be shrouded by spreading the three shrouds over each other, 
and then he is to be brought covered with a garment or the like as it is obligatory 
to be covered, and to be put lying with his face upwards on the three shrouds. 
Then a perfumed piece of cotton is to be put between the buttocks covering 
the anus of the deceased and fastened by tying a piece of cloth. Other similar 
perfumed cotton pieces are To be put on the eyes, nostrils, mouth, ears, the 
parts of prostration (i.e. the forehead and the nose, both hands, both knees* 
and the bottom of the toes), under the armpits, the inner parts of the knees, 
and on the navel. The washer should also apply some perfume between the 
shrouds and to the head. 

After that, the washer wraps the left side of the upper shroud (on which 
the deceased is lying face up) over the right side and its right side over his left 

side. Then the same is to be done with the second and the third shrouds; the 
superfluous parts of the shrouds should be longer toward the head than the 
feet. Then such remaining parts toward the head are to be gathered and put 
over his face and those toward his feet uver his feet. Afterwards, belts of cloth 
are tied around the shrouds so as nor to unwrap or loosen in the grave. 



Chapiei 1 30: Dearii and Buriai 3Q-> 

As for a deceased woman, as mentioned above, she is (o be shrouded in 

five pieces of cloth: a loincloth, a shirt, a veih and two shrouds. 

Fifthly: Rulings on the Funeral Prayer 

After washing and shrouding the deceased, the Funeral Prayer is to be 
performed over him. Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said, 'Whoever attends the funeral 
procession until he performs the Funeral Prayer for it will get a reward 
equal to one qfrat, and whoever accompanies it until bursal will get a 
reward equal to two qirdts'It was asked, 'What are two qhai^He (the 
Prophet) replied, '(They are) like two huge mountains (of reward)' * 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)" 

Performing the Funeral Prayer over the deceased is a coi lee five duty; if 
performed by some of those in the neighborhood uf the deceased, the rest of 
them will not be accountable for it; it is slill an act of The Sunnah (Prophetic 
Tradition) to be observed by the rent of them. Yet, if all abandoned it, it will be 
a sin upon them all. 

The conditions of the Funeral Prayer: 

1 -Intention; one must have the intention of performing it. 

2-Facing the qibkih 

3-Concealing ones "awrah when performing it 

4-Thc ritual purity of both the one performing il and the deceased 

5- Avoidance of any physical impurity 

6- Both the one performing il and the deceased must be Muslims. 

7- Attending the funeral procession after offering the Funeral Prayer if 
they are in the neighborhood 

S-Being legally accountable 

The integral parts of the Funeral Prayer: 

1 -Standing upright 

2 -Saying four takbirs 

3-Reciting the Sura of Al-F&tihah (the Opening Chapter of the Qurtin) 



306 II: I'KAYLR 

4 -Asking Aliah to confer His blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH) 

5 -Praying for the deceased 

6 -Performing these integral parts in Sequence 

7 -Ending the prayer with tasHm 

The acts of the Sunnah observed in the Funeral Prayer: 

1 -Raising the hands upon saying each takbir 

2 -Seeking refuge with Allah (from the accursed Satan) before reciting 
Al-fatihah 

3 -Invoking Allah for oneself an tl for all Muslims 

4-Being quiet while reciting 

5 -Having a short pause after the fourth takbir and before tasllm 

6-PutTing one's right hand over the left with both on the chest following 

each takbir 

7-Turning to the right when saying laslim 

The Way the Funeral Prayer is Performed 

The funeral Prayer is to be performed in the following way; The imam 
(the one who leads the congregational prayer), or one performing it alone over 
a deceased person, should stand toward the chest of the deceased if a man and 
toward her middle if a woman. As for those ltd in prayer, they should stand 
behind the imam* and it is an act of the Sunnah to stand in three rows, One 
begins with saying the opening takbir and then seeks refuge with Allah (from 
Satan) directly following saying takbir - without saying the opening invocation 
- then one recites Basmalah' and the Sura oi Al-Fatihflh- After that, one is to 
say the second takbir and ask Allah to confer His blessings upon the Prophet 
(PBUH) just as it is recited in Tashtihhud, Then, one is to say the third takbir 
and pray Allah for the deceased with the invocations reported to have been 
observed by the Prophet (PBUH) in this regard; the following is derived from 
such Prophetic invocations: 

"O Allah! forgive these of us who are living and those of its who are 
dead, those of us who are present and those of us who are absent, 
our young and our ola\ and our male and our female. Verily, You 
know our return and our residence and You are Over all things 



Chaprei-30: Death and liuriaE ^ n? 

Omnipotent Allah! To whomsoever of us You give life, grunt him 
life as a follower of Islam, and whomsoever of us You cause death, 
cause him death as a believer. Allah! Do not withhold from us 
the reward (for showing patience upon his death) and do not leave 
us to go astray after him (i.e. after his death)" r O Allah! Forgive 
kirn, have mercy upon him, give him peace, pardon him, receive 
him with honor, make his grave spacious and wash him with water, 
ke and snow. Cleanse him from sins and faults as a white garment 
is cleansed from impurity. Requite him with an abode that is more 
excellent than his abode and with a mate better than his mate. 
Admit him to Paradise, and protect him from the torture of the 
grave (or 'the torment of the Fire according to another narration)?* 
and make his grave spacious, and grant him light therein,"** 

If the deceased is a female, the invocation will be thus, "O Allah! Forgive 
her...", referring to her in the whole invocation. 

On the other hand if the deceased is a child, the invocation will be as follows: 

"O Allah! Make him precede his parents (to Paradise) and (let him 
be) saved, grant him (divine reward) and make him an accepted 
intercessor for them. O Allah! Make their scales heavy (with good 
deeds) by him, and make their reward greater for (showing patience 
for) him. and join him with the righteous believers, and let him be 
in the care of Ibrahim (Prophet Abraham), and protect him with 
Your Mercy from the punishment of the Fire..."'"' 

Afterwards, those performing the Prayer over the deceased must say takbir 
and wait a little then say one tastim, turning their faces to the right. 

As for the one who misses a part of the Funeral Prayer, he should join the 
prayer performing what is left thereof with the congregation led by the imam. 
Then, when the imam ends prayer with Laslhu, one can perform the part one 
has missed in the same manner performed in this prayer. However if one fears 
that people may carry the coffin and leave immediately after the (Funeral) 
Prayer and thus one misses the funeral procession, one can just say the missing 
takbirs successively, saying nothing in between, then end the prayer with 
tastim. On the other hand, if one misses performing the Funeral Prayer over 
the deceased before the burial, one can perforin j| ni his grave. As for those 
who are not present in the town of the deceased and arc informed of his death, 
they are to perform the Absent Prayer with the intention of performing the 
Funeral Prayer over the deceased. 



303 " PRAYER 

As for a stillborn whose <ige is four months upward, the Funeral Prayer is 
to be performed over it; if less, there will be no Funeral Prayer over it, 

Sixthly: Funeral Procession and Burial 

It is a collective duty upon Muslims who know about the death of a Muslim 
to carry his coffin to the grave and bury hi in. Burial is legalized through 
both the Quran and the Sunnak (Prophetic Tradition)- Allah, Exalted he 
He> says: 

"Have We not made the earth a container of the living and the 
dead?" (Quran: Al-Mursalat: 25-26) 

Allah, Exalted be He, also says: 

"Then He causes his death and provides a grave for him" 

(Qur'an: 'Abasa: 21) 

Besides, there are numerous hadiths concerning burial, stating that it 
is an act of devotion and dutifulness signifying honor and concern for the 
deceased. 

It is an act of the Sunnah to escort the deceased to his grave, as it is Stated 
in the Two Sahihs, as mentioned above, that the Prophet {PBUH) said: 

"Whoever attends the funeral procession until he performs the 
Funeral Prayer for it will get a reward equal to one qlrat, and 

whoever accompanies it until burial will get a reward equal to two 
qirdtsr When he (PBUH) was asked, "What are two qtrats?" He 
replied, "(They are) like two huge mountains (of reward)''' 

There is anolher wording according to A 1- Bukhari's narration of this 
hadith which goes as follows: 

"Whoever escorts the deceased to the grave.." 

However, the wording of Imam Muslim is: 

"Whoever goes out accompanying a funeral from its house, offers 
prayer for it (i.e, the Funeral Prayer), and then follows it (its 
procession) until the deceased is buried..." ' 

Thus, the different narrations of the aforesaid hadith indicate that the 
Prophet (PBUH) enjoins us to escort the deceased to the grave. 



Chapter 30; Death ;md Burial 309 

It is an act of the Sunnah for those following the funeral procession to 
take part in carrying the coffin of the deceased, if possible, There is no harm 
in carrying the coffin in a car or on an animal, especially when the graveyard 
is distant. 

It is also an act of the Sunnah to hurry up with the dead body during the 
procession. This is because the Prophet (PBUH) said in a hadith related by Al- 
Bukhari and Muslim; 

"'Hurry up with the dead body for if it is righteous, you are forward- 
ing it to good, and if it is otherwise, (hen you are putting off an evil 
thing which is around your necks"" 

However, the funeral procession should not be excessively fast; those 
carrying the coffin and those following them should be in a stave of tranquility 
and quietness. They should never raise their voices with recitation or anything 
else, whether it is tahlii* invocations, dhikr^ Or saying, "May Allah forgive 
him (the deceased)," or the like. This is because nil such acts are mere bid'ahs 
(matters innovated in religion), 

Besides* it is prohibited for women to follow the funeral procession, for 
Umm " Atiyyah (may Allah be pleased with her} narrated: 

"We (women) were forbidden (by the Prophet) to follow funeral 
processions. 

At the time of the Prophet (PBUH), women did not go out with funeral 
processions, for it is a ceremony restricted to men. 

Moreover, it is an act of the Sunnah to deepen the grave and make it wide, 
for the Prophet (PBUH) said; 

"Dig graves and make them wide and deep," 

(At-Tirmidhl commented that it is a hasan sahih (good, authentic) 

hadithf 

It is also an act of {he Sunnah to cover the grave of the woman when putting 
her body therein because all her body is regarded as 'awrah. 

In addition, it is an act of the Sunnah to say, while putting down the deceased 
in his grave: 

"(We bitry him) in the Name of Allah and according to the religion 
(i.e. the tradition) of Allah's Messenger (PBUH):' 



310 II: PRAYER 

This is because the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When you put your dead persons in the graves, say, '(We bury) in 
the Name of Allah and according to the religion (i.e. the tradition) 
of Allah's Messenger (PBUH): " 

(Related by the Five Compilers ofHadith excluding An-Nasai, and 
deemed a l&asart (good) kadith by At-Tirmidhl/ 

The deceased is to be put in his grave on his right side facing the qiblah, for 
the Prophet (PBUH) said, referring to the Ka bah: 

"It is your qiblah in your life and after your death." 

(Related by Abfi Daw fid and other compilers ) ,u 

After putting the deceased in the grave, a brick, a stone or some earth are 
to be put under his head. Besides, he is to be put close to the front wall of his 
grave. Also, some earth is to be put behind his back as a support lest he should 
fall on his face or be overturned on his back. Afterwards, the hole of the grave 
is to be dosed with bricks and clay to hold it together, and then earth is to be 
piled up on his grave, using no earth other than that round his grave. 

The top of the grave is to be of a height equal to a palm of the hand, and 

to be shaped like a humpback so that flood water, if any, would flow down and 
does not affect it. (In the other hand, some pebbles are to be put on the grave 
which should be frequently watered to make earth settle and stick to the ground, 
not scatter, As for the idea behind making the grave that high, it is to make it 
distinguishable for people, lest they tread on it. Besides, there is no harm in 
putting some large upright bricks on both ends of the grave to make its limits 
clearly marked and distinguished, without writing anything on them. 

It is desirable to stand at the grave of the deceased after burying him to 
supplicate Allah and ask His forgiveness for him. This is because once buriaf 
was over, the Prophet (PBUH) used to stand at the grave and say: 

"Seek forgiveness for your (Muslim) brother and beg steadfastness 
(from Allah) for him, for he is being questioned now." 

(Related by Abu Daw Lid)' 

It is a hid' ah to recite the Quran at graveyards, for neither the Prophet 
(PBUH) nor his honorable Companions were reported to have done so. Such 
a bid' ah must be avoided; every bid' ah is an error. 



Chapter 30: De.iili and Hartal iii 

On the other hand, it is prohibited to build over graves, plaster them, or 
write on them. To illustrate, Jabir Ibn Abdullah narrated: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) forbade that the: graves should bs plas- 
tered or be used as sitting places (for the people), or a building 
should be built aver them." 

(Related by Imam Muslim)' 

Besides, Jabir narrated: 

"The Messenger (PBUH) forbade plastering the graves, writing on 
them, building on them, or treading upon them." 

(A marfu " (traceable) hadith related and deemed sfihih (authentic) 
by At-Tirmidmf* 

The reason for this prohibition is that such acts are means leading to 

polytheism, as they may make people's hearts attached to graves. On the other 
hand, many ignorant people become so attached to the graves when they see 
them in a form of well -decorated structures. 

It is also prohibited to tight graves (with tamps, or anything of the kind). 
The prohibition extends to include establishing mosques over graves and 
performing prayer at them or facing I hem in prayer. In addition, it is prohibited 
for women to visit graves according to the hadith in which the Prophet said: 

"May Allah curse the women who visit the graves, the people who 
build mosques over them, and those who establish mosques and 
(light) lamps therein" 

(Related by the Compilers of the Sunanf' 

It is also stated in a sahib (authentic) hadith tharthe Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"May Allah curse the Jews and Christians, for they built the places 
of worship at the graves of their prophets" 

This is also because consecrating graves by means of building structures 
over them and the like is the origin of polytheism. 

It is prohibited as well to degrade graves through walking on them, 
treading upon them with shoes, sitting on them, making them piles of garbage, 
or using them as drainage ditches, Abu Hu ray rah narrated that the Prophet 
(PBUH) said; 



312 II: PRAYER 

"It is better that one of you should sit on live coab which would 
hum his clothing and come in contact with his skin than that he 
should sit on a grave" 

(Related by Imam Muslim as a marfii ' (traceable) hadith) ' 

Imam Ibmil-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"If only we (Muslims) reflect on ike (implications of) the Prophets 
prohibition of sitting on the graves, leaning on them, and treading 
upon them, we would come to know that the Prophet (PBUH) 
instructs us to venerate the inhabitants of the graves from their heads 
being trodden on with footwear." 

Seventhly: Rulings on Condolence and Visiting Graves 

It is an act of the Sunnah to console the bereaved person and advise him to 
be patient, and to pray for the deceased, for ' Amr Ibn Hazm narrated that the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"No believer consoles his (bereaved Muslim) brother (by advising hitti 
to show patience) but Allah, Almighty and Ever-Majestic be He, will 
dress him from the garments of dignity on the Day of Resurrection." 

(A marffi (traceable) hadith ' with a trustworthy chain of transmitters 
related by Tbn Majali)" ' 

There are also various hadiths having the same meaning. When consoling a 
bereaved one, the wording of condolence is to be: "May Allah make your reward 
great, comfort you with a bett&r compensation, and forgive your deceased," 

It is impermissible to have a sitting place for receiving and declaring 
condolences, as mistakenly done by some people today. Yet, it is desirable 
to prepare some food for the family of the deceased, for the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"Prepare some food for the family of fa far, for it has happened to 
them that which occupied them (i.e. the death ofja "far)." 

(Related by Imam Ahmad and At-Tirmidhi; the Jatter deemed it a 

hasan (good) hadith) 

Some of the family of the deceased nowadays specify a place for people to 
gather for offering their condolences, prepare food for them and hire reciters 



Chapter 50: Death and Burial 3 13 

of the Quran, arid spend so much on that occasion, Such acts are undoubtedly 
prohibited bid" aha (matters innovated in religion), for Imam Ahmad narrated 
with a trustworthy chain of transmitters that Jarir Van ' Abdullah said: 

"We (the Companions) used to consider gathering with the family 
of the deceased and the preparation of pod (by the family of the 
dead person) after his burial a kind of (prohibited) wailing"'' 

Shaykh ill- Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"Gathering people by the bereaved family offering them food and 
recttii igthe Qur a n togra n t him (the deceased) t h e reward of recitation, 
were never practiced in the time of the Salaf (early Muslim scholars). 
Such acts, were deemed detestable by sonic groups of scholars because 
oj many proofs. 

At-luriushi said: 

"As, for the funeral ceremonies, they are prohibited as unanimously 
agreed upon by scholars; such gatherings on occasions of calamities 
are legally denied bid" ah s. They have never been reported to have 
been previously observed (by the Prophet or his Companions or their 
successors). The same applies to those gatherings on the second, third, 
fourth and seventh day of the death of the deceased, as well as those 
held monthly and yearly; this is a catastrophe. Besides, if the expenses 
of such gatherings (i.e. the costs of foods and hiring reciters of the 
Quran) were taken from the inheritance, or one of the heirs is under 
guardianship or does not grant permission for such gatherings, all 
these gathering will be legally prohibited, and so will be eating from 
that food" 

It is desirable for men to visit graves as a means of moral lessons and as an 
admonition and for the purpose of praying for the deceased and asking Allah's 
forgiveness for him. The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"I forbade you (men) to visit the graves, but you may visit them now" 

(Related by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi) 

According to At-Tirmtdhfs narration, the Prophet (PBUH) added: 

"..for it (i.e. visiting graves) will remind you of the. Hereafter" 

Yet t it is not desirable to travel so as to visit graves, Generally, visiting graves 
is desirable on three conditions: 



Z]4 II: PRAYER 

The visitor must be n m an nut a woman, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 
"May Allah curse women who visit the graves" 

Graves should not be so distant that they requi re traveling or setting out on 

a journey to visit them; the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Do not set out On a journey except for three Mosques. . " e ' 

Visiting graves should be for the purpose of taking moral lessons and 
admonition, and for praying to Allah for the deceased. However, if ones 

intention behind visiting graves is seeking their blessings and asking their 
inhabitants (the dead) for assistance, relief of suffering and fulfillment of 
needs, one's visit then will be a mere polytheistic bid "ah. 

Shaykhut-Islam Il>n Taymiyah {may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"Visiting graves is of two kinds, a legal visit and a bid 'ah (a matter 
in nova ted in religion) . 2 'he legal visit is the one intended to in voke Allah 
to confer His blessings upon the deceased and to pray to Allah for him, 
just like the Funeral Prayer, provided it does not require setting out for 
long journeys. As for the visit which is a bid 'ah, it is the one intended 
for asking the deceased for fulfilling one's needs, -which is considered 
major polytheism. It is also the visit intended for invoking Allah for 
oneself at such a grave so that the invocation would be granted, or for 
using the deceased as a medium while invoking Allah at the grave, 
which are among the abominable bid'ahs leading to polytheism. Such 
acts have nothing to do with the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) nor 
have they been deemed desirable by any of the Salaf (early Muslim 
scholars) of the Muslim nation or the Muslim ImAms." 61 

At any rate, Allah, Exalted be He, knows best. May Allah's peace and 
blessing be upon our Prophet, Muhammad (PBUH), his household, and his 

Companions! 

Endnotes 



3 $ee-."ZMul-M(}'Q(r{ 17498). 

2 AKTirmidhi (2312) [4/553], An-Nasa'i (1823} [2/301), and Ibn Majah (4253) (4/495. 
Ibn Kibfrtn (2992) [7/259] and Ai-Hikim (7990) [4/465). 

3 At-Tirmidhi (2463) [4/637]. 

4 IbnHLbban (131*1) [4/233] and Al-Bayhaqi (19679) [10/8]. 

5 Abu Dawud (3B74) [4/ ] 34]. 

6 Muslim (51 12) [7/152], 



Chapter 30: Denrli und Burial 3^ 

7 Al-Bukhari (J 240) and Muslim (5615) [7/367]. 

8 Al-Bukhari (7470) [13/546] 

9 Chapter No. 1 12 of the Quran. 

10 Chapter No. I ! ,1 of the Qur'an, 

1 i Chapter No. 1 14 of the Qui'fin, i.e. Lhe last Chapter of the Qur an. 

12 Al-Bukhari (273S) [5/436] and Muslim (41 S3) [6/77]. 

13 Qudii (Divine} hadith: Divine Words, other than the Glorious Qur'an, revealed tu 
the Prophet (PBUH) from Allah. Unlike the Qur'an, Lhc words of the Qudsi (Divine) 
faitdilh art neither used for worship nor deemed miraculous. 

14 Al-Bukhari (7405) [13/469] and Muslim (6887) [9/63]. 

15 Muslim (2120,2122) [3/458,459]. 

16 Abu Dawud (3116) [3/318]. 

17 Chapter No. 3* of the Qur'art. 

18 Abu Dawud (3121) (3/320], Ibn Majah (1443) (2/195], and Ibn Hibban (3002) [7/269]. 

19 Muslim (2 J 27) [3/461]. 

20 At-Bukhari (5814) [1 0/340 1 and Muslim (2180) [4/13], 

21 Abu Ddwud (3159) [3/333]. 

22 Ahmad (9642) [2/440], At-Ttrmidhi (1079) [3/389] and Ibn Majah (2413} [3/145]. 

23 Siiir. The extract of the lote tree leaves. 

24 Af-Bukhart (1265) (3/174] and Muslim (2883) [4/365], 

25 Al-Bukbari [3/161] and Muslim [4/5], 

26 Abu Dawud (3141) (3/32 8] and Ibn Majah (1464) [2/202]. 

27 Al-Bayhaqi {6663} (3/557]. 'Abdur-Razzaq in his "Musannaf (6117) (3/408] and Ibn 
Abfi Shay bah (1 0969) [2/45 5]. 

2fi AI-BflyhaqH6660) [3/556], Abdur-Razzaq (6122] [3/410] and Ad-Dlraquml (1833} [2/66]. 

29 Al-Bayhaqi (6662) [3/556], 

30 See: "Al-IjmA' " (pp. 50) and "Al-Awsai" [5/338]. Ibn Abu Shaybah (10968} [2/457], 

31 'awrah: The private parts or parts of the body which are illegal to expose to others; a 
males. ' awrah is from the navel to the knees whereas, in another view it is said to be the 
external organs of sex and excretion. As for a female's 'awrak, it includes all her body in 
one view whereas in another it is. all her body with the- exception of her face and hands. 

32 Sidr. The extract of the loie tree leaves, 

33 A!-Bukhari (1325} [3/2501 and Muslim (2186) [4/16], 

34 Takbir. Saying, "AUahu-Akbar* [i.e. Allah is the Greatest). 

35 Tastfrn; Saying the final SaiAms in prayer (saying, "A s-salAmu 'alayktan wa RahanatullAii' 
i.e. "Peace be upon you, and the mercy of Allah 11 ) when concluding prayer, 

36 Basrmihih: Saying, '^ &i$mliWnr-KtihmAnir-Rsh\m" i.e. "In Lhe Name of Allah, the 
Entirely Merciful the Fspeoally Merciful" 

37 Abu Dawud (3201) [3/350], Ar-Tirmidht (1025) [3/343] and Ibn Majah (1498) [2/218], 
33 Muslim (2229) [4/34], 

39 Mjslim (2127) [3/461]. 

40 Ibn Abu Shaybah (29829) [6/107] and Abdur-Razzaq (6588) [3/529]. 

41 Al-Bukhari (1325) and Muslim (945). 

42 Muslim (2192) [4/191 

43 Al-Bukhari (1315) [3/233] and Muslim (2183) [4/15). 



316 II: PRAYER 

44 Tnhlsl: Saying, "La Iliiha fflaiiril" (i.e. There is no deity but Allah). 

45 Dhikr: Invocations implying remembrance of and mentioning Allah. 

46 Al-HukharU313> [1/536] and Muslim (2164) [4/5], 

47 Abu Daw ikl (3216) [3/356] and (3215) 13/355], and At-Tirmidbi (1717) [4/2131. 

48 Ahmad (5370) j 2/701, Abu Dawiid {3213) 1 3/355), At-Tirmidhi (11)46) [3/364], and 
TbJlMaj<iri(155t>) [2/241 j, 

49 AbO Daw-Ad (2S75) [3/199). 

50 Abu Daw Lid ( 322 1 ) [ 3/3 57] . 

51 Muslim [2242} [4/4 1 J, 

52 At-Tirmidht (1053) [3/3681 and An-Nasat (2026) [2/391]. ibn Majah. (1562, 1565) 
12/247, 24S J. 

53 Ahmad (2030) [1/230], Abii Dawud (3236) [3/3621, At-Tirmidht (320} [2/136] and 
An-Nasai (2042} [2/400]. Jbn Majah (1575) [2/254|. 

54 Al-Bukh&ri (435) 1 1 tf>$$) and Muslim (1187) [3/16J. 

55 Muslim (2245) [4H1]. 

56 Ibn Majah (1601} 12/268). 

57 Ahmad (1750} |1/253|. Abu LMwud (3132) [3/323], At-Tlrmidhi (999) [3/323], Ibn 
Majah (1610) (2/2741. 

5« Ahmad (6902) |2/270| and Ibn Majah (1612} [2/275], 

59 See: "Majtnii 'ul-Fatnwa"' (24/3 1 fi)_ 

60 See; "Af-tiriH'rttta/j wr Af-fir'ffo ' " {pp. 175). 

61 Muslim (2257) [4/5.0], At-Tirmidhi (1055) )3/370|. See also Abu Diwtfd (3698) [4/65]. 

62 They are the Sacred Mosque, the Prophet's Mosque and Al-Aqsa Mosque. 

63 Al-Rukharifl 189) |3/32] and Muslim (3370) [5/L69], 

64 See: "Majmii ' ' ul-FatAwt)" 1 24/326] and [26/143}. 



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CHAPTER 



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Zakah: Legality and Virtue 



Dear Muslim brothers, a Muslim must know the details of the rulings on 
Zakah y its conditions, those required to pay it, those for whom it is to be paid, 
and the properties from which it is to be paid. This is because Zak&h is one of 
the pillars of Islam and its great basis as clearly indicated by the Noble Qufan 
and the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition). Allah, Exalted be He, has joined it with 
performing Prayer in His Book in eighty- two positions, which signifies its 
great status and the perfection of the connection between it and prayer and the 
firmness of the relation between them. The trustworthy person of that nation 
who was the first Caliph after Allah's Messenger (PDUH), Abu Bakr As-Sidiq 
{may Allah be pleased with him) said' 

"By Allah! I will fight those who differentiate between Prayer and 
Zakah? 1 



320 WVZAKAH 

Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And establish prayer and give Zakah.." 

(Qur'an: AL-Baqarah: 43) 

Allah, ExaEted be He, also says: 

"...But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give Zakah, 
let them [goj on their way. ," (Qu r'arr, At-Tawbah; 5) 

Moreover, the Prophet (PBUH) says: 

"Islam is based on (the following) five (principles): (i) to testify that 
there is no deity but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger 
of Allah; (ii) to perform the (compulsory congregational) Prayers 
dutifully and perfectly, (Hi) to pay Zakah..'"' 

Muslim scholars have unanimously agreed that Zakah is an obligatory act 
and that it is the third pillp]' of Islam, and he who denies this is considered a 
disbeliever, and whoever refrains from giving it is to be fought. 

Zakah was enjoined in the second year of Hijrah of the Prophet (PBUH) 
(Immigration to Medina). Allah's Messenger (PBUH) sent Zakah collectors to 
receive it, in order to deliver it to those who deserve it. The same was done by 
the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and Muslims after the Prophet (PBUH), 

Paying Zakah is an act of benevolence toward the people, a means of 

purifying the property from defilement, a protection against destruction, and 
a worship of the Lord, Exalted be He. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Take, [O Muhammad] \ j rum their wealth a charity by which 
you purify them and cause them increase, and invoke (Allah's 
blessings] upon them, Indeed, your invocations are reasmr&nce 
for them. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing." 

(Qur'an: At Tawbah: 103) 

Hence, it purifies the souls from stinginess and avarice, and it is also a trial 
to the ridi person since he approaches Allah by giving some of his property 
that he likes, 

Allah has enjoined Zakah on the property that can provide sustenance to 
others and which multiplies and incurs much profit (i.e. that which spontaneously 
multiplies as cattle and harvest, and which multiplies by investment and 
management like gold, silver and trading commodities). Moreover, Allah has 



CLiiipiei I : Zakah: S.rgaiity and Virtue 32] 

ordained the amount of Zakah according to the effort exerted in the property 
from which it is paid, so He enjoined one- fifth on vikaz (buried wealth), However, 
Allah enjoined one- tenth to he paid m Zakah on the property which needs more 
effort such as the land watered without exerting too much effort. Moreover, in 

properties that need much effort, one -twentieth (5%) is to he given as Zakah. In 
addition, for what involves much effort and difficulty, as in money and trading 
commodities, one-fortieth (2,5%) is to be paid. 

Allah has called Zakah by that name, as this word, in Arabic, means 
purifying the soul and the money. It is not a fine or a tax that reduces the 
property and harms its owner. Contrariiy, it makes the property grow more. 
Allans Messenger (PBUH) said: 

"The wealth does not decrease out of giving in charity" 

Zakah, according to SharVah (Islamic Law), is a rightful obligation on 
a special property of a particular group of people to be paid at a particular 
time* The time when Zakah is to be paid is; 

* When a complete year passes with regard to cattle, money, and trading 

commodities 

• When grains become hard and the signs indicating ripeness appear, 

with regard to fruits 

♦ With regard to honey, Zakah is to be paid when it reaches the amount 

liable for Zakdh 

* The mining of minerals upon which Zakah is to be paid, with regard to 

minerals 

♦ Concerning Zakatul-FHr (Fast -breaking Zakah), it is to be paid after the 

sun sets of the vigil of the Fast -breaking Feast { ' Idul-Fitr) but before 

performing the Feast Prayer 

A Muslim must give Zakah if he/she meets five conditions: 

Being a free person; Zak&h is not imposed on a slave, because he 
possesses no property, and what is in his hand belongs to his master; therefore, 
his master is the one who must pay his Zakah. 

Being a Muslim: The second condition is that the owner of the property 
must be a Muslim, as Zakah is not imposed on a disbeliever. A disbelieving 
person is not asked to pay it, because it is an act of approaching Allah as well as 



322 UV.ZAKAH 

an act of showing obedience, and the disbeliever is not amongst those people 
dose and obedient to Allah. It also needs intention, which is impossible to 
arise from a disbeliever. 

Whether it is to be imposed on the disbeliever or not and whether he is 
to be punished particularly in the Hereafter for not paying it or not, it is stiJJ 
a controversial issue among scholars. Furthermore, in the hadith narrated by 
MiTadh (may Allah be pleased with him) in which the Prophet (PEUH) said 
to him: 

"...Invite the people to testify that there is no deity but Allah and I 
am the Messenger of Allah." 

Then the Prophet (PRUH) added after he had mentioned performing 
Prayer: 

*..h If they obey you to do so, then tell them that Allah has made it 

obligatory for them to pay Zakah from their property and it is to be 
taken from the wealthy among them and given to the poor" 

(Related by Al-Bukhad and Muslim) 3 

Thus, the Prophet (PBUH) made the conversion to Islam a prerequisite for 
the obligation of Zakah. 

Having the nisab : The third condition is the possession of the nisjab, 
thus, no Zakah is due upon what is less than the ni&ab. It does not make any 
difference whether the possessor of the m&b is old or young, sane or insane, 
as the legal proofs pertaining to this are general, i.e. there is no specification 
mentioned in this regard. 

Being an established owner of the property: The fourth condition 
is that the ownership of the property must be settled, so that none lays claim 
to it. Thereupon, no Zakah is due upon a property whose ownership is not 
established, such as the debt of a mukatab, since the mukatab still has the fight 
not to fulfill the agreement. 

The elapse of a fulJ tonar year on the property: The fifth condition 
is that a year must lapse on the property, owing to the hadith of ' A'ishah (may 

Allah be pleased with her) saying: 

"No Zakah is to be taken from a property until a year passes our it" 

(Related by Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidhi has related its meaning 
as well) 1 . 



Chnpter ] : Zakdh: Legality and Virtue 323 

This is concerning what does not issue from the land as grains and fruits. 
However, as for what is produced from the land, Zakah is entailed upon it 
whenever it exists. Thus, the lapse of a year is irrelevant for it, whereas the 

completion of a year remains stipulated with regard to money, cattle and 
trading commodities, as a kind of leniency toward the owner in order that the 
property can grow. 

A* for the offspring of Cattle liable to Zakah and the profit gained in trade, 
the lapse of the year is to be counted with regard to the original capital Thus, 
it is not necessary that a complete year passes on the offspring of cattle or the 
profit if rheir original capital has reached the ni^Qb. If it has not t the year is to 
be estimated from the time they complete the m$ab. 

As for the creditor of an insolvent person, the creditor is to pay the due 
Zak&h of the debt when he receives it in case the debt has remained for a whole 
year with the indebted. This is according to the soundest opinion of scholars. 
However, when being the creditor of a rich solvent person, the creditor is to 
pay Zakah due upon this property each year, 

Moreover, no Zakah is due upon any property set for possession or usage 
such as one's dwelling house, clothes, the furniture, the vehicles and the animals 
prepared for riding and usage. As for what is set for rent as vehicles, stores and 
houses, no Zakah is due upon its original capital but Zakah is due upon the 
rent paid for such a property if it reaches the nisab alone or by adding it to 
another estate and a complete year lapses. 

As for the one upon whom Zakah is obligatory and he dies before paying 
it, it must be paid from his inheritance and is not annulled by his death. This 
is because Allah's Messenger (PBUH) says: 

"...Allah's debts have more right to be paid" 



(Related by Al-Bukhari, Muslim and other compilers of Hadith) 

The inheritor or others are to pay it from the inheritance of the deceased 
because it is a due right and it is not annulled by death. Furthermore, it is a 
debt obligatory upon the deceased and he must be absolved from it. 



324 WI.ZAKAH 

Endnotes 

1 Al-Bukhari (1399) |3/331] and Muslim (124) [1/50|. 

2 Al-Bukhari {&) | J/691 and Muslim (111) f 1/1281. 

3 Ahmad (17954) [4/231] and At-TirmidhiU33u) [4/562]. See also Muslim (6535) [a/357], 
Ahmad (7205) [2/236], (3956) j 2/337] and Al-TirmidhJ (2034) [4/376], 

4 II is permissible to girt Zflfcf3(K/-fjj[j' (hait-brcakingZa/tfl/j) anytime during the month 
of Ramadan. 

5 Al-Bukhari ( 1 395) [3/3301 and Muslim (121) [1/146]. 

6 Nis&b; Hie mini mum amount upon which Zak&h is due, 

7 Mt-ik&tub: A slave who has concluded a contract with his/her master to pay him a 
certain ransom lor his/her freedom. 

*Tbn Majah(l792) 1 2/373) and Ar-Tirmidhi (630,631) [3/25,26]. 

9 Al-BukMri (1953) [4/2451 and Muslim (26S8) [4/266|. See also AL-Bukhari (7315) [] 3/362 J. 




CHAPTER 



. 







Zakdh: Grazing Animals 
and Livestock 



Among the properties upon which Allah has imposed Znkal^ are the 
grazing animals and livestock, namely camels, cows and sheep. Moreover, it is 
forem ost a mong t h e pro pert i es d i ct a t i n g th e pay tne nt of Za ka h . Ma ny recurrent 
$akih (authentic) hadiths of the Prophet (PBUH) indicate paying Zakdk with 
respect to the grazing animals and livestock, His messages concerning it as 
well as the messages of his caliphs are well-known and famous in illustrating 
its enjoined rules, The Prophet (PBUH) also sent the collectors of Zak&h to 
collect it from the Arab tribes around Medina and other places all along the 
Stretch of the Muslim lands. 

Thus, Zakah is obligatory in case of camels, cows and sheep on two conditions; 

The first condition: They must he used for producing milk and for 
reproduction, not for toil, because in the former case their benefits multiply 



MG III: ZAKAH 



and they thrive by growing big and giving offspring* so (hey can provide 
sustenance to others. 

The second condition: They must be grazing livestock (i.e, feed on 
herbage in a field or on pasture! and), on account of the hadith of Allah's 

Messenger (PBUH) in which he says: 

''Concerning the (grazing) livestock, a two- year- old she- camel is to 
be paid (as Zakah) on every forty camels" 
(Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i)' 

Thus, the livestock must be grazing, as no Zakah is due upon animals that 
are fed with fodder bought for them or picked from herbage or another place; 
thai is in case they are fed throughout the year or most of it. 

First: Zakah Due on Camels 

rf these conditions are fulfilled, a sheep is lo be given as Zakah for every 
five camels, two sheep in case they are ten camels* three in case they arc fifteen 
camels and four in case they are twenty camels, as indicated by the Sunnah 
(Prophetic Tradition) and the consensus of Muslim scholars. 

In case the number of the camels reaches Ewenty-five camels, a one-year- 
old she-camel is to be given as Zakah. In this age, its mother most probably 
becomes pregnant; nevertheless, the mother's pregnancy is not a condition. If 
there is not a one-year-old she- camel, a two-year-old male camel may serve 
instead of it. This is based on the hadith narrated by Anas on the authority of 
Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) in which he says: 

",, If there is not a she- camel hi its second year, so a two-year- old 
he-camel (is to be paid as Zakah}!' 

(Related by Abu Dawud)" 

If the siumber of camels reaches thirty-six, a two-year-old she-camel (the 
offspring of a milch she -camel) is to be given as Zakah. This is based on the 
hadith narrated by Anas on the authority of Abu Bakr concerning Zakah, in 
which he says: 

" ..If the number of the camels is from thirty-six to forty-five, one 
two-year-old she-camel is to be paid."' 

This is indicated by the consensus of Muslim scholars. The two-year-old 
she-camel is the offspring of a milch she-camel and it is named so because its 
mother most probably has delivered its baby and has become a milch camel. 
Still, it is not a condition that its mother be a milch camel but it is a prevalent 

definition for it. 



Chapter 2: Zakab: Grazing Animals and Livesock yy? 

If the camels reach forty-six, a three- year- old she-camel is to be given as 
Zakah. By attaining such age, it becomes mature enough to be fertilized by the 
male, to carry loads and to be ridden. 

If the camels reach sixty-one, a four- year-old she-camel is to be given as 
Zakah. When the camel reaches this age, its teeth begin to fall. This is due to 
what is related in Sabih Al-Bukhart (Al-Rukharis Authentic Book of Hadith) 
from the hadith of Allah's Messenger (PBUH) which reads: 

"...If the camels are from sixty-one to seventy-five, one she-camel in 
its fifth year is to be given (as Zakah)." 

Moreover, Muslim scholars have unanimously agreed upon that. 

If the number of camels reaches seventy-six, two she-camels of two-year- 
old (the offspring of a milch she-camel) are to he given as Zakah. This is based 
on the sahih (authentic) hadith in which Allah's Messenger (PRUH) says: 

"...If the number is from seventy-six to ninety (camels), two she- 
camels in their third year are to be given (as Zakah}"' 

If the camels reach ninety-one, two three-year-old she-camels are to be 
paid as Zakah. This comes from the sahih (authentic) hadlth which says: 

"...If they are from ninety-one to one hundred and twenty (camels), 
two she-cameh in their fourth year are. to be given (as Zakah). 7 ' 

In addition, Muslim scholars have unanimously agreed upon that. 

If the number o( camels surpasses one hundred and twenty, three two- 
year- old she -cam els (the offspring of a milch she -camel) are to be given as 
Zakah. This is based on the hadith the Prophet (PBUH) wrote concerning 
Zakah, and which says: 

". . . If they are o ver one-hun dred and- twen ty (ca m els), for every forty 
a two-year-old she-camel is to be paid; or for every fifty camels a 
three- year- old she-camel is to be given (as Zakah)" 

Second: Zak&h Due on Cows 

As for cows, Zakah is to be paid according to legal texts and the consensus 
of Muslim scholars. It is related in the Two Sahibs that Jabir narrated; 

"I heard Allatis Messenger (PBUH) saying, 'No owner of camels, or 
cattle or sheep and goats, who does not pay the due Zakdh but these 
(camels, cattle, sheep and goats) will come on the Day of Resurrection 



323 III: ZAKAH 

having more flesh and will gore him wills their horns and trample on 
him with their hooves.' "* 

Moreover, MVadh (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: 

"When the Prophet (PBUH) sent me to Yemen, he ordered me to 
take a one-year old male or a female calf for every thirty cows, and 
(also to take) a two year-old cow for every forty." 

(Related l>y Ahmad and At-Tirmidthi)' 

So, if the number of the cows reaches thirty, a male or female one-year-old 
calf is To be given as Zakah. Nothing is due in what is less than thirty cows, 
according to the hjidith narrated by Mu'adh (may Allah be pleased with him) 
who said: 

"When Allah's Messenger (PBUH) sent me to Yemen (to collect 
Zakah), he ordered me not to take anything (as Zakah) for cows 
until they reach thirty (in number).'" 

If the number of cows reaches forty; a two-year-old cow is to be given as 
Zakah, This is also according to the hadith narrated by Mu'adh (may Allah be 
pleased with him) who said; 

"The Prophet (PBUH) sent we to Yemen (to collect Zakah) and 
ordered me to take a one-year-old male or a female calf for every 
thirty cows t and (also to take) a two-year-old cow for every forty." 

(Related by the Five Compilers of Hadith and deemed sahsh 

■g 

(authentic) by Ibn Mihban and Al- Hakim) 

If the number of cows surpasses forty, a one-year-old calf is to be given as 
Zakah for every thirty cows, or a two-year-old cow for every forty. 

Third: Zakah Due on Sheep 

Giving Zakah from sheep is obligatory according to the Sunnah (Prophetic 
Tradition) and the consensus of Muslim scholars. In the Two Sahihs, Anas 
narrated that Abu Eaki (may AEIah be pleased with him) wrote to him saying: 

"These are the orders for Zakah which Allah's Messenger (PBUH) 
had made obligatory for Muslims, and which Allah had ordered 
His Messenger to observe,. ." 



Chapter 2: Zakah; Crazing Animals and L.ivesock 329 

He added: 

"...As regards Zakah far the (flock of) sheep, if they are between 
forty and one hundred and twenty sheep, one sheep is to he given 
(as Zakah)" 

If the number of sheep reaches forty (whether they are sheep or goats), 
one sheep {or goat) is to be given as Zakah, It must be a six- mo nth old sheep 
in case of sheep, or one-year-old goat in case of goats. This is according to the 
hadith narrated by Suwayd Ibn Ghaflah who said: 

"The collector of Zakah sent by Allah's Messenger (PBUH) came 
to us and said., "We are ordered (by the Prophet) to take from what 
completed six ?nonihs of age of sheep; and to take what completed 
one year old of goats* >b ' n 

No Zakah is Eo be taken from sheep if the number is less than forty This is 
based 011 the hadith of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him), related in 
Sahib. Al-Bukhan {Al-Bukhdri's Authentic Book of Hadith), which says: 

"If somebody has got less than forty sheep, no Zakah is required, hut 
if the owner wants to give anything in charity, he can" 

If Che number of sheep reaches one hundred and twenty one, two sheep are 

to be given as Zakah, based on the hadith of Abu Bakr (may A hah be pleased 
with him) that has been mentioned before, which says: 

"...If the (number of) sheep is over one hundred and twenty, two 
sheep are due (as Zakah)." 

If their number reaches two hundred and one, then three sheep are to be 

given as Zakah, This is also based on the hadith of Abu Bakr (may Allah be 
pleased with him), which says: 

"...If they are over two hundred, three sheep are due." 

After that number of sheep, the due number to be given as Zakah in sheep 
is fixed. Thus, one sheep is to be given as Zakah for every hundred sheep. So, 
for every four hundred sheep, four sheep are to be given as Zakah; for every 
five hundred sheep, five sheep are to be given as Zakah; for every sue hundred 
sheep, six sheep are to be given as ZakAlt and so forth. It is slated in the book 
of Zakah,. which Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) acted according 
to until he died and so did 4 Umar (may Altah be pleased with him) until he 
died, that: 



330 WhZAKAH 

"...As regards the ({lock of) sheep, for every forty sheep up to one 
hundred and twenty, one sheep is due (as Zakah). If the (number 
of) sheep is over that up to two hundred, two sheep are due. But if 
they are over two hundred by only one sheep, three sheep are due 
up to three hundred. If they surpass three hundred, no Zakah is to 
be paid until they reach four hundred). If the number of sheep is 
over that (four hundred), then one sheep is to be given as Zakah for 
every hundred sheep." 

(Related by the Five Compilers ofHadhh except An-Nasai)" 

Furthermore, an old sheep is not to be accepted as Zakah, nor a defective 
one which is not fit its a sacrificial animal except if all the sheep are the same. 
Moreover, the pregnant one is not To be accepted, nor the one that suckles its 
baby, nor the one fitting to be fertilized by the male because in most cases it 
becomes pregnant. This is based on the hadith of Aba Eakr (may Allah be 
pleased with him) related in Sahsh Al-Bukhari (Al-Buklidri's Authentic Book of 
Hadith), which says: 

"...Neither an old nor a defective animal nor a male-goat is to be 
taken as Zakah except if the collector of Zakah wishes (to take it}" 1 

Moreover, Allah, the Exalted, says: 

<4 .„Attd do not aim toward the defective therefrom, Spending 
[from that]..r (Qur'afl: Al-Baqarah: 267) 

Furthermore, Allah's Messenger {PRUT-T) said: 

". ..But one should give animals of medium quality, for Allah does not 
demand from you the best of your animals, nor does He command 
you to give the animals of worst quality" ' 

The best animal, which is the most precious to its owner, is not to be taken 
as Zakah. Also, the animal that eats much, which is either fat and is prepared 
for eating, or the one marked by gluttony and grows fat because of it, is not to 
betaken as Zak&h, Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said to Mu'adh Ibn Jabal (may 
Allah be pleased with him) when he sent hint to Yemen: 

"..Avoid taking the best of their properties." 
(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

In charities, what is to be taken is the property of medium quality as stated 

bythe Prophet (PBUH): 



CTh^prcr 2: 'fjtkfth: Grazing Animals and Livcsock 33! 

"...But one should give animals of medium quality" 

Thus, a sick animal is to be taken from among a nistib that is all sick, 
because Zakah is ordained to provide sustenance to others, and obliging 
one to give a sound one out of the sick group is unfair to the one giving 
Zakah. In addition, a youngster is to be taken from among a tti$Ab that is 
all young, especially from the sheep. Yet if the proprietor desires to give 
better than that enjoined upon him, it will certainly he belter and greater 
in reward for him. 

If the property is a mixture of grown-up and young, sound and defective, 
or male and female animals, a sound grown-up female is to be taken based 
on esti mating the val ue of the superior and inferior divisions of the property 
Firstly the superior part of the property is to be estimated to know what 
should be taken as Zakah and the same is to be done with regard to the 
inferior part. After that, the due Zakah is to be taken justly on an average 
basis from among the whole property. The same is to be applied with respect 
to the other types of sound and defective, or male and female sheep, $O s if 
die value of Zakah that is to be given is twenty sheep, in case the whole nisab 
is of grown-up sound sheep; and its value is ten in case the nisab is of young 
sick sheep, then the given Zakah is to be one half of that and one half of that. 
Thus, fifteen sheep are to be given as Zakah . 

Among the objects of research in Zakah of grazing livestock are the rules 
of partnership: when the sum of the mixed livestock is shared between two 
persons or more. Such partnership is of two types: 

The first type: The mixed partnership in which the property is com in on 
and shared between the owners and the property of one of them is not 
distinguished from the others. In this case, one of them may own half 

the livestock, its quarter or the like. 

The second type: The determinate partnership; where each one has a 
known, distinguished share, yet their properties are adjacent. Each 
of the two kinds of partnerships influences Zakah positively or by 
deduction, augments it or lessens it. 

Partnership with its two types renders the two-shared properties as 
one, but with conditions: 

The first condition: The sum equals the nisab. If it is less than the nisab, 

nothing is to be taken from it. The sum must equal the nisab, eveti if 
what each of the owners possesses is less than the nis&b. 



332 WhZAKAH 

The second condition: The two partners art from the people upon 
whom Zakah is rightfully enjoined. If one of them is not from amongst 
those people (a disbeliever fur example), then the partnership will be 
irrelevant and each share will be subject to its own rules. 

The third condition: The two properties share the same shelter or 

lodging, and share the same yard where they are gathered to go to t lie 
pasturage. Moreover, they must share tire same place of milking. If 

one of the partners milks his livestock in a place and the other milks 
his own in another place, then the partnership will be irrelevant with 
regard to Zakah. In addition, the two -shared properties must share 
the same male animal which fertilizes them all Also, both properties 
must graze in the same pasturage, Tf the pasturage differs and one 
partners share grazes in a plate other than the place where bis partner 
herds his own livestock, then the partnership will be irrelevant with 
regard to Zakah. 

If these conditions are fulfilled, the two-shared properties are deemed as 
one. This is based on the hadith of the Prophet (PBUH) in which he said: 

"Neither the property of different people may be taken together nor 
the joint property may be split for fear of (giving mote, or receiving 
less) ZakaiC 

(Related by At-Tirmidthi, Abu DawCid, and Ibn Majah, and deemed 
zhasan (good) hadith by At-Tirmidthi) '' 

If a person owns One sheep while the other owns thirty- nine, or if forty men 
own forty sheep, a sheep for each, and they remain partners for a whole year 
with the fulfillment of the aforementioned conditions, then only one sheep is 
due as Zakah for their joint property. In the first case, the owner of the sheep 
is to give one-fortieth (2.5%) of the sheep as, Zttk&h* and the rest (97.5%) are to 
be given by the owner of the thirty-nine sheep. In the second case, each of the 
forty men is to give 2.5% of the sheep as Zakah. Also, if three men possess one 
hundred and twenty sheep, where each of them owns forty, all of them are to 
give one sheep as Zakiih, one third each, 

As partnership influences the amount of Zakah the way explained 
previously, division also may influence the amount of Zakah, according to 
the opinion of imam Ahmad. Thus, if the grazing livestock of a person is 
separated, where every part is removed from the other a distance that entails 
shortening prayer, then each part is to be subjected to its own rulings and it 



Chapifi]- 2: y.nktih: Ciray.iji" Animals aid Livcsock 333 

will |>e unrelated Co the other part of the property, If one part is equal to the 
ttisab* Zctkah is to be given from it If it is less lhan the rti$.i)b, nothing is lo be 
given as Zakdh, Thus, no part is to be joined to the other, as stated by Imam 
Ahmad, However, the majority of Muslim scholars arc of the opinion that 
division does not influence the property of a single person. One part is to be 
added to the other in judgment, even it divided, This is the soundest opinion; 
and Allah knows best. 



Endnotes 

1 Ahmad (19901) [5/2] , (19921) [5/4 1, Abu Dawud (1575) [2/159) and An-Nasa'H 2443) [3/17], 

2 Abu Dawud (1567) I 2/ 1 46 j and Al-Bukhari {1448) 1 3/3931. 

3 Al-Bukhari (1454) [3/399]. 
4Al-BuMiart<]454) [3/399]. 

5 Al-Bukhari <1 454) [3/399], 

6 Muslim (2293) [4/72]. Al-Bukhari (1402} [3/336J and Muslim (2287) [4/67], 

7 At-TirnudliT {622) [3/201 and An- Nasal (2449} [2/26], 
S At-Tirmidhi (622) [3/20] and An -Nasal (2449) [2/26]. 

9 Abu Dawud (1576) [2/1601, At-Tirmidhi (622) [3/20], An-Nasal (2450) [2/26] and Ibn 

Mfljah (1803) [2/382], 
1(1 Abu Dawud ( 1 53 I) [2/163]. Set 1 a 1*0 '^(jKr-fiyfi" (2/354-355). 

1 1 Abu Dawud 056K) [2/154], At-Tirmidhi (620) [3/17] and lbn Majah (1805) [2/383], 
See also An-Nasai (2446) [3/20] and AL-Bukhari (1454) [3/399]. 

12 Al-Eukhari (1455) [3/404]. 
13AbOD*w0d(]5B2) [2/1641. 

14 Ni$Ab: Ihe minimum amount upon which Zakah is due, 

15 Abu Dawud (1580) [2/162], An-Nasa'E (2456) [2/30], Ibn Majah (IROI) [2/381] and 
At-Tirmidhi (620) |3/17], See also AURukhari ( 1450) [3/395]. 




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' . . 



Zakdh: Grains, Fruits, Honey, 
Minerals and Rikaz 



Allah, Exalted be He, says; 

"O you who have believed,, spend from the good things which 
you have earned and from that which We have produced for you 
from the earth..." (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 267) 

Zakdh can be called spending (expenditure), as Allah, the Exalted, says: 

"And those who hoard gold find silver and spend it not in the 
Way of Allah -give them tidings of a painful punishment " 

(Quran; At-Tawbah: 34) 
The verse means that they do not give its due Zakah. 

The Sunnah (Prophetic Trad iEion) ha s- mentioned elaborately the command 
to give Zakdh on grains and fruits, and clarified its due amount. The Muslims 



336 III: ZAKAH 

have also unanimously agreed upon the dueness of giving it from wheat, barley, 
dates, and raisins. Thus, Zakdh is to he given from all grains such as wheat, 
barley, rice, millet and the rest of cereals. The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"No Zakdh is due on less than five wasqs of grains or dates" 

The Prophet {PBUH) also said: 

"On a land irrigated by rainwater or by natural water channels or 
if the land is wet due to a nearby water spring, one-tenth is to be 
given (as Zakdh)," 

(Related by Al-Bukhari)' 

Zakdh is to be given from fruits such as dates, raisins, and their like from 
amongst all the things that can be weighed and stored. Zakdh is only taken 
from what reaches the nisAb. This is based on the marfW' {traceable) hadith 
narrated by Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) saying that 
the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"No Zakdh is to be paid on (a quantity) less than five wasqs" 

(Related by the Group of Compilers of Hadfth) 

It is stipulated in Zflkah given from grains and fruits that the owner must 

possess the ntsab at the due Lime of giving Zakdh, which is the appearance 
of signs indicating ripeness of fruits, and the hardening of grains in plants. 
Thus, there are two conditions which make Zakdh obligatory to be given 
from fruits and grains. First, the amount should reach the riisdb according 
to what is mentioned above. Second, the one giving Zakdh possesses the 
nis&b at' the due time of giving Zakdh, Therefore, if a person possesses the 
nisdb later, he is not to give Zakdh for it, as in the case of buying it, or 
gaining it as wages in return of harvesting it, or having picked it up from 
the leftover harvest. 

The amount that is to he given as Zakdh of grains and fruits differs 
according to the method of irrigation: 

In case the land is irrigated without effort, but from floods and running 
water, Or in case of trees and plants that suck water through their roots, tenth 
of the yield is EO be given as Zakah. This is according to the hadith related 
in Sah\h Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book of Hadith) on the authority of Tbn 
' Umar who narrated that the Prophet (PRUH) said: 



Chapter 3; Zaksh: Grains, t*niiis, Honey, Minerals- and Rikaz 227 

"On a land irrigated by rainwater or by natural water channels or 
if the land is wet due to a nearby spring, one-tenth is to be given 
(as Zakdh)'' 

Moreover, Imam Muslim relates on the authority of Jabir that the Prophet 
(PBUH) saysi 

"One-tenth is payable (as Zakah) on the land irrigated by rivers, 
or rain." 

In case of what is irrigated by exerting effort to bring water from wells 
or other sources, one-twentieth (5%) is to be given as Zakdh. This is based 
on what the Prophet (PBUH) said in the hadith narrated by Ibn L Umar (may 
Allah be pleased with him): 

".And on the land irrigated by the well, one-twentieth (5%) is to 
be paid (as Zakah on the yield of the land)" 

{Related by Al-Bukhari) 

Watering by the help of camels entails giving one- twentieth, as Imam 
Muslim related on the authority of Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) that 

the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

". ..And a one-twentieth is to be paid (as Zakdh) on what is irrigated 

by camels" 

The due time of giving Zakdh on grains is when they become ripe and hard, 
and with regard to fruits, the due time is when they show signs of ripeness. Yet f 
if the owner sells it afterwards, Zakdh will still be due upon him, not upon the 
buyer, In addition, the grains are to be given as Zakfth after sifting; that is, they 
must be cleaned from hay and straw. 

The fruits given as Zakah should be dried because the Prophet 
(PBUH) commanded estimating the grapes (for collecting Za/tafc) when 
dried into raisins, thus Zakdh for grapes is to be paid in raisins. The 
same is to be applied with regard to Zakdh due upon dates, as it is to be 
given in dried dates. 

Zakah is to given from honey if it is obtained from ones own possession 
Or from uncultivated lands, like the tops of mountains as long as the honey 
obtained reaches the nisab. The nisab of honey is thirty $.& s\ Thus, it is 65160 
grams. The amount to be given as Zakdh m honey is a tenth of the yield. 



33S III: ZAKAH 

Zakah is to be given from minerals, according to the Quranic verse in 

which Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"...Spend from the good things, which you have earned* and 
from that which We have produced for you from the earth.." 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah; 267) 

A mine is a place from where precious stones are extracted. It is n profit 
from the earth, thus it entails giving Zakah just as grains and fruits. If the 

mineral is gold or silver, the due amount of Zakah is one-fortieth (2,5%), when 
it reaches the riii&b or exceeds, it. Regarding other minerals as kohl, arsenic, 
sulfur, salt and petroleum, 2.5% of their value is to be given as Zakah, if the 
value reaches the tti£t\h or exceeds it (after being) evaluated in gold or silver. 

Zakah is also to be given from rikilz (buried wealth), which is the buried 
wealth of the disbelievers from the Pre- Islamic Period of Ignorance (the 
Jahiliyyah). It is named rikaz because it is deeply hidden under the ground, 
as the word rik&z, in Arabic, indicates firmly implanting something into the 
ground. Fifth of its am omit is to be given as Zakah whether it is a small or a 
large amount, as the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"One-fifth of the rikaz is to be given to the Public Treasury" 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)" 

It could be known that rikaz belongs to the disbelievers by having their 
signs on it like the names of their kings, crosses or any other sign that indicates 
heing of non -Muslim origins, So, after the fifth of it is given as Zakah, the rest 
is to go to the one who has found it. However, if the buried wealth carries any 
sign indicating the ownership of Muslims, or it carries no sign at all, then it is 
to be judged by the same rulings on a finding. 

What is taken as Zak&h from the rikaz (buried wealth) is to be spent in the 
interest of Muslims as in the case of the war booty. 

According to the aforementioned, it is clear that Zafcafc of what is produced 
from the earth comprises several kinds: 

* Grains and fruits 

* Minerals with its different kinds 

* Honey (which is formed in mountain beehives) 

* Rikaz 



Chapici- 3: ZskMr. thrums, Fruits, Honey, Mintrals and Rikaz ,m 

All these kinds fail under what Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

" ..Spend from the good things which you have earned and from 
that which We have produced for you from the earth.." 

(Quran; Al-Baqarah; 267) 
And the verse: 

". ..And give its due {Zak&h] on the day of its harvest..." 

(Quran: Al-ArTam: 141) 

Zakiih is only obligatory on what is weighed and stored of grains and 
fruits. As for what is not weighed and stored, it does not entail giving Zakah, 
like walnut, apple, peach, quince, and pomegranate. The same applies to the 
rest of vegetables and legumes, like radish, garlic, onion, carrot, watermelon, 

cucumber, eggplants and the like. This is based on the marfu* (traceable) 
had'ith of ' Alt (may Allah be pleased with him) who narrated that the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 



"No Zakiih is due on vegetables." 

(Related by Ad-Daraqutnt)* 

Moreover, Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said: 

"No Zakdh is to be paid an (a quantity) less than five wasqs" 

Thus, measuring is considered in what entails giving Zakah, which 
indicates that Zakiih is not to be given from what is neither measured nor 
stored. In addition, the fact that the Prophet (PBUH) and his Caliphs used 
not to collect Zakiih for such kinds of plants, though they were cultivated near 
them, serves as evidence that Zakah is not to be taken from these plants, This 
means that abstaining from taking Zakiih from such plants is the followed 
Sunnah. Jmam Ahmad said: 

"What resembles cucumber, onion, and basils (in being not measured 
nor stored) does not entail giving Zakah, except when it is sold and 
then a year lapses oil its price." 



340 WV.ZAKAH 

Endnotes 

1 Wasij: A standard measure thar equals 130320 grams. 

2 Muslim (2264) [4/551. See also Al-r>ukh&rt (1459) [3/406], 
3AI-Rukhari(1483)|3/437]. 

4 At-Bukhan (141)5) [3/342], Muslim (2260) [4/521. Abu D 3 wild (1558) [2/ 1 42 1 , At- 
Tinaid!li(625) (3/22], An-Nasa'i (2444) [2/181 and Ibn Majah (1793) [2/374], 

5 Muslim (2269) [4/571. 

6 Abu DawAd (1603) [2/175], At-Tirmidhi (643) [3/361, An -Masai (2617) (3/115] and 
rbn Majah (IS 19) [2/390], 

7 £tT ; A Standard measure that equals 2 172 grams. 

8 Al-Bukhari(6912) (12/317] and Muslim (444) [6/2221, 

9 Ad-Daraqutm (]890) [2/8 1| and At-Tirmidhi (637) [3/30]. 











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Zakdh: Gold and Silver 



The rulings on Z«tofti of gold and silver are also applied with regard La 
what is derived from them such as money, jewels, ingots and the like. 

The proof of the legality of Zakah on gold and silver is the Qur'an, the 
Sunnah, anci the consensus of Muslim scholars, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"... Those who hoard gold and silver and iptnd it not in the Way 
of Allah -give them tidings of a painful punishment .," 

(Quran: At-Tawbah: 34) 

In this Noble Quranic verse there is a hard warning of painful torture to 

those who refrain from giving Zakah due on gold and silver. 

In the Two Sahihs y it is related that the Prophet (PBUH) said; 

"If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him, when 
the Day of Resurrection comes* it (the gold or the silver) will be turned 
into plates of fire for him (and he will be punished with them)"' 



342 m-.ZAfCAH 

All Muslim scholars have unanimously agreed that what is meant by 
"hoarding" in the Noble Quran and the hadtth is things piled up together whether 
buried on the face of the earth or not. These things entail giving Zakah but it 
was nut given, If the due Zakah is paid, then il is not considered hoarding. 

9 

Zakah is to be given in gold when it reaches twenty mithqah'. Thus, the 
nisab of gold is #5 grams, With regard to silver, the nisab of silver is 200 dirhams 
which equals 595 grams of silver, whether these dirhams are coined or not. 
The due amount of Zakah in gold and silver is one- fortieth (2.5%). This is 
based on the marfu n (traceable) hadith of lbn ' Uniar and ' A T ishah (may Allah 
be pleased with them) who said: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) used to take half a dinar 4 as Zakah from the 

property that reached twenty dinars and upward." 

(Related by lbn Majafif 

In addition, Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"One-fortieth (i.e. 2.5%) is to be taken from pure silver (as Zakah)" 
(Related by Al-Bukhari)" 

What is Permitted for Men to Wear of Gold and Silver 

Men are allowed Lo wear a silver ring, as the Prophet (PBUH) used to wear 
a silver ring, and this is related by Al-Bukhar! and Muslim', However, men are 
prohibited from wearing golden rings, as the Prophet (PBUH) prohibited men 
from adorning themselves with gold''. The Prophet (PBUH) expressed a hard 
warning to the one who does it. by saying; 

"77ft one of you takes live coal from the Hellfire and puts it on 
his hand'.' 

Yet, men are allowed to wear gold when necessary, like using gold as an 
artificial nose or in orthodontics.. This is because the nose of ' Arfajah lbn 
As' ad (may Allah he pleased with him) was cut on the Rattle of Al-Kulab 
(a battle that look place in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance). So, he 
used a nose made of silver, but it caused a stench, so the Prophet (PBUH) 
ordered him to get a gold nose. (Related by Abu L>awud and Al- Hakim 
who deemed il $ahih> i.e. authentic) ' 



Cbapier 4; Zakah: Gold and Silver \a\ 

What is Permitted for Women to Wear of Gold and Silver 

Women are allowed to wear gold and silver In whatever way they are 
accustomed to, as the Lawgiver permit led adornment to them absolutely, The 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Gold and silk are made lawful to the females of my nation while 
made unlawful to the mules" 

(Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidthi and An-Nasa'i)" 

This hadith indicates that it is permissible for women to adorn themselves 
with gold and silver. Moreover, Muslim scholars have unanimously agreed 
upon this. 

No Zakah is to be given from the golden and silver jewelry of women if used 
for ornaments or lending. This is according lo what the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"No Zakah is due on jewels used for ornament" 1 ' 

(Related by At- Tab a rant, on the authority of Jabir, with a weak eh a in 
of transmitters) 

However, what supports this hadith is the fact that it was adopted and 
Muslims have acted according to it, and was also adopted by a group of the 
Prophet's Companions, among whom were; Anas, Jabtr, 'A'ishahu and Asm a 1 
(A'ishah's sister) (may Allah be pleased with them all). Imam Ahmad said, 
"...This opinion is adopted by five from amongst the Companions of the Prophet 
(PBUH)." Moreover, using gold for adornment is not an act of investment 
but a lawful act that resembles wearing a suit, having servants, and possessing 
houses for dwelling. 

If the jewelry is set to be used for the purposes of renting, spend i ng (in case 
of need), possessing, saving, or is meant for any purposes other than those 
of using and lending, then it is subject to the original ruling of giving Zakah 
and Zakah is to be observed in it. This is because gold and silver entail giving 
Zakah. Zak&h is not due on them only when they are used for ornaments and 
lending. Other than that, the original sum is subject to paying the due Zakdh 
when it reaches the nisab ' separately, or by adding it to another part of the 
property. In case the jewelry does not reach the nig&b t and it is not possible to 
add it to another property, then it does not entail giving Zakah except when it 
is set for trading; in this case, its value is subject to paying Zakah. 



344 



IU-.ZAKAH 



The Ruling on Plating Walls and Other Stuff with Gold or 
Silver and Using Utensils Made of Any of Them 

It is prohibited to plate a ceiling or a wall with sliver or gold, or to plate 
a vehicle or its keys with them. All this is- prohibited for a Muslim, It is also 
prohibited to plate a pen or an inkwell with gold or sliver, because all this is 
considered signs of extravagance and vanity. Moreover, it is prohibited to use 
utensils made of gold or silver, or to plate utensils with them. The Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"He who drinks in a vessel of gold or silver is only filling his abdomen 
with Hellfire." 

In addition, there is a hard warning to those men who wear golden rings., 
but regretfully, some Muslim men wear golden rings, paying no heed to the 
warning, or are ignorant of it, Such men should repent Eo Allah for wearing 
golden adornments, and be content with wearing the sliver ring, which Allah 
has permitted, for doing what is lawful suffices instead of doing what is 
prohibited. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"...And whoever fears Allah - He will make for him a way out 
- and wilt provide for him from where he does not expect. And 
whoever relies upon Allah - then He is sufficient for him. Indeed, 
Allah wilt accomplish His purpose. Allah has already set for 
everything a [decreed] extent" (Quran: Aj-Xalaq; 2-3) 

We ask Allah to grant us all guidance to His Religion, adherence to His 

Divine Law, and sincerity in worship. 

Endnotes 

1 Muslim (2237) [4/67]; sec also Al-BukharT (1402) [3/338]. 

2 MithqAk A standard measure that equals 4,25 grams. 

3 A dirham of silver equals 2.975 grama of silver. 

4 Dinar: An old Arab coin that equals 2.975 grams of gold, 

5 JbnMajah(J791J [2/3731, 

6 Al-Bukhart (1«4) [3/399]. 

7 Al-Bukhiri (65) [1/205] and Muslim (5447) [7/2951. 

8 Al-BukharS(5fi63) [10/3831, 

9 Muslim (2090). 



Cbapier A: ZakAh: Gold and Silver 345 

10 Abu Piwud (4232) (4/279|, At-TirmiJht (1774) [4/240] and An-Nasai {5176) [4/5431. 

11 Abu Lttm'nJ (4057) 14/214], An -Nasal {5159} [4/540 1 ond Jbn Majah (3595} [4/157], 
SeealsoAn-Nasa i(5163) [<I/54Q| and At -Tirmidhi (1720) [4/217], 

12 Ad-Diiraqurni (1937) [2/52]; see also "Nasbiu-Raynti' 1 2/374-375]. 

13 'Abdur-Raaijq in his "Miwtwaf [4/81-86], Ibn Abu Sliaybah in his "Musannaf 
[2/383-384J and Al-Bayhaqi in his "Sunan" [4/232-234). 

14 jVrjftfj- lm? minimum amount upon whkb 7«A-[jft is due. 



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Zakdh: Trade Goods 



Trade goods refer to anything allocated for trading purposes with the aim 
of making profit, Zak&h on trade goods is obligatory according to the Qur'an, 
the Sunnah and consensus. Allah says: 

"Take, [O Muhammad}* from their wealth a charity by which 
you purify them and cause them increase.," 

{Qur'&n: At-Tawbah: 103) 
Allah, Exalted be He, also says: 

"And those within whose wealth is a known right. For the peti- 
tioner and the deprived,. ." (Quran: Al-Maarij; 24-25) 

The major part of trade goods constitutes the majority of assets (or 
property), and that is why they are implied, with greater reason, in the general 
meanings of the verses related thereof. 



34 S HI; ZAKAH 

Moreover, it is related by Abu Dawud on the authority of Samurah 
who said: 

"The Prophet (PliUH) used to order its to pay Zakah on what we 
prepare for trade!' 

In general, because trade goods are growing money, they entail paying 
Zakah, just as grazing livestock. 

Furthermore, there is more than one narration on the consensus of Muslim 
scholars on the obligation of paying Zakdh by any Muslim who possesses trade 
goods for a whole lunar year. 

In this regard, Shaykhul- Islam lbn Taymiyah said: 

"The Four Imams, together with the entire body of Muslim scholars 
except few individual scholars, unanimously agree that it is 
obligatory to give Zakdh on trade goods. This ruling applies to am' 
merchant, whether resident or traveling, a monopolist merchant 
(the one who buys trade goods at times of price fall and sells them 
when prices are high) or a shopkeeper. St also applies to any type 
of goods such as clothes (brand new or second-hand); food (e.g. 
grains, fruit, and any edible matter); utensils such as pottery and 
the like; or any types of animals including horses, mules, donkeys, 
sheep, etc. Generally, while merchandise represents the majority of 
people's non-observable properties, cattle represent the majority of 
their observable properties"' 

However, Zakdh on trade goods becomes obligatory only under the following 
four conditions: 

First: The owner has acquired this property by doing some act such as 
transactions, gifting, bequeathing, renting, or other means of acquisition. 

Second; The owner intends to use trade goods for trade and profit. Since 
the correctness and rewards of deeds depend upon intentions, so 
trade, like any other act, is to be associated by an intention. 

Third: The value of trade goods must reach the nisdb evaluated in gold 
or silver, 

Fourth: A lunar year must lapse upon the nisdb, for the Prophet 

(PBUH)said: 

"No Zakdh is due upon property until one year has passed." 



Chapter 5' ZaAifc Trade Goods 349 

However, if the owner buys trade goods against a monetary currency equal 
to the m$ab or buys them for other trade goods equal to the nisdb, the year of 
the goods possession is to be counted with regard to the property he bought 
the trade goods with, 

The Estimation of Zakah on Trade Goods 

Zak&h on trade goods is to be appraised at the completion of the lunar year 
(when die value of ones trade goods amounts to the nis&b) by either gold or 
silver. When appraising the value of 1 he nisftb> it should be appraised according 
to the value that will be more useful to the poor. Then, fortieth (2.5%) of the 
value is to he paid, irrespective of any amount of money that has been used 
for buying trade goods; however, what is to be taken in consideration is the 
value of trade goods at the completion of the year. This is to observe justice 
regarding both the merchant and the recipients of Zakah, 

A Muslim is to pursue accuracy and scrutiny while reckoning the payable 
amount of Zakah, simulating in the process the way a miser would reckon with 
his partner. Thus, all types of trade goods owned by a Muslim must be valued 
in a just way A shopkeeper, for instance, is to estimate the value of all kinds 
of goods he has such as canned foods and the like. Similarly an automobile or 
spare-parts seller is to value all his objects, An owner of real estate who has put 
his property up for sale should likewise value this property and pay Zakfih due 
on it. However, any properly set for renting, such as buildings and automobiles, 
does not entail giving Zakuh. Rat hen Zakah is due on the revenue if it amounts 
to the ni&ab when a complete lunar year passes on it, 

Furthermore, houses and automobiles intended for personal usage (i.e. 
living and transport, respectively) do not entail Zakah. Jn the same way, house 
furniture as well as store furnishings and tools of the merchant, such as cubits, 
measures, scales, perfume vessels and suchlike things, do not entail giving 
Zakah, as they are not intended for trade, 

A Muslim ought to give Zakah wholeheartedly, seeking thereby the Divine 
reward. A Muslim should also realize that Zakah will bring him gain in this 
world and in the Hereafter, and he should not regard what he gives as Zakah 
as a loss by any way. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And among the Bedouin $ are some who consider what they spend 
as a loss and await for your turns of misfortune. Upon them will 
be a misfortune of evil. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. But 
among the Bedouins are some who believe in Allah and the Last 



350 III: ZAKAH 



Day (in d consider what they spend as means of nearness to Allah 
and of (obtaining] invocations of the Messenger. Unquestionably, 
it is a means of nearness for them. Allah will admit them to His 
mercy. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving »nd Merciful" 

(Quran: At-Tawbah: 98-99) 

Each of the two parties mentioned in the aforementioned Quranic verse 
gives Zakdh. Yet, they are treated differently by Allah, according to the intention 
of each group. The first group includes those who give Zakah considering it a 
loss and taking it a screen lo hide their ill will toward Muslims, They wait for an 
occasion when Muslims are stricken by misfortunes to take revenge on them. 
However, upon them will be a misfortune of evil, and they have been deprived 
of Allah's reward and have lost the money they have given as Zakfth, On the 
other hand, those believers who give Zakah to draw near to Allah indeed wilJ 
receive a far much valuable reward from Allah in compensation for their good 
intentions of giving Zakah. In this respect, Allah says: 

",.. Unquestionably, it is a means of nearness for them. Allah will 
adm it them to Hte mercy, .." (Quran: At-Tawbah: 99 ) 

All Muslims thus ought to fear Allah and reflect on such sublime meanings 
as those indicated by the following Quranic versei 

'\.*And loan Allah a goodly loan. And whatever good you put 
forward for your selves - you. will find it with Allah. It is better and 
greater in reward. And seek forgiveness of Allah, fndeed, Allah is 
Forgiving and Merciful" (Qur^n: Al-Muzzammil: 20) 

Endnotes 

1 AM Dawiid( 1562) [2/1451. 

2 See: "Majmu'ut-Fatatifti" [25/ 15, 45). 



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Zakatul-Fitr 
(Fast- Breaking Zakah) 



Zakatul-Fitr is an obligatory charity to be paid by the end of Ramadan, 
Hence, the term is a causative one, as Fitr (breaking the fast) is ihe cause for 
Zak&h to be given, Zakatul-Fitr is obligatory according to the Qur h an h the 
Sunnah and the consensus of Muslim scholars. 

Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"He has certainly succeeded who purifies himself.,," 

(Qur'an:Al-A 4 la: 14) 

Some of the scholars of the Salaf (e&dy Muslim scholars) view that the word 
'purifies 1 in this verse refers to giving Zakatul-Fitr. Moreover, the obligation of 
giving Zakatul-Fitr is to be understood from the general meaning of the divine 
command: "...and give Zakah..." {Quran; Al-Baqarah: 43) Furthermore, 



3|52 HI: ZAKAH 

there are many hadlths and narrations stating the obligation of Zakiitul- 
Fi{r, There is a hadsth related in the Two Sahlh$ find other books of Hadith 
stating: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) enjoined Zakatul-Fitr to be paid with 
one. id '' of dates or one sd " of barley on every Muslim, free or slave, 
male or female, youngor old," 

In addition, many Muslim scholars have confirmed the unanimous 

agreement on the obligation of Zakatul-Fitr. 

As for the wisdom lying behind the obligation of Zakatul-Fitr, it purifies the 
Muslim who has performed fasting from any traces of ill speech or obscenity; 
it provides sustenance for the poor; and it acts as an expression of gratitude to 
Allah for enabling the Muslim to complete the fast of Ramadan. 

Zakatul-Fitr is obligatory upon every Muslim, male or female, old Or young, 
slave or free, according to the above-mentioned narration on the authority of 
Ibn 4 Umar stating: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) enjoined Zak&tul-Fitr to be paid on 
every Muslim, free or slave, male or female, young or old!' 

The previously mentioned narration demonstrates that the quantity of 
Zakdh is to be one s&\ As for its quality, it is to be taken from the ordinary 
food of the area where Zakdh is given, be this food wheat, barley, dates, raisins, 
cheese, or whatever is considered the ordinary food of the area, such as rke 
and corn, which may differ from one region to another. 

Concerning the time of paying Zakatul-Fitr, the Prophet (PBUH) ordered 
the people to give it before going to the Feast Prayer and it is more desirable to be 
given within the time extending between the sunset of the Feast ( l Id) Vigil and the 
Feast Prayer, However, it is permissible to give Zakatul-Fitr one or two days before 
the Feast Prayer . Imam Al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) has related 
on the authority of Ibn ' Ulnar that the Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) used 
to give Zakatul-Fitr one or two days before the Feast ( h ^) Prayer, whk'h indicates 
that the Companions have unanimously agreed upon this. Yet, the most desirable 
time to give Zakatul-Fitr is on the Day of the feast ( Id), before the Feast Prayer, 
However, if the Feast Prayer is performed before one gives Zakntul-Fitr, one is 
still required to make up for it after the Feast Prayer. This is based on the hadith 
narrated by Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"If anyone pays it (Zakatul-Fitr) before the Feast Prayer, it will be 
accepted as Zakah; and if anyone pays it after prayer, it will be 



c 



onsidered a charity like other charities'. 



;■■ 



Chapter £: Za&dtofi-Fitr ffjist-breakinfi Zakiik) 353 

Hence,, the Muslim who postpones giving Zakatul-Fitr has committed a 
sin for violating the Prophet's order. 

A Muslim is to give Zakatul-Fitr on behalf of himself as well as on behalf 
of every person he supports including wives and relatives. This is what can 
be understood from the general meaning of the hadith in which the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"Give Zak&tul-F itr on behalf of whomever you support." 

It is even desirable to give Zakatul-Fitr on behalf of the fetus, as done by 
Uthman Ibn T Affan (may Allah be pleased with him) . 

Furthermore, if the person who is being supported by another one gives 
Zakatul-Fitr for himself without the permission of his sustainer, this is sufficient 
for his part, since one is to give it in the first place and one's sustainer is not 
originally responsible for it. On the other hand h if someone gives Zakatul- 
Fitr on behalf of another person whom he does not support, this becomes 
sufficient for that persons part when it is with his permission; otherwise, it 
becomes insufficient- In addition, if there is a person who sustains another, it 
is permissible for the former to give Zakatul-Fitr on behalf of the latter along 
with his own Zakatul-Fitr in the place where he lives, even if the latter lives in 
another place. 

Concerning the type of food that is to be given as Zakatul-Fitr* Ibnul- 
Qayyim, after referring to the five types of food included in the above- 
mentioned hadith (namely, wheat, barley, dates, raisins and cheese), said: 

"... These (the five fond types) used to be the staple foods in Medina. 
Thus, people living in a village or city where staple food differs from 
the above, are to pay one £iT of their own staple food (as Zakatul- 
Fitr). Thus, if their staple food is something other than grain, such 
as milk, meat or fish they are to give Zakatul-Fitr thereof whatever 
it may be. This is the opinion of the majority of scholars which is 
regarded as the correct one in this regard, and there should be no 
other contrary opinions to be followed. This is because Zakatul-Fitr 
is legally ordained to support the needy on the Day of the Feast with 
the same staple food of the people in the someplace where they live. 
Therefore, it is sufficient for the Muslim to give the needy flour as 
Zakatul-Fitr though it is not one of the five types of food mentioned 



354 ^___ III: ZAKAH 

in the hadith of the Prophet (PBUH) in this regard. Though bread 
and cooked food can be useful for the needy and cost them little to 
prepare for eating, grains are likely to be more useful to the needy 
since grains can hist for a longer time." 9 

With regard to the aforementioned issue, Shaykhul- Islam Ihn 
Taymiyah said: 

"... A Muslim is to give Zakatul-Fifr from the staple food of his area 
such as rice and the like, even if he is able to give it from the kinds of 
food stated in the aforementioned kadith. This opinion is reported to 
be one of the opinions adopted by Imam Ahmad, and it is the opinion 
adopted by the majority of scholars, and it is the soundest view in this 
regard. This is because the original juristic ruling of giving charities 
is to support the poor" 

It is not sufficient for a Muslim to give money {that equals the value of the 
legally prescribed amount of staple food) as Zakatul-Fitr, for this is considered 

contradictory to the Sunnah. Moreover, it Ls not narrated that the Prophet 
(PBUH) or any of his Companions gave Zakatul-Fitr in the form of money 
instead of the staple food. 

Imam Ahmad said, K A Muslim is not to pay the poor money instead of the 
prescribed amount of the staph food for Zakatul-Fitr" It was said to him, " Umar 
Ihn * Abdul- 'Aziz used to accept money for Zakatul-Fitr." He (Imam Ahmad) 
replied, "How could they adhere to the sayings of so and so and ignore the hadiths 
of the Prophet (PBUH) stated in this regard?!" Ihn ' Umar said, "Allah's Messenger 
(PBUH) enjoined Zakatul-Fitr to be paid with one £<T . L ." 

Zakatul-Fitr must be given at its due time to the due recipient entitled to 
receive Zakdh or to his representative If the giver finds neither the recipient 
nor his agent, he must give it to another recipient at the due time of Zakatul- 
Fitr. Concerning this issue, many a Muslim makes a mistake when entrusting 
Zakdttd-Fitr witli someone not appointed by the due recipient of Zakdh, for 
this is not considered a legal way of giving Zakatul-Fitr. So, Muslims must pay 
attention to this matter, 



C haptcr 6: Zak&iul-Fitr (Fasr-b rcaki ng Xakah) ^5 5 

Endnotes 

1 TheTVo &ahJh$~- Tlie Two Authentic liooks of Al-Bukhari and Muslim. 

2 Al-Bukhari (1503) 13/463] and Muslim (2275) [4/60]- 

3 Al-Bukhari (1509) [3/4721. 

4 Al-Bukhari (1511) [3/473}. 

5 Abu Damld (1609) [2/179] and Ibn MSjah (1827) 12/395]. 

6 Ad-Daraqutni (2059) [2/123] and Al-Bayhaqi (7685) [4/272). 

7 Ibn Abu Shaybah (1(1737) [2/432] and ' Abdur-Ra^aq in his Muaannaf [3/319], 

8 Sit" : A standard measure lhal equals 2 1 72 grams. 

9 /'Mm AJ-MuHWjjg/ m [2/21 1 and [3/231. 

10 Mfl/wiV u f-Rtrdwi 110/410], 125/69], and [22/3261. 












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CHAPTER 




"£'V 







Giving Zakah 



One of the most important rulings on Zakah is to know its legal channels 
in order to give it to those entitled to receive it and also to absolve the giver 
from any further responsibility. A Muslim must hasten to give Zakah as soon 
as it is tine on his property, for Allah, Exalted be He, says, "„.andgive Zak&h. .,* 
(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 43) This is a general order which indicates hastening 
to act accordingly. It is narrated on the authority of 'A'ishah (may Allah be 
pleased with her) that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Zakah is never mixed with a property but ruins it (i.e. if Zakah is 
not paid at its due time)" 

Moreover, the need of the poor necessitates a quick giving of Zakah, as any 
delay harms them. Also, if the people upon whom Zakdh is obligatory delay 
giving it, they may be subjected to some afflictions such as bankruptcy and 
death, and thus Zakah will remain as an unfulfilled duty on their liability. So, 
hastening to give Zakfth keeps a Muslim away from miserliness, fulfills his legal 



358 III: ZAKAH 

duty, and pleases Allah, Exalted be He. For the aforementioned objectives, a 
Muslim must hasten to give Zakah due upon him a rid avoid delaying it except 
for a legal necessity, such as when the Muslim delays giving Zakah in order 
to give it to someone who is more entitled to receive iL or he does not have 
enough money, or the like. 

It is obligatory upon the guardian to give Zakah due on the property of a 
child or a mad person, according to the general meanings of the aforemen- 
tioned proofs, as it is considered a legal duty that can be fulfilled through a 
representative. 

It is impermissible to give Zakah without intention as the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"Deeds (their correctness and rewards) depend upon intentions..." 

And giving Zakah is a legal deed. 

It is recommended for the owner of a property to distribute the due 
amounts of his Zakah himself, in order to be sure that it reaches its legally 
entitled recipients. However, it is permissible for him to appoint someone to 
distribute it on his behalf. If the Imam (the ruler) of Muslims asks for Zakah 
or sends his messenger to collect it, he is to gjve Zakdh to that collector. ft is 
desirable for the giver and the recipient of Zakah to invoke Allah (while giving 
or receiving accordingly). The giver should invoke Allah saying: 

"O A Hah, make it a profit and do not make it a loss" 

The collector should invoke Allah for the giver saying; 

"May A liah re ward you for what yo u have given, bless your remain ing 
property and make it a means of purification for you!" 

Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Take, [O Muhammad}, from their wealth a charity by which 
you purify them and cause them increase, and invoke [ Allah's 
blessings j upon them..." (Qur'an: At-Tawbah: 103) 

This verse indicates invoking Allah for those who give Zakah. 'Abdullah 
Ibn Abu Awfa (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: 

"When some people brought their Zakah to Allah's Messenger (PBUH), 
he used to say, 'O Allah! Confer Your Blessings upon them! " 

{Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim} 



Chapter?: Giving Zakfth acq 

If the recipient of Zakah is in bad need and he is one of those who usually 
take Zakah, the giver should give it to him without pointing out that it is of 
Zakah, in order not la embarrass hi in, However, if the one receiving Zakah is 
in bad need and he is not of those who usually take Zak&h, the giver should 
give it to him, pointing out to him that it is of Zakah. It is recommended for 
the giver of Zak&h to distribute it to the poor people of the same town or 
village where the property is. Yet, it is permissible to transfer Zakah to another 
place for a legal interest, such as when the giver has some poor relatives living 
in another place, or when the poor people living in another place are in need 
of Zakah more than those in the same place where the property is. This is 
because the charities used to be transferred to the Prophet (PBUH) in Medina, 
and he used to distribute them among the poor of the Muhajirtin (Immigrants 
to Medina) and the Amdr (the Supporters of the Prophet in Medina). 

A Muslim ruler must send the collectors of Zakah a little before the due 
time of Zak&h to take Zakah due on the observable property such as the 
animals of grazing livestock, crops and fruits, as did by the Prophet (PEUHJ 
and the Rightly -Guided Caliphs, and the Muslims after them, Since some 
people do not give Zakah unless they are asked to and others are ignorant of 
the obligation of Zakah upon them, sending the collectors of Zakah avoids 
such a danger, lightens difficulties for Muslims t and helps them fulfill their 
legal obligations. 

ft is obligatory upon every Muslim {on whom Zakah is due) to give Zak&h 
at its due time without hesitation or delay, It is permissible to give Zakah two 
years or less before its due time, for the Prophet (PBUH) asked Al- 4 Abbas 
(the Prophets paternal uncle) to give Zakah due upon him for two years in 
advance, as related by Ahmad and Abu DawCid . So, it is permissible for those, 
upon whom Zakah is due, to give it in advance before its due time, whether it 
is due on cattle, grains, gold and silver, or trade goods when the giver has the 
msab. However, it is recommended not to give Zakah in advance in order to 
avoid the dispute among scholars (over the permissibility of this act). 

Endnotes 

1 Al-tiayhaqi(7666) [4/26SJ. 

2 Al-tfukhari(1497) [3/4551 arid Muslim (2489) (4/183]. 

3 Abu Daw-oid (1624), At-Tirmidhi (677) [3/631 and Ibn Mijah (1795} [2/376]. 




CHAPTER 




Entitled Recipients of Zakah 



A Muslim should know that it is not sufficient to give Zakah except to the 
categories appointed by Allah in the Noble Quran. Allah, Exalted be He says; 

"Zak&h expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and 
for those employed to collect [Zakak] and for bringing hearts 
together [for Islam} and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for 
those in debt and for the Cause of Allah and for the [stranded} 
traveler -an obligation [imposed] by Allah, And Allah is Knowing 
and Wise." ( Q ur^n : At-Tawb ah : 60) 

Thus, the people mentioned in this noble verse are those Allah appointed 
to be entitled to receive Zakah, and Muslim scholars have unanimously agreed 
that it is impermissible for Muslims to give ZakAh to any other people. 

Abu Dawud and other compilers of Hadith related on the authority of 
Ziyad Ibnul-Harith that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 



562 Ilh ZAKAH 



"Allah, Exalted be He, did not take the judgment of a prophet or 
any other person concerning Zakdh but He judged according to 
it and divided it (Zakdh) into eight kinds (of people who deserve 
receiving it)!' 

In addition, the Prophet (PBUH) said to the one who asked him in the 
previous hadith: 

"If you are (one) of these kinds (that deserve receiving Zakdh), I will 
give you your right!" 

When some hypocrites criticized the Prophet (PBUH) concerning the 

distribution of Zakah, Allah, Exalted be He, illustrated that He was the One 
Who distributed Zakdh and pointed out the rulings thereof, and that He did 
not appoint anyone to distribute them instead J . 

Sliaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said; 

"It is obligatory to give Zakdh to all the eight categories of people 
(illustrated in the Noble Quran); otherwise, it is to be given to the 
available categories and transferred to wherever they live. Zakdh 
must not be given to whoever does not use it to obey Allah, for Allah 
ordains Zakdh for the believers entitled to it, such as the poor and 
the debtors, to help them obey Hint, and for those Muslims who help 
the believers. Of those entitled to Zakdh, whoever does not perform 
prayer must not be given anything until he repents and performs 
prayer at its due times" 

It is impermissible to spend Zakdh in channels of spending other than 
those appointed by Allah, such as charitable projects like buildmg mosques or 
schools, as Allah, says: 

"Zakdh expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy.." 

{Qur'an; At-Tawbah: 60) 

The verse indicates that Zakah is not to be spent in any channel other than 
those mentioned in the verse, as it must be given to these eight categories in 
particular. Allah has specified these eight categories entitled to receive Zakah 
in order to inform Muslims that Zakdh is not to be given to other than them. 
These eight categories fall under two groups: the needy Muslims and those 
who support Islam when receiving Zakdh. Allah, Exalted be He, says; 



Chapter R: Emirled Recipients ol ZnkAh y^ 

"Zakah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and 
for those employed to collect [Zakah] and for bringing hearts 
together [for Islam} and for freeing captives lor slaves] and for 
those in debt and for the Cause of Allah and for the [stranded] 
traveler- an obligation [imposed] by Allah. And Attah is Knowing 
and Wise." (Qur'an: At-Tawbah: 60) 

lit this noble verse, Allah mentions all the Categories of people entitled to 
take Zakah* and illustrates that Zakah is not to be given to other than them. 

These categories are eight. 

The fitst category is the poor who need Zakah more than the needy, 
as Allah mentions them first, and He starts with the most imp or rant 
categories respectively. The poor are those who do not have what is 
enough for their living and are nor able ro earn their living, or those 
who have only some of their needs to maintain life. So, they are to take 
from Zakah what suffices all their needs when they have nothing or 
what satisfies the rest of their needs if they have only some of what 
satisfies these needs over a whole year. 

The second category is the needy who are in better condition than the poor 

The needy are those who have most or half their needs. So, they are to be 
given of Zakah the rest of their needs to suffice them for a whole year. 

The third category involves those employed to collect Zakah. Those 
people collect Zakah from its givers, keep it and then distribute it 
among those entitled ro rake i(, according to the orders of the Muslims' 
ruler. They are 10 be given from Zakah in return for the effort they 
exert, except when those in authority already give them salaries from 
the Public Treasury of Muslims in return for their work, as is the case 
nowadays. The government gives salaries to the workers employed to 
collect Zakah., and thus it is prohibited for them to take from Zakah any 
more, since they are already paid for their work from another source, 

The fourth category is those given Zakclh to bring their hearts together 
for Tslam. Those people fall under two subcategories: disbelievers and 
Muslims. The disbeliever is to be given from Zakah if he is expected to 
embrace Islam, in order to make h i tn more will i ng to embrace Islam, A 
disbeliever may also be given from Zakah in order to withhold his evil 
from Muslims, The Muslim can be given from Zakah to strengthen 
his faith or to make his peer of the non-Muslims embrace Islam, or 
for any other sound and lawful reasons that benefit the Muslims. Such 



people are to be given only when necessary, for "Umar Thnul-Khatiftb, 
'Uthman Ibn 'Affan, and 'Ali Ibn Abu Xalib (may Allah be pleased 
with them all) stopped giving those people Zakah, when there was no 
necessity to give them'. 

The fifth category involves the slaves indebted to get their freedom 
and who cannot pay their debts. In this case, such a slave is to be 
given what makes him able to pay his debt in order to have freedom. 
Tl is permissible for the Muslim to buy a slave with the money of his 

Zakah and emancipate him, and it is also permissible for him To pay 
the ransom of a Muslim captive from the money he has assigned for 
Zakah,. for such an act leads to emancipating Muslim captives, 

The sixth category involves those in debt,, and they fall under two 
subcategories. The first subcategory is the person who has fallen into 
debts for the sake of others in order to amend matters of difference 

among people For example, when two tribes or villages provoke the 
hostility of one smother because of bloodshed or over properties, a 
person can mediate to reconcile them by taking into his liability the 
compensation due upon some of them in order to end the dispute. 
Such an act is a good deed, so it is legal to pay his debt from Zakah 
for fear that this compensation may cause damage to his property. 
In addition, helping such a person may encourage others to follow 
his good example in ending the disputes and uprooting corruption. 
Moreover, The Lawgiver permits the person indebted for such a reason 
to ask for the help from others in order to fulfill his noble objective. It 
is related in Sahih Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book ofHadith) on the 
authority of Qabisah that he said to the Prophet (PBUH): 

"I have taken upon myself a compensation to settle the dispute between 
some people, and the Prophet (PBUH) said to me, 'Wait until we receive 
Zakah, so that we order to give you from it' "' 

The second subcategory of those in debt is the person who becomes 
indebted for his own sake. For example, a person may want to ransom 
himself from the disbelievers or become indebted and cannot pay it 
back. In such cases, he is to be given from Zdkfth tu pay back his debts, 
as Allah, says, ". ..And for those in debt." (Quran: At-Tawbah: 60) 

The seventh category is that spent in the Cause of AJlah such as that 
given to warriors who volunteer in fighting for the Cause of Allah 

and they do not take salaries from the Public Treasury of Muslims. 



Chapter 8: Entitled Rj?cipitfiics of Zakah 3f,5 

Generally, the phrase "the Cause of Allah" refers to the war against the 
enemies of Muslims, as Allah, Exalted be He T says: 

"Indeed, Allah loves those who fight in His Cause.. ." 

(Qur'an: As.-$arf: 4) 

And He also says: 

"Fight in the Way of Allah..." (Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 190) 

The eighth category is the stranded traveler. He is a traveler who loses 
or runs out of his provisions and becomes stranded before completing 
his journey. The stranded traveler is given from Zak&h what enables 
him to reach his homeland. If he is on his way to a place, he is to be 
given what enables him to reach this destination and then to return 
home. The guest is considered a stranded traveler according to the 
opinion oflbn T Abbas and others. If some of the money ai Zakah given 
to the stranded traveler, the fighter in the Cause of Allah, the debtor, 
or the slave indebted to have his freedom, remains after fulfilling the 
aim he has taken the money for, then this remaining property must be 
given back. This is because each of them does not absolutely possess 
what is given to him from Zakah. Rather, his temporary possession is 
conditional on his need. Thus, when the reason making him entitled 
to take Zakah is over, he does not deserve taking Zakah any more. 

One should know that it is permissible to spend the whole amount of ZakAh 
on only one of the aforementioned eight categories of the entitled recipients of 
Zakah, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

" . .But if you conceal them and give them to the poor, it is better 
for you.. " (Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 271) 

Another proof is the hadllh narrated on the authority of Mu 1 adh Ibn J aba] 
(may Allah be pleased with him). The Prophet (PBUH) sent him to Yemen 
and said to him: 

"...Tell them that Allah has made it obligatory for them to pay 
Zakah from their property and it is to be taken from the wealthy 
among them and given to the poor." 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

In the previously mentioned verse and feadith) only one of the eight 
categories of people entitled to take Zakah is mentioned, which indicates that 



366 ^ WV.ZAKAH 

it is permissible to give the whole amount of Zakah to only one of the eight 

categories. 

It is sufficient for the giver of Zakah to give it to only one person entitled 
to take it, for the Prophet (PBUH) ordered Banu (the family of) Zurayq to give 
Zakah due upon them to Salamah lbn Sakhr, according to the hadith related 
by Imam Ahmad'. Moreover, the Prophet (PPUH) said to Qabtgalt, 

"Wait until we receive Zakah . so that we order to give you front it™ 

These two feadtths indicate the permissibility of giving one's Zaktih to only 
one of the eight categories entitled to take it. 

Moreover, it is permissible for the giver of Zakah ro give it to his close 

relatives who Eire entitled to take it as long as they are not among those whom he 
is legally required to maintain. With regard to this, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Giving charity to the poor h to be recorded as a charity (in reward) 
and giving it to ones kinship is to be recorded as two (rewards): a 
charity and an act of maintaining the ties of kinship" 9 

{Related by the Five Compilers of Hadith and deemed a hasart (good) 
tadtth by At-Tirmidhi) 

Furthermore, it is impermissible for the giver of Zakah to give it to Banu 

Hashim (the tribe of the Prophet (PBUH)) including the family of Al- h Abbas, 
the family of * All, the family of Ja % far, the family of Aqil. the family Al-Harith 
lbn ' Abdul -Muttalib, and the family of Abu Lahab. This is because the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"Charity must not he given to the family of Muhammad; for it is 

only (like) people's impurities (as it is a means of purifying peoples 
wealth and sins)'' 

(Related by Imam Muslim) 

In addition, it is impermissible for the giver of Zakah to give IE to a poor 
woman married to a rich man who maintains her, nor to a poor man who has 

a rich relative maintaining him, as each of the two is in no need of Zakah due 

to the one who maintains her or him respectively. Also, it is impermissible for 
the giver of Zakah to give it to his relatives if they are among those whom he 
is legally required to maintain. However, the giver of Zakah is permitted to 
give from it to whomever he volunteers to maintain. It is related in Sahih Al- 
Bukhari (Al-BukMrVs Authentic Book of Hadith) that the wife of 'Abdullah lbn 
Mas' lid asked the Prophet (PBUH) whether it is permissible to give her Zakah 



Chapter R: En u tied Recipients of ZitkAh i^7 

to the children of her brother, as they were orphans whom she maintained. The 
Prophet (PBUH) said to her, "Yes, (give them)" However, it is impermissible 
for the giver of Zakah to give it to his parents and his agnate ancestors or 
descendants (children and grandchildren). It is impermissible also for the 
giver of Zak&h to give it to his wife, for he is to maintain her and she is not 
entitled to take Zakah. 

The Muslim must make sure he gives his Zak&h to those legally entitled 
to take it. If he is deceived and gives his Zakah to whomever is not entitled to 
it, and then he discovers the truths what he has given is legally not sufficient 
for him; thus, he must give the same amount to someone entitled to Zaktik, 
Nevertheless, if he does not discover the truth, his giving Zak&h to those not 
entitled to it is legally sufficient for him. This is because two men came to the 
Prophet (PBUH) asking to take from Zakah, so he looked at them and saw that 
they were strong. Thereupon, he said to them: 

"If you wish, I shall give you from it (i.e. Zakah), but it is not to 
be given to a rich person nor to one who is strong and able to tarn 
a living" 

Endnotes 

1 Abu Dawud (1630) [2/192]. 

2 Abu Dawud, 

3 See Al-Hanz As-Siyuti in his "Lubab An-Nuqitlfi Asbab An-Nuzfal? 

4 See "Al-Fkhtiyarat" (p. ! 54). 

5 Stt"Al-IkhtiyAr6i" (p,154). 

<5 Al-Bayhaqi (13189) [7/32], see " Nasbitr-Itiynh" [2/394-3951- 

7 Muslim (240 1) |4/134). 

8 A hnrmd (163731 [4/37] and Abu Dawfld (2213) [2/458- 460]. 

9 Abu Dawfid (2355), At-Ttimidhi {657} [3/461, An -Nasal (258 1 1 [3/96], Ibn Majah 
(1344) U/44] and Al-H^kim (1477) [1/563], 

10 Muslim (2478) [4/! 76], 

11 IbnM*jah(l»35l [2/399], 

3 2 AbO LHwirt (1633) [2/195] and An-Nasa'i (2597) [3/104]. 




•*w^r--.<?^j®ffT ; *i:'--- ■ Am 



Desirable Charity 



Besides the obligatory Zakah, there is a desirable charity valid to be given 
any time due to the general invitation to give charities as Allah urges Muslims 
in many verses of His Noble Quran. Describing the manners of righteous 
people, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

*.« And give wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, 
the needy, the traveler^ those who ask [for help J, and for freeing s. 
laves.." (Quran: Al-Baqarah; 177) 

He also says: 

" ..But if you give (from your right as] charity, then it is better 
foryoti, if you only knew" (Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 2&0) 

Moreover, He says: 

"Who is it that would loan Allah a goodly loan so He may multiply 
it for him many times overt" (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 245} 



370 IIJ: ZAKAH 

Furthermore, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"(Giving) charity appeases the Wrath of the Lord and averts an evil 
death" 

(Related by At-Tirmidhi who deems it hasan) 

It is also related in the Two &ahihj> that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Allah will give shade to seven on the Day when there will be no 
shade but His..." 

The Prophet (PBUH) mentioned from these seven kinds of people 

"...a person who gives to charity so secretly that his left hand does 
not know what his right hand has given (i.e. nobody knows what he 
has given in charity)" 

There are so many hadtths narrated in this respect. 

It is recommended to give charity secretly, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"...But if you conceal them and give them to the poor, it is better 
jot you ..." (Qur an: Al-Baqarah; 271 ) 

That is because this makes the giver far from ostentation, unless giving 
charity in public exhorts people to follow his good example. The giver of charity 
must be willing to give, and he must not consider his donations as a favor to 
whomever needs them, for Allah, Exalted be He, says; 

"O you who have believed, do not invalidate your charities with 
reminders tofitj or injury,." (Quran; Al-Baqarah; 264) 

In addition, it is recommended for the Muslim to give charities when he is 
healthy. The Prophet (PBUH) was asked; 

"Which charity begets the greatest reward?" He (PBUH) replied, 

"The charity which you give while yott are healthy, niggardly and 
afraid of poverty and wishing to become wealthy" 

Moreover, it is recommended for the Muslim to give charities in the Two 
Sacred Mosques, for Allah, the Exalted, orders Muslims to give charities there 
as He saysi 

", .. So eat of them and feed the miserable and poor? 

(Qur'an: Al-PJajj: 28) 



Chaprcr [ J: Dcsiiablc Chari:^ 37I 

It is also highly recommended to give charities during the month of Ramadan, 
as Ibn " Abbas said: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) was the most generous of all the people and 
he used to reach the peak in generosity in the month of Ramadan when 
fibril (Gabriel) met him. fibril used to meet him every night of Ramadan 
(to teach him the Quran). Allah's Messenger (PBUH) was the most 
generous person, even mow generous than the stnyng uncontwllable 
wind (in readiness and hasie to do char i table deeds)" 

It is better for the Muslim to give charities at the times when one needs 

them as Allah, the Exalted, says: 

"Or feeding on a day of severe hunger, an orphan of near 
relationship, or a needy person in misery..." 

(Quito: Al-Balad: 14-16) 

It is recommended for the Muslim to give charities to his relatives and 
neighbors rather than other people, for Allah enjoined upon the Muslim to do 
goodness to his relatives; He showed in many noble verses that one's relatives 
have rights upon one, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

", , , And give the relative his right. .." (Q u ran : A 1 - Is ra : 26) 

The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Giving charity to the poor is to be recorded as a charity (in reward) 
and giving it to one's kinship is to be recorded as two (rewards); 
a charity and an act of maintaining the ties of kinship," 

(Related by the Five Compilers ofHadith and other compilers) 

In the Two Sahihs, the same hadith is related with a slightly different 
wording its: 

"... Two rewards: A reward for maintaining the ties of kinship and 
a reward for giving charity! 1 ' 

The Muslim should know that there are legal rights due on the property 
of ft Muslim other than Zakfih. Examples of such rights are supporting the 
relatives, keeping goad relations with friends, giving the needy, granting a 
delay to the insolvent debtor, and lending those in need, for Allah, Exalted be 
He, says: 

"And from their properties was [given] the right of the [needy] 
petitioner and the deprived." (Qur'an: Adh-Dhariyat: 19) 



372 III: 7.AKAH 

It is obligatory tn feed mc hungry, entertain the guest, clothe those who 
have nothing to clothe themselves, and give drink to the thirsty people, 
Moreover, Imam Matik (may Allah have mercy on him) maintains that it is 
obligatory upon the Muslims to ransom the Muslim captives even if this costs 
them aU their properties. 

When a Muslim gets money in the presence of the poor or the needy, it 
is desirable for him to give charities to them from this money, for Allah, the 
Exalted, says: 

"...And give its due fZakdh] on the day of its harvest.,." 

(Quran: AI- An 'am; 141) 

And: 

"A nd when [other] relatives and a rphatts and the a eedy are. presen t 
at the [time of J division, Inert provide for them [something} out 
of it [i.e. the estate} and speak to them words of appropriate 
kindness." (Qur'an: An-Nisa": S) 

Giving charities is One of the numerous merits of Islam, for it is the religion 
of consolation, mercy, cooperation, and brotherhood for the Sake of Allah. 
What a beautiful religion Islam is! T low wise the SharVah (Islamic Law) is! We 
ask Allah to grant us discernment in our religion, and help us adhere to His 
Shari 'ah, for He is Hearing and Responsive (to supplications). 

Endnotes 

1 At-TirniLdhf(663)[3/52j. 

2 Ai-Bukhari (660) [2/1361 and Muslim (2377) [4/122]. 

3 Al-Biikhari (I419J [3/359| and Muslim (2379) |4/I24j, 
4A1-Bukhfiri (6/1902) [1/41] and Muslim (2308). 

5 Al-RukharJ(t466) [3/4131 an J Muslim (2 SI 5) [4/&?]. 






IV: 





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CHAPTER 




Fasting Ramadan: Obligation 
and Timing 



Pasting the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and is 
taken for granted to be one of the obligations ordained by Allah. The obligation 
of fasting Ramadan is proved in the Qur'an, the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) 
and the consensus of Muslim scholars. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Oyou who have believed,, decreed upon you is fasting as it was 
decreed upon those before you.. ." {Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 183) 

Allah, Exalted be He, then says: 

"The month of Ramadan {is that] in which was reveaied the 
Qur'an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance 
and criterion* So whoever sights (the new moCrn of] the month, 
let him fast it..." (Qur'an: Al-Baqarah; 185) 



376 TV: FASTING 



Thus, fasting Ramadan is "decreed" i.e. enjoined by Allah upon Muslims. 
The obligation of fasting Ramadan is also illustrated in the imperative form 
of the verse, ".. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the montfi, let him fast 

ft..." which is a dear Divine command. 

As for the proofs stated in the Suttnah, the Prophet (PBUH) said, "Islam 
is based on five (pillars)..", mentioning "fasting the month of Ramadan" as 
one of them. In addition, there are numerous well-known fcadUhs stating the 
obligation of fasting Ramadan and enumerating its virtues- Furthermore, 
Muslim scholars uniformly agree on its obligation, maintaining that whoever 
denies it is considered a disbeliever. 

The Divine wisdom behind the decree of fasting is that it involves 
purification of the human soul from immorality and vice, for fasting blocks 
the evil ways of Satan, as Satan circulates in one's body just like the circulation 
of blood. W lie never one eats or drinks, ones soul becomes vulnerable to 
succumb to one's desires, its will weakens, and one becomes more reluctant 
toward worship, which will not be the ease when one is in a slate of fasting. 
Moreover, fasting induces I he renunciation of worldly pleasures and personal 
desires and draw's a Muslim's attention to the Hereafter. Furthermore, 
fasting makes one sympathize with the poor and the needy and feel Lheir 
suffering due to the hardship of the hunger and thirst one experiences 
during fasting. 

According to Shan 'ah (Islamic law), fasting means abstaining from 
certain acts, such as eating, drinking, having sexual intercourse (with one's 
spouse), committing immoralities, and all the other acts a fasting person is 
prohibited to do as stated in the Shari 'ah, which will be elaborated on later, 
Allah willing. 

The prescribed time for daily fasting begins from daybreak, namely the 
manifest whiteness in the horizon, and ends at the time of sunset. Allah, Exalted 

be He, says: 

",.So now t have relations with them [i.e. your wives] and seek 
that which Allah has decreed for you [i.e. offspring]. And eat 
and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you 
from the biatk thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until the 
night [Le. sunset]..." (Quran; Al-Baqsuah: 1B7) 

The phrase "the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the 
black thread [of night],, "shows that fasting begins when the whiteness of the 
day (daybreak) becomes distinct from the blackness of the night. 



Chapter I: Fasting Rama^m: OhligaiLon ;uut "tuning 377 

The obligatory time of fasting the month of Ramadan begins when the 
beginning of the month is known. There are three ways by which one can 
know nbout it: 

Seeing the new moon of the month, for Allah, Exalted he He, says: 

".. So whoever sights [the new moon of} the month , let him 
fast it.. .» (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 185) 

In addition, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Start fasting on seeing it (i.e. the new moon of Ramadan)" 

Thus, whoever sees the new moon of the month of Ramadan by himself is 
obliged to fast it. 

Being i n formed of the appearance of the new moon of the month by a just, 
trustworthy, legally accountable person. To illustrate, Ibn "Umar (may Ailah 
be pleased with him) narrated: 

"The people were looking for the new moon (of Ramadan), When 
I informed Allans Messenger (PBUH) that I had sighted it, he 
(PBUH) observed fasting and commanded the people to fast.'"' 

(Related by Abu Dawudand other compilers af Hctditiu and deemed 
a sahth (authentic) hadith by Ibn Uibban and Al-Hakim) 

The completion of the month of Sha'ban (the month preceding Ramadan) 
as thirty days. This way is to be applied when the new moon is invisible on 

the thirtieth night of Sha* bin though there is nothing to block vision such ns 
clouds, rain, or the like, In this regard, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"The (lunar) month (can he) twenty-nine nights (i.e. days), so do 
not fast until you see the new moon and do not breakfasting until 
you see it. And if the sky is overcast, then you have to estimate the 
period (i.e. to complete Sha 'ban as thirty days)." 

This is confirmed by the hadtth narrated by Abu Hu ray rah in which the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"... And if the sky is overcast (and you cannot see. the new moon), 

complete Sha 'ban as thirty days.'' 

Pasting the month of Ramadan is obligatory upon every legally accountable 
Muslim, So s a disbeliever is not obligated to observe fasting, and if he does, it 
will not be accepted from him. However, if a disbeliever repents and converts 



378 [V: FASTING 

To Islam during the month of Ramadan, he is to fast the rest of the month 
without being obliged to make up for the days he has missed as a disbeliever. 
Moreover, fasting Ramadan is not obligatory upon children, yet it is valid if 
observed by a discriminating child and it will be regarded as a supererogatory 
act (of worship) for him/her, Furthermore, fasting Ramadan is not obligatory 
upon the insane, and if a person observes it while being in the State of insanity 
it will be void due to the lack of intention. Tn addition, fasting Ramadan at 
its prescribed time is neither obligatory upon one afflicted with an illness 
preventing him from observing it nor upon the one on a journey Both are 
to make up for it when the legal excuse, illness or traveling, is over, for Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"...So whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them) 
- then an equal number of days [are to be made up)..." 

(Qur'an; Al-Baqarah: 184) 

The obligation of fasting is directed to both residents and travelers, 
healthy and ill people, ritually pure or impure people (such as menstruating 
women and women in postanatal bleeding period), and those in a state of 
unconsciousness; all of them are accountable for the obligation of fasting. 
They are commanded to observe it so as to be aware that it is obligatory upon 
them and that it has to be observed whether at its due time or later in the 
case of a legal excuse. It is obligatory upon some of them to perform it at its 
prescribed time, namely healthy and resident people, excluding menstruating 
women and women in a state of postnatal bleeding. Others are only obliged 
to make up for it later, namely menstruating women and women in a state of 
postnatal bleeding, and those who are too ill to observe it at its due time and 
can observe it later. However, there are some who may choose either, whether 
to observe it at its prescribed time or later, such as travelers and ill people who 
can observe fasting with difficulty but without causing them harm. 

As for one who breaks fasting during Ramadan due to a legal excuse and 
then the excuse is over - such as a traveler who returns back, a menstruating 
woman or a woman in a state of postnatal bleeding who becomes ritually pure, 
a disbeliever who converts to IsJam, an insane person who regains sanity, and 
a child who reaches puberty - they are to observe tasting for the rest of the day 
(if the excuse is over in the daytime) and to make up for that day afterwards. 
Similarly, if people are informed in the daytime (or after daybreak) that the 
month of Ramadan, has already begun, they are to observe fasting for the rest 
of the day and then to make up for that day later after Ramadan. 



ChipEer 1: Fas ling Ram adftn: Obligation and Timing ^ 

Endnotes 



1 Al-BukMri (1909) and Muslim (108 1/19), 

2 Abu Dawud (23+2) [2/524], Ibn Hibban (3447) [8/23 1 J, A] -Hakim (1541) [1/535] and 
Ad-Diiraqutitf (21 27) [3/ 137] . 

3 Al-Bukhari (t^07> [4/153) and Muslim [2499)- 

4 Al-Bukhfr] (1909) [4/154] and Muslim (2516) [4/L93|. 



- 






1 :^i'.-*. 




CHAPTER 




Beginning and End of 
a Fasting Day 



Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"It has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting 
to go to your wives [for sexual relations}. They are clothing for 
yvu and you are clothing for them. Allah knows that you used to 
deceive yourselves, so He accepted your repentance and forgave 
you. So now, have relations with them and seek that which 
Allah has decreed for you [i.e. offspring]. And eat and drink 
until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the 
black thread [of night]. Then complete I he [tint until the night 
[i.e. sunset].,." (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 187) 

In this connection, Imam Ibn Kathir (may Allah have mercy on hhn) said: 
"This is a legal permission granted by Allah, Exalted be He, to the 



382 IV: PASTINC: 

Muslims so as to relieve them from the restrictions they were burdened 
with at the beginning of Islam, To illustrate, at the early stage of 
Islam, when the fasting day was over and Muslims broke their fast > 
a Muslim was allowed to enjoy eating, drinking, and having sexual 
intercourse with his wife only until the time of the Isha' (Night) 
Prayer was due, or until he slept before that time. At that time, if a 
Muslim slept after fast breaking or performed the "hha Prayer, he 
was prohibited to eat, drink, or have sexual intercourse until the fast 
breaking of the following day. Thus, the Muslims experienced great 
difficulty in fasting until the aforementioned verse was revealed. 
The revelation of this verse caused them great happiness, as they 
were permitted by Allah to eat, drink, and have sexual intercourse 
at any time of the night until daybreak; until the white thread of 
dawn became distinct from the black thread of night" 1 

The aforesaid verse states the prescribed time for daily fasting; it begins 
from daybreak until sunset. The permissibility of eating and drinking until 
dawn indicates the desirability of having sahur (pre -dawn meal ) during 
Ramadan, It is stated in the Two Sahibs that Anas (may Allah be pleased with 

him} narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said; 

"Take sahur (pre-dawn meal) for there is a blessing in sahur." 

There are also many traditions indicating the desirability of having sahur 
even if by drinking some water. It is desirable to delay SrtfrHrand to have it 
shortly before dawn. In this regard, if a man gets Up shortly before dawn 
and finds out that he is in a state of jan&bah (i.e. major ritual impurity), or a 
menstruating woman finds that her menses is over, they are to start having 
sahur and observe fasting, delaying ritual bathing until dawn breaks. As for 
those who are used to having their sahur (pre-dawn meal) too early, because 
they stay up late at night and then have sahur and sleep some hours before 
dawn, they are committing many mistakes: 

First: They would Start fasting before its due time. 

Second: They would not observe the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer in congregation, 
disobeying Allah by abandoning the obligatory congregational prayer. 

Third: They may delay performing the Fajr Prayer after its prescribed 
time and perform it after sunrise, which is regarded as a grave sin and 
an enormous transgression; Allah, Exalted be He, says: 



Chapter 2: Beginning and Lnd of a Fairing Day -}<^ 

"So woe to those who pray - [but) who <jne heedless of their prayer" 

(Quran: AhMA'Hn: 4-5) 

A Muslim must have the intention of observing the obligatory fasting 
from the night of the day before. However, if a Muslim intends fasting 
before he sleeps, then he wakes up alter daybreak, he is to continue 
fasting from the moment he wakes up, and it will be valid and complete, 
Allah willing. 

It is desirable to hasten fast breaking if sunset is verified whether by sight, 
being informed by a trustworthy person, or by hearing the prayer call, or 
anything of the kind, Sahl Ibn Sa'd (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated 
that the Prophet (PBUH) said; 

TJie people will remain on the right path as long as they hasten 
breaking of the fast?" 

The Prophet (PBUH) also said in a Qudsi (Divine) hadith, quoting the 
Words of his Lord, Almighty and Ever- Majestic he He: 

"The most beloved of My servants to Me arc those who hasten to 
breakfasting (as soon as they are sure of the sunset)'' 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

It is an act of the Sunnah to break one's fast with eating some ripe dates. 
If the fasting person does not find any, one may eat dry dates, and if one does 
not find any, one may break ones fasting with some water. Anas (may Allah he 
pleased with him) narrated: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) used to break his fast before 
performing the (Sunset) Prayer with some ripe dates; but if 
there were no fresh dales, he would eat a few dry dates, and 
if there were no dry dates, he would take some mouthfuls 
of water. 

(Related by Imam Ah_mad, Abu Dawud, and At-Tirmidhi) 

If there are not any ripe at dry dates or water, the fasting person may break 
his fast with whatever is available of food and beverage. 

There is a very important issue to highlight here; some Muslims 
break their fast and keep over dining tables until they finish having the 



384 IV: HASTING 

fast breaking meaL missing performing the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer in 
congregation at the mosque. They thus commit a grave sin, for they 
abandon performing an obligatory prayer in congregation, miss a great 
reward, and expose themselves to Divine punishment. A Muslim should 
rather break his fast first, then head for the mosque to perform the 
Maghrib Prayer in congregation, and then he may have his fast breaking 
meal when he comes back. 

It is desirable for the fasting person when breaking his fast to invoke 
Allah supplicating Him for whatever he likes. The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Verily, a fasting person has an invocation when breaking his fast 
that is not rejected (by Allah}" 

Among the invocations narrated to have been observed by the Prophet 

(PBUH) upon fast breaking is: 

"O Allah! for You I have fasted, and with Your provision I have 
broken my fait"' 

Moreover, whenever he (PBUH) broke his fast he used to Say: 

"Thirst has gone, the arteries have become moist, and the reward 
has become certain, if Allah wills" 

In fact, a Muslim should know about the rulings related to fasting and fast 
breaking in terms of both the correct time and manner of performance, SO as 
to observe it in the proper, legal way that agrees wit U the Sttnnah of the Prophet 
(PBUH). In this way - by following in the Prophet's footsteps when observing 
fasting - ones fasting is likely to be valid and one's good deeds during fasting 
are likely to be accepted if Allah wills; this is a very important issue, Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah 
an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and 
the last day and [who] remembers Allah often." 

(Qur'an:Al-Ahzalr21) 



Chapter 1 2: Beginning and End of a Fasting Day 335 

Endnotes 



1 See Ibn Kathir in his beckon Ttifsfr {1/288— 290). 

2 Al-BukMri (1923) [4/178) and Muslim ( 2544) [4/406]. 

3 Al-Bukhari [1957) [4/253] and Muslim (2549) [4/208]. 
4At-Tirmidh1(699)[3/S3]. 

5 Ahmad 02612) [3/164] , Ahii DawQd (2356) [2/531] and At-Tirmidhi (695) [3/791. 

6 Ibn Majah (1753) [2/350]. 

7 Abu Diwfld (2358) [2/531], 

8 Abu Dawiid (2357) [2/531]. 



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Things Nullifying Fasting 



There are things which nullify fasting thill a Muslim should know so as to 
avoid and beware of, for they invalidate fasting and make it void. Among these 
things are: 

1- Having Sexual Intercourse 

If a fasting person has sexual intercourse with his wife, his fasting will 
be nullified, and he will be obliged to make up for that day, on which he 
had such a sexual intercourse. Moreover, one is not only obliged to make 
up for such a day* but also to expiate for it, The expiation for such an act is 
emancipating a slave, and if one does not find a slave to emancipate, one 
is to fast for two months consecutively, and the one unable to fast them due 
to a legal excuse should then feed sixty poor persons with half a sa ' of the 
country's staple food for each. 



38 8 IV: FASTING 

2- Ejaculation 

Ejaculation nullifies fating when it results (ram kissing, touching, mastur- 
bating, or lustful gazing. If any of such case* occurs, fasting is nullified, yet one 
is just obliged to make up for it without expiation, for expiation of nullified 
fasting is restricted to having sexual intercourse. However, if a sleeping person 
has had a wet dream, there will be no blame on him and his fasting remains 
valid, for a wet dream happens involuntarily. Still, one in this case is to per- 
form ritual bathing to purify oneself from the slate janabah (i.e. major ritual 
impurity related to sexual discharge). 

3- Deliberate Eating or Drinking 

Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"...And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes 
distinct to you from the black thread i of night}. Then complete the 
fast mttil the night J i.e. sunset}..'' (Qur'an: Al-Raqarah; 187) 

As for a fasting person who forgetfully eais or drinks, the validity of his 
fasting is by no means affected. The Prophet (PDUH) said: 

"Whoever ectts or drinks something forgetfully while he is fasting, 
should complete his fast, for what he has eaten or drunk has been 
given to him by Allah!'' 

Among the things nullifying fasting is when water or the like gets info 
one's body (the throat and then the abdomen) through the nostrils, which, in 
Arabic, is generally referred to as snuff Moreover, having nutrition through the 
veins, blood transfusion, and the like, are among the things nullifying fasting, 
as they provide the body with nutriment. In addition, nutrient injection of a 
fasting person nullifies his fasting, as it is considered a substitute for food. As 
for the non -nutrient injections, they have to be avoided as well during fasting 
to preserve its validity; the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Avoid that which makes you doubt and adhere to that which does 
not make you doubt'" 

So, one should delay such injections until the night (i.e. after fast breaking}. 

4- Getting out Blood from the Body 

Getting out blood of one's body deliberately during fasting, as in cupping, 

phlebotomy, blood transfusion (to save a patient), nullifies one's fasting. However, 



Ckipter 3: Things NullilYmj; l',ismis> 389 

the coming out of a little blood, such as a sample far a blood test, does not 
affect the validity of ones fasting. Similarly, the involuntary coming out of 
blood, such as that resulting from nosebleed, a wound, or pulling out a tooth, 
does not affect fasting. 

5- Vomiting 

Intentional disgorging of what is in one's stomach, such as vomited foods 
and drinks, through the mouth nullifies ones fasting. Yet, if one vomits 
unintentionally, this does not affect one's fasting, for the Prophet (PftUH) said: 

"if anyone cannot help vomiting, he does not have to make up for 
(thai day of fasting), and whoever intentionally vomits, should 
make up for it." 

A fasting person should avoid using eyeliners, eye drops, or the like, to 
preserve the validity of his/her fasting. Furthermore, a fasting person should 
not exceedingly rinse out one's mouth and nose with water (during ablution 
for example), as water may enter one's throat. The Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Take water Into your nostrils weii (during ablution) except when 
you are fasting"' 

As for using the siwak (tooth- stick), it does not affect the validity of ones 
fasti rig. Rather, using the siwak is desirable and advisable, whether one is 
fasting or not, at the beginning and end of the day, according to the soundest 
opinion in this regard. In addition, if dust or a fly enters the mouth of a fasting 
person, it does not affect the validity of his fasting. 

There are certain matters that a fasting person should avoid, such as lying, 
backbiting, and insulting, and if anyone insults him, his reply should he, "I 
am in a state of fasting)" Unfortunately* there are some people for whom 
abstaining from food and beverage is much easier than refraining from the 
evil words and deeds they are accustomed to. That was why one of the Salaf 
(early Muslim scholars) said, "The easiest part of fasting is abstaining from food 
and drink.'' 

So, a fasting person should fear Allah and realize His Might and Magnificence 
at all times and in all circumstances, preserving his fasting and avoiding the 
things that nullify it h so as to ensure its validity and acceptability Furthermore, 
a fasting person should keep on remembering Allah, reciting the Quran, and 
performing as many supererogatory acts of worship as possible. The Salaf, for 
example, used to keep to mosques while fasting so as to preserve their fasting 
and avoid backbiting, as they used to say. In addition, the Prophet (PBUH) said: 



390 IV: KASTINC 



"Whoever does, not give up evil speech and related deeds, Allah is in 
no need of his leaving his food ami drink (i.e. Allah will not accept 
his fasting)." ' 

This is because seeking Allah's pleasure and drawing near to Him 
through abstaining from lawful desires [during lasting) must be preceded 
by general abstaining from unlawful ones, such as lying, oppression, and 
aggression against peoples lives, properties, and honor. It was narrated 

on the authority of Abu Hurayrah, as a tnarfu ' (traceable) kadith, that the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

K The fasting person is in a state of worship as long as he. does not 
backbite or hurt a Muslim?' 

Moreover, it was narrated on the authority of Anas that the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"He does not observe fasting who continues eating the flesh of people 
(through backbiting them)." 

In a word, since a fasting person abstains from things unlawful only dur- 
ing fasting, he should, with greater reason, abstain from the things which are 
unlawful at all times, so as to be among the true observers of fasting. 

Endnotes 

1 That used to be applied at the time of slavery, 

2 Af-Rukhari(fi669) [11/669] and Muslim (2709) [4/277], 

3 Ahmad [172 3) [1/200], At-Tirmidhi (2513) [4/668], An^Nasa'i (5727) 14/732] and Al- 
£Lakim(2216)|2/l3],(7]28) [4/9% 

4 Aba Dawud (2380) [2/539], At-Tirmidhi (71 9} [3/98] and Jbn Majah (676) [2/315], 

5 AM Dawud (142) [1/75], At-Ttrmidht (787) (3/155], An-Nastt (87) [1/701 and Ibn 
Majah (407) f 1/246], 

6 Al-Bukhari (1903) [4/150], 

7 Ad-Day[ami in "Musnad At-Finiaws", Ibn 'Adt in "Al-K&mtr [1/302], and Ibn Abu 
Shaybah (8839) [2/273], 

8 Ibn Abu Shaybah (8890) (2/273], 




Making up for Missed Days 
of Ramadan 



One may break one's fasting during the month of Ramadan due to a legal 
excuse, and may do so for an illegal excuse such as having sexual intercourse 
during fasting or the like. In both cases, it is obligatory for one to make up for 
the missed day(s) of fasting, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"'.* . then an equal number of days [are to be made up}. . ." 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 184) 

It is desirable for one to hasten to make up for the missed fasting days 
of Ramadan so as not to be accountable for it- It is also desirable to make up 
for the missed days of fasting consecutively, just as the actual days are fasted 
consecutively. 

Moreover, it is permissible for one to delay making up for lasting, as its 
compensation time is flexible, Iri other words, every obligation that does not 



392 IV: FASTING 

demand a specific time La permitted to be delayed but with the intention of 
making up for it. In addition, it is permissible to make up for it separately, i.e. 
to make up for the fast on separate days, not successive ones. 

On the other hand, if it is the month of Sha'bin of the following year, 
and there are unperformed fasting days of the previous Ramadan - provided 
the remaining days of Sha'ban are only enough for making up for those 
unperformed fasting days of Ramadan - one in this case has to make up for 
them successively. One is to make up for fasring consecutively due to the 
limited time one has. However, it is impermissible to delay making up for 
fasting until after the following Ramadan without a legal excuse, as 'A'ishah 
(may Allah be pleased with her) said: 

"It could happen that I miss some days of Rnma&an (because of a 

legal excuse), but could not make up for them except in the month of 
Sha'ban to observe the duties of Allah's Messenger (as a husband)."* 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

This signifies that the time of making up for the unperformed fasting days 
of Ramadan is extensive until the remaining days of Sha'ban are only enough 
to make up for them. Therefore, it is obligatory for one to make up for them 
before the following Ramadan begins. 

If one delays making up for the missed fasting days of Ramadan until the 
following Ramadan begins, one is to observe fasting of the present Ramadan 
and to make up for the missed days afterwards. As for a person who has 
delayed making up for such unperformed tasting due to a legal excuse that 
prevented him from doing so, he does not have to do anything except making 
up for it (i.e. there is no expiation for it). Yet, if a person has delayed making up 
for fasting for no legal excuse, he is to make up for rhe missed days in addition 
to the feeding of a poor person for each day he had missed, with a quantity of 
half a $a " of food in expiation for each day 

As for a person who dies before making up for the unperformed fasting 
days of Ramadan and before the beginning of the following Ramadan, 
there will be no blame on him, as his death occurred during the period of 
permissibility to deiay making up for the non-performance of whatever fasting 
days of Ramadan, Likewise, he who has a legal excuse, such as being ill or on a 
journey, so that he could not make up for the missed fasting days of Ramadan, 
and dies after the beginning of ilie following Ramadan, there will be nothing 



ChapceM: Mukiug tip for Mi^ed Days of Rama^-ln 



393 



on him. But, if the person delays making up for the missed fasting days for no 
legal excuse then dies, there must he expiation for those days to be fulfilled 
from his inheritance, namely feeding (on his behalf) a poor person for each 
fasting day he had missed. 

Regarding one who dies before performing due expiatory fasting, such as 
expiatory fasting for zihar' or for not sacrificing a sacrificial animal during 
performing Hajj (Pilgrimage) as tnmattu \ 3 there must he a feeding of a poor 
person for each day of unperformed fasting. Jt is impermissible as well to 
make up for those unperformed fasting days by proxy. In this respect, feeding 
the poor must be from the inheritance left by the deceased, as it is considered 
A fast that cannot be performed on behalf of others during their lifetime, and 
so the same ruling is to be applied after their death, according to the majority 
of scholars. 

As regards a person who dies without observing expiatory fasting for not 
fulfilling a vow, his kin may perform thai expiatory fust on his behalf. It is 
stated in the Two Sahihs that: 

71 woman came to the Prophet (PtiUH) and said, 'My mother has 
died and there is a fast for not fulfilling a vow due from her; should 
I fast on her behalf?' He, (PBUH), said, Yes/ "' 

Ibmil-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him J said: 

"Fatting for not fulfilling a vow is to he performed on behalf of the. 
dead, but not for the original obligation (of fasting). This is the opinion 
of Imam Ahmad and others, and the opinion stated in the narrations 
on the authority of Rm 'Abbas and 'A'ishah. Besides, this view is 
supported by means of legal proof and analogical deduction. This 
is because the vow is not an obligation according to the principles of 
Shari"ah (islamic law), but it was man who obligated it on himself, 
so it became like a debt on man, as the Prophet (PBUH) said. As 
for the obligatory fasting, it is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, so 
in no way can it be made up on others" behalf as is the case with 
performing prayers and pronouncing the Two Testifications of Faith. 
The wisdom behind their being obligatory is showing the obedience of 
the observer himself to Allah, as well as his observance of the duties of 
worship enjoined by Allah, for which man was created. Accordingly, 
these ordained acts of worship, as well as the Prescribed Prayers, are 
not to he performed by anyone on another's behalf." 



394 IV: FASTING 

In addition, Shaykhul-lslam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on 
him) said: 

"For the fasting of breaking a vow due from a person who has died, 
a poor person is to be fed for each day in expiation. This opinion is 
also maintained by Imam Ahmad, Ishjlq, and others. It is also the 
opinion based on legal estimation and traditions; the unfulfilled 
vow is in one's liability just like a debt, so it is to be fulfilled even 
after ones death (by ones successors). Concerning the fasting of the 
month of Ramadan, Allah does not make it obligatory on those 
unable to perform it, but He commands them to make up for it 
by feeding a poor person in expiation. Accordingly, making up for 
fasting is obligatory upon the one who can perform it, not the one 
who cannot. Hence, no one is required to make up for it on the 
behalf of another. As regards expiatory fasting for breaking a vow 
and the like, it is indisputable that these can be made up for by 
someone on another's behalf according to the sahih (authentic) 
hadiths stated in this regard." 

Endnotes 

1 Al-Bukhari (1950) [4/240] and Muslim (2662) W 263], 

2 Zih&r is the saying of a husband to his wife, when he wants to abstain frum having 
sex with her, "(Sexually,) you are to me likti the back of my mother;" i.e. unlawful to 
approach sexually, That was a type of divorce practiced by Arabs in the Pre-IsJamk: 
Period of Ignorance (the fihffiyyaft). 

3 Tamattu': Tt means that a pilgrim assumes iht&nt (state of ritual consecration) for 
performing 'Vmmh during the months ofHajj, and then, after performing Umrah, a 
pilgrim assumes ihram for performing Uajj in the same season. 

4 Al-Bukharl(1953) (4/245] and Muslim (2691) [4/266], 



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Breaking the Fast: Illness 
or Old Age 



Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, has decreed the obligation of fasting 
of Ratna^n on Muslims. It is to be performed when there is no legal excuse. 
Yet, unperformed fasting days of Rama^ln are to be made up for on other 
days with regard to those having legal excuses. There is a third type here, 
nameiy those who can neither perform fasting nor make up for it, such as 
those advanced in years and those who are hopelessly sick. With regard to 
such persons, Allah relieves them from fasting, enjoining them to feed a poor 
person for each unperformed fasting day instead; they are to provide half a sA " 
of food for each day. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Allah does not charge a soul except [with that within j its 
capacity.." (Quran: Al-Raqarah: 286) 



3% IV: KAST1NC 

Allah also says: 

"...And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship) - a 
ransom [as substitute) of feeding a poor person {each day]..." 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 184) 

In his interpretation of the above-mentioned verse, Ibn ' Abbas (may Allah 
be pleased with him) said: 

"The verse refers to those old men and women who art too old to 
fast; they should feed one poor person for each unperformed day of 
fasting (instead of fas ting)" 

(Related by At-Bukhari) 

As for hopelessly sick people, the ruling will he the same as that applied 
in the case of aged people, i.e. they are to feed one poor person for each 
unperformed day of fasting. 

Among those who break their fasting due to a legal excuse are travelers, 
sick people whose recovery is expected, pregnant or breast-feeding women 
whose fasting might harm them or their babies, and menstruating women or 
women in a state of postnatal bleeding. It is obligatory for people in all the 
aforesaid cases to make up for the unperformed fasting days. That is to say, 
they are to observe fasting on. other days equal to the number of days they have 
broken their fasting on, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"... And whoever is Hi or on a journey - then an equal number of 
otherdays..." (Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 185) 

On the other hand, breaking I he fast is an act of the Sunnah for an extremely 
sick person for whom fasting may cause harm, or a traveler covering a distance 
that necessitates shortening prayer. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

".,. And -whoever is ill or on a journey- then an equal number of 
other days.," (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 185) 

Namely let him break his fast and make up for the days he did not fast 

later. Allah, Exalted he He, also says: 

" „ Allah intends for you ease and does not intend far you 
hardship.." (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 185) 

In addition, whenever the Prophet (PBUH) was given the choice of one of 

two matters, he would choose the easier of the two (as long as it was not a sin) , 



ChstpieL' "i: IW.iking rhi; Risr: illness ur Old Age 397 

He, (PBUH), also says, as stated in the Two Sahihs: 

"It is not righteousness to fast on a journey"* 

Consequently, if the one on a journey or the one who is ill observes fasting 
with difficulty, their fasting will be valid, yet detestable. 

As for menstruating women or women in a state of postnatal bleeding, 
they are prohibited to perform fasting, and if they do, it is deemed invalid. 
Pregnant and breast-feeding women, however, have to make up for the fasting 
days they have missed on other days. Likewise, women who break their fast 
due to fear for their children, are to feed a poor person for each unperformed 
day of fasting. 

In this connection, Ibiiut-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said; 

"Ibn " Abbas ami some other Companions have given a fatwa concerning 
breaking the fast by pregnant and breast-feeding women who fear harm 
for their children. They said, 'They may break their fasting and feed a 
poor person in expiation for each fasting day they miss, i.e. resorting to 
feeding as expiation for fasting! "' 

In other words, feeding a poor person is expiation when a woman breaks 
her last in either case, yet she is obliged to make up for not performing the fast 
afterwards. 

In fact, breaking the fast is deemed obligatory for one who needs it to 

rescue someone in danger, such as a drowning person or the like. 

Ibnul-Qayyim also said: 

"There arefou r reasons fo r breaking the fast : l ra vet, illness, m enstru atio n , 
and fearing the harm that fasting may cause in certain cases, such as 
the case with pregnant and breast-feeding women; the same applies to 
breaking the fast to Save a drowning person" 

A Muslim should make his intention to observe obligatory fasting from 
the previous night, such as the fasting of Ramadan, expiatory fasting, and the 
fasting for breaking a vow. lniemion here means that one should determine to 
perform the month of Ramadan or to make up for unperformed days of fasting. 
Also, through intention one decides whether to perform an expiatory fasting, 
or fast because of breaking a vow. This is because the Prophets hadfth states: 

"Indeed, (the correctness and rewards of) deeds depend upon 
intentions, and every person does get (the reward of) what he 
has intended." 



39S IV: FASTING 

It is also reported on the authority of 'A'ishah, as a marfu' [traceable) 
hadlth, that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When one doss not intend fasting before dawn, his fasting is invalid!" 

Thus, the Muslim must make the intention of performing the oblig- 
atory fasting from the night until before dawn. So, whoever intends 
fasting in the daytime, such as the one who gets up in the morning, 
abstains from eating and drinking, and intends fasting, his fasting is 
insufficient and unacceptable unless it is a supererogatory fasting, not 
an obligatory one. 

Obligatory fasting must be intended beforehand, not during the daytime; 
the whole daytime is included in the time of fasting and intention cannot refer 
to something in the past. On the other hand, it is permissible for a Muslim to 
intend performing supererogatory fasting in the daytime, for A T ishah (may 
Allah he pleased with her), narrated: 

"One day the Prophet (PBUH) came to me and said, 'Do you have 
anything (to be eaten)?' I replied, 'No.' Thereupon, he (PBUH) said, 
'Then I will observe {anting (today)! "* 

(Related by the Group of Compilers of Uadith except Al-Bukhari) 

This shows that he (PBUH) was not fasting then, as he asked for food, 

but intended fasting when he found nothing to eat. Thus, the aforesaid 
hjixdUh involves a proof of the permissibility of delaying the intention of 
fasting, only in the case of supererogatory fasting. However, there is a 
condition On the validity of the supererogatory fasting intended during 
the daytime; none of the things nullifying fasting should have occurred 
before the moment of intending that supererogatory fasting, such as eating, 
drinking, arid the like. In other words, if one has done any of such things 
that nullify fasting before intending supererogatory fasting during the 
daytime, ones fasting is indisputably invalid. 

Endnotes 

1 Al-Bukhirt (4505)13/225], 

2 Al-Bukhari [3560] J6/692] and Muslim (5999] [8/32], 

3 Al-Bukhari (1946) [4/233] and Muslim (1607) [4/233]. 



Chapter 5: Broking the Fast: Illness or Old Age 399 

4 Kaiwa: A legal opinion issued by a mufti [a Muslim scholar specialized in issuing legal 
rulings} in response To a layman's question on a point ot'tlw Islamic Law, 

5$&"ZA4ul-Ma 1 &d'[2t29]. 

6 See the footnote of Ar^Riiw^ AJ-Afarfo' J3/379-330], 

7 An-Nasa'i {2340) [2/5 12 J and f2330> [2/509], Abu Dawud (2454) [2/571], At-Tirmidh! 
(729} [3/108J, and Ibn Majah (J 700) [2/325 1. 

5 Muslim (2708) 14/276], Abu Dawud (2455) [2/572], At-Tirmidhi (732} [3/111], An- 
Nasa'i{2324) [ 2/5 06] , and Ibn Majah (1701) [2/325], 



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The Obligation of Hajj 
(Pilgrimage) 



Hajj (Pilgrimage) is considered one of the pillars and major acts of Islam; 

Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"w And [due} to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the 
House -for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever 
disbelieves [i.e. refuses} - then indeed, Allah is free from need of 
the worlds" (Q u r'an: Alu L Imr£n: 97) 

That is to say, Allah has made an obligation on Muslims to perform Hajj 
to Mecca, as indicated in the word "due" in the aforesaid verse. In the same 
verse, Almighty Allah refers to those who abandon this act of worship as 

disbelievers, saying: 

*,..But whoever disbelieves [i.e. refuses] - then indeed, Allah is 
free from need of the worlds." (Qur'an: Alu h Imran: 97) 



404 V: HAJJ 

All this confirms that Hajj is an obligatory act of worship and whoever 
does not believe in it is uniformly agreed to be a disbeliever, 

Allah, Exalted be He. commanded His Intimate, Prophet Ibrahim 
(Abraham), saying: 

*',,, And proclaim to the people the Hajj [pilgrimage]..." 

(Quran: Al-Hajj; 27) 

Moreover, Alt fbn Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated 
that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Whoever has the provision and the riding animal (or the means) 
that can carry him to the House of Allah (i.e. the Ka 'bah) and he 
does, not perform Uajj, (hen it does no matter if he dies as a jew or 
a Christian." 

(A marfu * ( t rateable ) ha ciith k\ at ed by At - Ti rm i dh 1 an J ol her co mpi ] ers 
of Hadttky and deemed sahjh (authentic) also by At-Tirmidhl) 

The Prophet (PBUH) also said: 

'Islam is based on five (pillars): (i) testifying that there is no deity 
but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; (ii) 
performing the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and 
perfectly; (in) paying Zakah; (iv) observing fasting during the month 
ofliamaddn; (v) performing Hajj (i.e. Pilgrimage) for those who can 
afford it." 

The phrase "who can afford it" implies a condition on whom performing 
Hajj is obligatory; that one must have enough provisions and means of 
transportation to travel to Mecca and return back to ones folks. 

The reason why Allah decreed Hajj is shown in the following verse: 

"That they may witness /i.e. attend] benefits for themselves and 
mention the Name of Ailah on known [i.e. specific} days over 
what He has provided for them of [sacrificial] animals..." 

(Quran: AJ-Hajj: 28) 

Allah continues: 

"Then let them end their untidiness and fulfill their vows and 
perform tawaf around thv Ancient House" 

(Qur'an: Al-Hajj: 29) 



Chapter I: The Obligation of Hajj (PilgrirrtugO 405 

In other words, the people are the beneficiaries from Mil}}, not Allah, 
because Allah is free from need of the worlds. (Quran: Alu ' Imran: 97) Allah 

is by no means in need of the pilgrims, unlike the pilgrims who are in need of 

the Lord to glorify and worship, It is the people who need Allah , so they come 
to visit His House seeking His aid to satisfy their needs, 

The obligation of Hajj is decreed as the last pillar of islam, after prayer, 
ZakAh, and fasting. This is because prayer, the basic pillar of religion, is 
performed five times a day so it has tc be the first pillar of Islam, ZakAh has 
to come next, as it is always combined with prayer in many Quranic verses. 
Similarly, fasting follows them, as it is regularly observed, but once a year. On 
the other hand, Hajj was prescribed in Islam in the ninth year A.H, (i.e. after 
the Prophet's Hijrah (Immigration to Medina) according to the majority of 
scholars. We should also know that the Prophet (PBUH) performed Hajj only 
once in his lifetime and it is called the Farewell Hajj winch was in the tenth 
year A.H./ but he (PBUH.) performed ' Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage) four times' 1 
in his lifetime. 

The main purpose of Hajj and 'Umrah is to worship Allah in the places he 
commanded us to worship Him therein. Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said: 

"Pebble throwing and performing $a' y (le. going between As-SafU 
arid Al-Marwah) are made (i.e. decreed) for mentioning Allah"' 

Hajj (Pilgrimage) is uniformly agreed upon by Muslim scholars as an 
obligatory act of worship, and one of the pillars of Islam. It is prescribed for 
all Muslims; they are to perform Hajj once in their lifetime provided they can 
afford it, and it is a collective duty on all Muslims at a set time every year. 
On the other hand, any performance of Uajj other than the obligatory one is 
considered a voluntary act of worship. 

Concerning 'Umrah, many scholars regard it as a religious duty, for when 
the Prophet (PBUH) was asked if women had to participate in jihad (fighting 
in the Cause of Allah), he (PBUH) replied: 

"Yes, there is a jihftd prescribed for them in which there is no 
fighting, namely Hajj and "Umrah'' 

Accordingly if 'Umrah is authenticated to be a religious duty for women, 
then the more it is so for men. To illustrate, once a man said to the Prophet 
(PBUH), "My father is an old man who can neither perform Hajj nor 'Umrah 



<m V: HAJJ 

nor even travel" Upon that, the Prophet (PBUH) said to him; 

"Perform Hajj and ' Umrah on behalf of your father"' 

(Related by the Five Compilers of Hadith and deqmeditfijf/l (authentic) 
by At-Tirmidhi) 

According to the above, it is obligatory fur a Muslim to perform Hajj and 
' Umrah once in a lifetime; the Prophet (PRUH) said: 

"Perform Hajj only once, and whoever performs it more than thai, 
it is a voluntary act for him" 

In Sakjh Muslim (Muslim's Authentic Book of Hadith), it is narrated on the 
authority of Abu Hurayiah that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

u O people! Allah has made Hajj obligatory for you, so perform Hajj" 
Upon that, a man asked,. "(Is it to be performed) every year?" The 
Prophet (PBUH) answered, "If I were to say 'Yes' it would become 
obligatory (for you to perform it every year) and you would not be 
able to do it." 

A Muslim, mule or female, must perform the obligatory Hajj as soon as 
one is able to, and whoever defers it without a legal excuse is. deemed sinful, 
for the Prophet (PRUH) said: 

"Make haste to (perform the obligation of) Hajj, for the one of you 
does not know what might afflict him." ' J 

(Related by Imam Ahmad) 

There are five conditions that must be fulfilled as prerequi si tesof performing 
Hajj: to be a Muslim, to be sane, to have reached puberty, to be free (nor a 
slave), and to be able to perform it, Those who meet these prerequisites are 
obliged to perform Hajj immediately. 

Performing Hajj and ' Utnrah for a little boy is accepted as a supererogatory 
act of worship, as indicated in the hadith narrated by Ibn ' Abbas: 

"A woman lifted up a boy to (ihow him to) the Prophet and said, 
'Would this (child) be credited with performing Hajj?' He (PBUH) 
replied, 'Yes, and you will have a reward.' " 

(Related by Imam Muslim) 



Chapter t; 'lhe Oblivion of Hajj (Pilgrimage) 407 

Scholars uniformly agree that if a boy performs Hajj before reaching 
puberty, it is stilt obligatory for him to do it once again when he is tin adult and 
has the ability lo do it . That is to say, Ha}}, which is performed in childhood, 
does not spare a person the obligatory t£ajj when reaching puberty, and so is 
the case of l Umrah. 

As for a child under the age of discretion, his guardian can assume ihram (a 

state of ritual consecration during Hajj or Umrah) and declare the intention 
to perform Hajj on his behalf. The guardian should stop the child from doing 
whatever acts which are forbidden during Hajj, and should perform tawaf 

(circumambulating the Ka'bah) and «Tv (going between As_-3_af& and Al- 
Marwah) on behalf of the child while carrying him. The guardian it also to 
accompany the child to Mount ' Arafah, Muj.dalifah, and Mina, throwing the 
pebbles on his behalf. 

However, if the child reaches the Age of discretion, he can assume 
ihram and declare lhe intention to perform Hajj after seeking the 
permission of his guardian, The child is to perform whatever rites of 
Hajj he can do, and his guardian performs whatever the child is unable 
to do on his behalf, such as throwing the pebbles or the like. If the child 
is unable to walk, his guardian can carry him performing tawaf. sa y I etc. 
Still, the child must perform whatever he can perform himself, whether 
or not (he is) at lhe age of discretion, and it is impermissible to perform 
any of the rites of Hajj on his behalf as long as the child is able to perform 
it himself. Also, he should avoid whatever acts forbidden to be done by 
adults during Hajj, 

The one capable of performing Hajj is that who can afford it both physically 
and financially* i.e. the one able to endure the journey and have enough money 
to go and return. One has also to be able to sup ply one's children and whomever 
one financially supports, leaving them enough money until one returns. In 
addition, one has to settle all one's debts and fulfill all ones financial duties 
before heading for Hajj* provided the journey to Hajj is safe for the pilgrim's 
life and possessions. 

So, if a person can afford Hajj financially but not physically, such as being 
disabled by old age or an incurable chronic disease, one in this case may assign 
someone to perform Hajj on his behalf. Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased 
with him) narrated: 



408 V: HAJJ 

"A woman from (the tribe of) Khath 'am said, '0 Messenger of 
Allah! The obligation of Hajj enjoined by Allah has become due 
on my father and he is old and weak, and he cannot sit firm on the 
mount (to travel); may I perform Utyj on his behalf?' The Prophet 
(PBUH) replied, 'Yes, you may.' " 

The person who performs Hajj on behalf of another must have performed 
Hajj on his own behalf first, according to the following hadith reported by Tbn 
'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him): 

"The Prophet (PBUH) heard a man saying taibiyah in this way, 
'Here I am at Your service O Allah, on behalf of Shubrumah* 
He (the Prophet) asked, 'Have you performed Hajj on your own 
behalf?' The man said, 'No.' The Prophet (PBUH) said, 'Perform 
Hajj on your own behalf first, then perform it on behalf of 
Shubrumah." 

(Related through a good chain of transmitters and is deemed sahth 
(authentic) by Al-Bayhaqi) 

The one who performs Hajj on behalf of another should be given enough 
money to cover ihe costs of the journey back and forth. However, he should 
by no means get fees in return for this service, and should never use it as a 
means of earning money He who performs Uajj on behalf of another should 
be doing this with the intention of helpiEig a Muslim brother or sister and also 
visiting the House of Allah (the Ka'bah) and the sacred precincts. Thus, one's 
performance of Uajj on behalf of another should be intended for the Sake of 
Allah, not for any worldly purpose. On the other hand, if Hajj is performed in 
tin's way in return for money, then it will be invalid. 

Endnotes 

1 At^Tirmidhi (Si 1)|3/176]. 

2 Tawfif: Circumambulating the Ka'bah. 

3 Al-Bukhiri (4404) JH/134] and Muslim (3025) [4/460], Stc aiso Muslim (2941) [4/404 1. 
■1 Al-BLikhai-t(177SJ |3/757] and Muslim (51)2,1) [4/459], 

5 Aba Dawud (1KH«) (2/307J ami At-Tirmklht {902) [3/24*1. 

6 Ahmad {2519S) [61]66], An-Nasai (2627) 1 3/121] and lull Majah (2901) [3/4 lis]. See 
also Al-BukMri (152) [3/4S0|. 



Chapter I : The Obligation of ffcjj (Pilgrimage) <j09 

7 Abu Dlwtid (1810) [2/276], At-Tirmidbr (930) [3/269], An -Nasal (2620) [3/117], and 
Ibn Majahp 90S) [3/415). 

8 Abu Dawud (172 J) [2/2371, An-Nasai (2619) [3/1] 7] and Ibn Majah (2886) [3/406]. 

9 Muslim (3244) [5/105], 

10 Aiiniad(2S69) [1/314-315], 

11 Muslim (1336). 

12 Al-Bukhart(15l3) [3/476] and Muslim (3238) [5/101], 

13 Abu Dawud (tail) [2/276] and Ibn Majah (2903) [3/414], 



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Women's Hajj and Rulings on 
Performing It on Someone's Behalf 



Hajj is prescribed for every Muslim, male or female, yet there are some 
additional conditions for Hajj that are obligatory for women. A woman must 
be accompanied by a marram during Hajj- Ii is impermissible in religion for 
a woman to travel for Hajj or anything else without a mafaram, for the Prophet 
(PEUH) said: 

"A woman should not travel except with a makram, and no man 
may visit her except in the presence of a tnahram.'" 

(Related by Imam Ahmad with an authentic chain of transmitters) 

It is ako narrated in the Two Sahihs that a man said to the Prophet {PBUH}: 

"0 Messenger of Allah! My wife is proceeding for Hajj and I have 
enlisted in the army for such-and-such a battle" Thereupon, the 
Prophet (PBUH) said to him, "Go, and perform Hajj with your wifer 



412 V: HAjj 

Moreover, it is suited in the SaMh Books (Authentic Books of Hadtth) and 
other books of Hadith that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

7f is impermissible far a woman to travel for one day and night 
except with a mahram"" 

All the aforesaid haditks. state that it is prohibited for a woman to travel 
without a mahram, whether she is traveling for Ha}} or anything else, so as to 
avoid corruption or seduction on her part or others when she is abroad alone. 

Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"A mahram is a prerequisite. Thus, it is not obligatory for a woman 
who has no mahram to perform Hajj, or to make someone perform 
it on her behalf?' 

The mahram of a woman should he her husband or any person 
unmanageable to her forever, either by kinship such as a brother, a father, air 
uncle, and a nephew, or by being un marriageable to her for a legal reason such 
as a foster brother, or by affinity, such as a stepfather or a stepson. To illustrate, 
it is narrated in %ahih Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book of Hadith) that the 
Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"It is not lawful for a woman believing in Allah to undertake 
a journey extending over three days or more unless she is in the 
company of her father, her son, her husband, her brother, or any 
other mahram"' 

A woman must cover the expenses of her mahram during the journey of 
Hajj. Therefore, a woman is siot obliged to perform Ha}} until she has enough 
money to cover her own and her maljrnm's expenses to and fro. 

Tf a woman finds a mahram yet she delays performing if ojj, out of negligence, 
until she loses him while she still possesses the financial capability, she has to 
wait until she finds another mahram. However, if she has lost hope in finding 
another mahram, she is to find someone to perform Ha}} on her behalf 

If someone is obliged to perform Hajj but he died before doing it, an 
amount of money, enough to cover the Hajj expenses, should be taken out 
of the capital of his inheritance and given to someone to perform it on his 
behalf. Al-Bukhari related on the authority of Ibn 4 Abbas (may AJlah be 
pleased with him) that: 

"A woman said to the Prophet, 'O Messenger of Allah! My mother 
had vowed to perform Hajj but she died before performing it. May 



Chapter 2: Wumens Hajj and Ruiingi on Ptrforming It or Sortieurtc's 413 

I perform Hajj on her behalf?' He replied 'Yes, perform Hajj on her 
behalf. Had there been a debt on your mother, would you have paid 
it or not? (If yes) so pay Allah's debt as He has more right to fulfill 
His debt (i.e. the obligation of Ha}}}- "" 

The aforesaid hadith proves that anyone who dies before performing the 
obligation of Hajj, then his son or guard Sim should do it on his behalf or they 
should find someone to do it on his behalf, provided thai ihe expenses of the 
Hajj journey is taken from his inheritance. Moreover, the guardian should also 
pay the debts of the dead person; scholars uniformly agree that (he debt of a. 
man should be taken out of his money, and so should be any Other financial 
obligations (such as the expenses of performing Hajj for him and the like). 

According to another hadith, the Prophet (PBUH) enjoined a woman 
whose sister vowed to perform Hajj and died before fulfilling it, to perform 
Hit}} on her behalf'. Similarly, it was related in the Suiian of Ad-Daraqutm that 
he (PBUH) enjoined a man whose father died before per forming the obligation 
of Ha}}, to perform it on behalf of his father , That is to say, there is not much 
legal difference between the obligation of a legislative origin and that which 
one vows upon himself; both have to be fulfilled, whether it is enjoined by the 
deceased in his/her will to perform it On his/ her behalf or not. 

When someone performs Ha}} on behalf of another, the latter becomes 
no longer obliged to perform it. It is as if he has performed it himself In 

this case, the one performing Ha}} for another is called a "deputy pilgrim" 
Upon performing Hajj on behalf of another, a deputy pilgrim should have 
the intention of performing Hajj on that persons behalf, and he is to chant 
talbiyah also on his behalf; it is sufficient to make the intention to perform 
the rites of Hajj on someone's behalf without ment Soiling his name. However, 
if the deputy pilgrim forgets the name of the person on behalf of whom he is 
performing Hajj, he can declare the intention and recite taibiyhah on behalf 
of the one who has given him money to perform Hajj on his behalf, without 
mentioning his name, 

It is recommended for a Muslim to perform Hajj on behalf of his parents 
whether they are dead Or alive but lacking the ability to do it; a Muslim is 
to perform it on his mother's behalf first, as the mother is worthier of ones 
duti fulness. 



414 V: HAJJ 

Endnotes 



1 Mahram. A. woman's husband or any unmarriageable kin of hers. 

2 Al-Bukh&rl (1362) and (1036, 1037), and Muslim (1341) and (133*), 

3 Al-Bukharl (3006) [6/172] and Muslim (3259) [5/1 13), 

4 Al-BEikhari (MSB) [2/730] and Muslim (3255) 15/1 11], 

5 Muslim (3257) 15/1 12], 

6 Al-Bukharl ( J R52)[4/S4). 

7 Al-BoJdiari (6699) [11/711], 
fi Ad*Daraqutni(25&<5) (2/229]- 




Virtues of Hajj and Its 
Preparations 



Hajj has a magnificent virtue and a great reward. At-Tirmidhi narrated a 
mrtr/fc 1 (traceable) faadltk, which be deemed sahib (authentic), on the authority 
of "Abdullah Ibn Masud stating that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Perform Hajj and Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage) making them follow 
each other, for they remove poverty and sins as a blacksmiths bellows 
removes impurities from iron, gold, and silver. And an accepted 
performance of Hajj gets no reward less than Paradise." 

Moreover, it was narrated in Sahih Al-Bukhart (Al-Bukharfs Authentic Book 
ofHadith) that l A'ishah (the Prophet's wife) asked the Prophet (PBUH) saying: 

"We see that jihAd is the best of (good) deeds, so should we not (as 

women) participate in jihad?" He (PBUH) replied, "The best and the 
most superior jihad for women is the accepted performance of Hajj!' 



It is important to point out thai an accepted performance of Hajj is that which 
is perfectly performed and not tarnished with ill deeds. It is also maintained 
that an accepted Hajj is that which is worthy of being accepted by Allah, 

Whenever one intends to perform Hajj, one should repent of all ones sins, 
and free Oneself from being unjust to others, by returning rights to those to 
whom they are due. One should also return all trusts, loans and debts in one's 
possession to their owners before setting out for Hajj. Moreover, one should 
ask the forgiveness of those whom one has wronged, and should also write 
one's will before departure. In case one could not settle such obligations before 
traveling for Hajj, one should authorize someone to do them on one's behalf 
One, as well, should secure one's children and those one supports with enough 
money until one's return. Furthermore, one must make sure that the money 
one uses for the expenses of Hajj is lawfully obtained, and should also take 
enough provisions and money for the trip, so that one might not need the 
assistance of anyone there, provided that ones provisions be lawfully obtained; 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Oyou who have believed, spend from the good things which you 
have earned.." (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 267) 

In addition to the above, a pilgrim should try to find a pious companion to 
morally support him during the journey and while performing the rites o(Hajj\ 
a righteous mate to guide him when he is wrong and to remind him when he 
forgets. On the other hand, a pilgrim should renew his intention, determining 
that his performance of Hajj is only for the Sake of Allah. A pilgrim should also 
treat people with kindness and good manners, avoid quarreling or annoying 
Others, and safeguard his tongue against insult, backbiting, and whatever does 
not please Allah and His Messenger. 

Endnotes 

1 At-Tirmidhi (809) [3/175], An-Nasa^T (2630) [3/122], and Ibn Majah (2387) [3/4071 
and (2S88) [3/407]. 

2 Jihad: Fighting in the Cause of Allah. 

3 Al-Bukhari (1861) [4/93). 





CHAPTER 




Miqats of Hajj 



There are certain times for Hajj, and certain sites for entering the state 
of ihram. 

The Fixed Times of Uajj 

The times specified for Hajj are mentioned by Allah, Exalted be He, when 
He says: 

"Em}) is [during} wetl-known months, $& whoever has made Uajj 
obligatory upon himself therein [by entering the state ofihrdm], 
there is [to be for him} no sexual relations and no disobedience 
and no disputing during Hajj. .." (Qur an: Al-Baqarah: 197) 

These months are: Shawal, Dhul-Qadah, and the first ten days of Dhul- 
ftijjah. Therefore, anyone who enters the state of ihram in these months with 
rhe intention to perform Hajj must avoid offensive words and deeds which 
contradict the purity of that act of worship, and should also be preoccupied 
with good deeds and abide by piety. 



4™ . V: HAJJ 

The Site* for Entering the State of Ihram 

They are the specific places which a pilgrim must not exceed and head 
for Mecca without entering the state of ihr&m (a state of ritual consecration 
during Hajj or 'Umrah), declaring his intention to perform Hajj. These places 
were pointed out by the Prophet (PBUH) as mentioned in the narration of 
h Abdullah Ibn ' Abb&s who said: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) specified Dhul-Hulayfah (as a site far 
ihram) for the people of Medina, Al-juhfah for the people of Ash- 
Sham? Qarnul-Manazilfor the people of Najd, and Yalamlamfor 
the people of Yemen, saying, 'They are (sites for ihram) for those 
people and for any other people coming through them (i.e. those 
sites) with the intention of performing Hajj and 'Umrnh (Lesser 
Pilgrimage). And whoever is living within these boundaries can 
assume ih/am from the place he starts from, and the people of 
Mecca can assume ihram from Mecca.' " J 

Moreover, Imam Muslim related on the authority of Jabir that the Prophet 
(PBUH) said; 

"... The muhalV of the people of Iraq is Dhatu- "Irqf 

The idea behind setting such miqMa for Hajj is as follows: The House of 
Allah (the Kabah), being so glorified and honored by Allah, is fortified by 
Allah through Mecca and protected by the Sanctuary of Mecca which, in turn, 
is glorified by those miqats beyond which one cannot pass without being in 
the state of ihram as a sign of honor and glorification to the House of Allah. 

The farthest of these sites for entering ihram is Dhul-Hulayfah, which 
is specified for the people of Medina; the distance between this place and 
Mecca is about a ten -day journey (on camels or the like). As for the people 
of Ash-Sham, Egypt and Morocco, the site for ihram is Al-Juhfah, which is 
tie&r Rabigh; this place is about three- night journey far From Mecca, and 
some say it is even further. Valamlam, which is two-night journey far from 
Mecca, is the site for ihram for those coming from Yemen. The site for ihram 
(a suite of ritual consecration during Hajj or 'Umrah) for the people of Najd 
is Qarnul-Manazil - now known as As-Sayl - which is two-night journey far 
from Mecca. As regards the people of Iraq and those of the East, the site for 
ihram is Dhatu-' Irq, which is two-night journey far from Mecca. These are the 
sites for entering ifar&m for the people of the aforesaid places and those passing 
through them with the intention of performing Hajj or Umrah. Regarding 



Chapter 4: Miqatz of ' Hftjj 41 V 

those who dwell in places that arc nearer to Mecca than the aforementioned 
places, they assume ihram far Hajj or ' Umrah from their places. As mentioned 
above, the residents of Mecca, however, enter ihram for Hajj from their own 
residences i.e. from places at Mecca itself; they do not have to get out of Mecca 
to assume ihram from there- However, when it comes to 'Umrah, they have to 
get out of Mecca to the nearest precincts wherefrom they can assume ihram. 

As for those who do not pass by any of the aforesaid sites of ihram on their 

way to perform Hajj, they have to assume ihram once they know they are at 
the nearest place opposite to any of these sites. AI-Bukhart related that * (J mar 
Ibnul-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) said to the people of Traq: 

"Make your site for ihram a place situated opposite to it (i.e. opposite 
to Qamul-Manazil the place of ihram for the people oj Najd) on 
your usual way." 

Similarly, those who travel by plane should assume ihram once they know 
that they are parallel to any of the sites for ihram during the flight. However, 
they should be prepared before getting on board the plane by ritual bathing 
and cleaning. Afterwards, whenever the plane reaches a place that is parallel to 
any of the aforesaid sites for ihram, they should declare the intention o( ihram 
and chant talbiyah in the plane. It is im permissible for one to delay ihram until 
the plane lands in the airport of jeddah as some pilgrims mistakenly do, as 
both Jeddah and Bahrah are not sites for ihram except for their own people or 
anyone who intends to perform Hajj or 'Umrah while being there. Otherwise, 
it is impermissible to assume ihram from Jeddarn as it will be regarded as 
negligence of one of the rites of U a jj> 'tamely assuming ihram from one of 
its decreed sites, and one in this case will be obliged to slaughter a sacrificial 
animal in expiation. 

Here is a common mistake made by many people and it has to be pointed 
out; some people mistakenly believe that they have to take a ritual bath before 
assuming ihram t arguing that this is not possible while being in a plane and 
so on. Therefore, it is important to point out that ihram means declaring the 
intention to perforin the rites of Hajj or 'Umrah, avoiding the acts prohibited 
to be done while being in a state of ihram as much as possible. As for washing, 
wearing perfumes, and the like, they are acts of thcSunnah which a Muslim can 
do before getting on board the plane, and assuming ihram without observing 
them is permissible. So, a plane passenger can make the intention to assume 
ihram and recite talbiyah while being in his/her scat once the plane is over any 
of the known sites for ihram or just before it. This is known by asking the pilots 



420 _^_^_ _^_ V: HAJJ 

or the hostesses of the plane, or trying to find it out independently through 
investigation and estimation. Thus, one would have done ones utmost in this 
regard However, if one does not care, il will be considered an inexcusable 
negligence and indifference regarding one of the prerequisites of Hajj and 
Umrah, namely ihram, which may invalidate them. 

As for those who pass by their site of ihram without assuming it, they have 
to return to thai site and assume ihram,, for it is a manageable obligation that 
should never he neglected. So, if one docs not go back and assume ihram from 
the right site - as. some mistakenly do from Jeddah and the like - one in this case 
will be obliged to slaughter a sacrificial animal in expiation, i.e. to slaughter a 
sheep or ro yet one-seventh of a camel or one-seventh of a cow and divide it 
among the residents of the Sanctuary of Mecca, provided one (the pilgrim who 
sacrifices) should eat nothing from it. 

In a nutshell, Muslims should take an interest in their religious matters so 
as to perform all acts of worship properly and perfectly as legally enjoined. 
Among these religious matters is the ihram for Hajj and "Umrah, it has to be 
assumed from the sites for ihram specified by the Prophet (PBUH). Therefore, 
a Muslim should be aware of these sites and never pass them without being in 
a state of ihram. 



Endnotes 

1 Miqats ot'Hajj: The fixed times uf [in]} and t h-e sites for entering the state of ihrt%m. 

2 Ash-Shaw; 'the Levant; the region covering Syria, Lebanon, |ordan, siikl Palestine. 

3 Al-Bukhari {152A) [3/4*4] and Muslim (27%) 1 4/3 24]. 

4 MithaH: The site for entering the state of ihram. 

5 Muslim (2S02)[ 4/3 26]. 

6 Al-Bukhari (1531) [3/490 1. 



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How to Assume Ihram 



Ihj&m (a State of ritual consecration during Hajj or [/mra/j) is the first of 
the rites of Hajj, and it means the intention to start the rites. It is called ihram 
(which is derived from the Arabic word "harant? i,e, forbidden or prohibited) 
because a pilgrim by assuming ihram prohibits himself from all the acts that 
have been permissible before being in this state, such as sexual intercourse, 
wearing perfume, clipping one's fingernails, having ones hair cut, or wearing 
certain kinds of clothes. To illustrate, Shaykhul- Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may 
Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"A man is not considered in a state of ihram once he intends, with his. 
heart, to perform Hajj, for the intention is already in his heart since he 
ha$ left his hometown (heading for Mecca). So, there must be specific 
words or deeds through which he becomes in a state of ihram!'' 

Before assuming ihram, it is desirable to get prepared for such a state by 
some deeds prior to this great act of worship: 



All V: HA]] 

First: It is desirable to have a bath - washing the whole body - before ihram, 
for the Prophet (PBUH) used to do so before assuming ihram . This is 
also because bathing is a bcllor and more comprehensive way of clean! Jig 
and ridding oneself of any undesired smell. Moreover, having a bath 
upon assuming ifarum is also required for a woman in a state of postnatal 
bleeding or menstruation, (or the Prophet (PBUH) commanded Asma Bint 
" Uways, who was in a state of confinement, to take a bath before assuming 
ihram, as related by Imam Muslim . He (PBUH} also commanded ' A'ishah 
(his wife) to do the same though she was in her menstrual period' 1 . The 
purpose of this is to clean the body, remove undesired smells and remove 
the impurity of menstruation or confinement. 

Second: Before assuming ihram, it is desirable to clean oneself perfectly 
well, removing the hair which is legally enjoined to be removed, such as 
trimming the moustache, shaving the hair of the armpits, and shaving 
the pubic hair. One should do this before assuming ihr&m because it 
will not be allowed when being in a state of ihram. Yet, removing such 
kinds of hair is not one of the prerequisites for ihram. Jn other words, 
if one does not need to trim or shave any of them, one is not obliged 
to do so; it is permissible to do so if needed. 

Third: It is desirable for a pilgrim to perfume oneself using whatever 
is available, such as musk, incense, rose-water, aloes, or the like, for 
1 Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported: 

"I used to scent Allah's Messenger (PBUH) whenever he wanted to 
assume ihram and (also) on finishing ihram before circumambulating 
the House of Allah (i.e. before tawaf)." 3 

Shaykhul-Istam Ion Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"If a pilgrim wants to wear some perfume before assuming ihram it 
will be fine. Yet, doing so is not obligatory, for the Prophet (PBUH) did 
so but he did not enjoin the people to do the same."" 

Fourth: It is desirable for male pilgrims before ihr&m to take off aJJ tailored 

or sewn clothes and wear something unstitched; the Prophet (PBUH) 
used to take off his tailored or sewn clothes and wear something 
unstitched - after taking a bath - to assume ihram '. So, a pilgrim should 
wear a white, clean unstitched loincloth wrapped round the lower part 
of the body, wrapping another sheet of while, clean, unstitched cloth 
routid the upper part. Yet, it is permissible to replace the white color 



Chapter ^: How to Assume fhram 423 

with any Other color provided it is traditionally befitting men. The idea 
behind this is to withdraw oneself from luxury and to have the feeling 
of a submissive servant of Allah through wearing such humble clothing. 
Moreover, such clothing always reminds one of being in a state of ihrdm, 
and thus one keeps alert and avoids committing the acts prohibited 
during ihrdm. The clothing of ihram reminds one of death, the shroud 
of dead people! and the Day of Resurrection, and so on and so forth. In 
addition, taking off sewn clothes before intending to assume ihrdm is 
an act of the Sunnah, but it is obligatory after assuming ihrdm. So, if a 
pilgrim intends assuming ihrdm while still wearing his ordinary sewn 
clothes, his ihrdm is considered valid, but he is then obliged to take such 
clothes off and put on the clothes of ihrdm. 

By fulfilling the aforesaid prerequisites, a pilgrim is thus prepared to be in 
a state of ihrdm, but such acts themselves are not called ihrdm as many people 
mistakenly believe; ihrdm means the intention of starting performing the rites 
ofHajj or l Umrak. Accordingly, a pilgrim is not considered in a state of ihrdm 
once he takes off his sewn clothes and wears the aforementioned clothing of 
ihrdm without having the intention of starting performing the rites of ££ajj or 
'Ummh, This is because the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Indeed, (the correctness and rewards of) deeds depend upon 
intentions..." 

As for praying before assuming ihrdm, the more valid opinion is that there 
is not a special kind of prayer to be offered before ihrdm. However, il the time 
of ihrdm coincides with an obligatory prayer, then a pilgrim is to perform 
the obligatory prayer first then assume ihrdm. To illustrate, it was narrated 
that the Prophet (PBUH) assumed ihrdm immediately following performing 
(an obligatory) prayer . Moreover, Anas reported that the Prophet (PBUH) 
performed the Zuhr (Noon) Prayer then rode his mount beast, and when 
he came to the hill of Al-Bayda 5 he raised his voice with talbyiah. The great 
Muslim scholar Ibuul-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him), said: 

"ft was never reported that the Prophet (PBUH) specified performing 
two rokcths (units of prayer) far assuming ihram; what was reported 
is that he performed the obligatory Zuhr (Noon) Prayer before it" ' 

U is important here to draw the attention of pilgrims to a very important 
matter; many pilgri ms mistakenly believe that they have to assume ihrdm from 
the mosque in the site for ihrdm for them, As a result, many pilgrims, males and 
females, hurry to such mosques, overcrowding them, to start assuming ihrdm 



424 V--H.AU 

from Micro, They may also change their clothes there and wear the clothing of 
ifcf&tti* while in fact all such issues are, by all means, baseless. Rather, Muslims 
are just required to assume ihram from the proper site for ih.r&m for them, not 
specifically from the mosques [herein, They can assume ihram anywhere in 
such sites, and there is no specific place in a certain site from which a pilgrim is 
obliged to assume ihram. That is to say, pilgrims can assume ihram wherever is 
appropriate lor them in their site for ihram, and this makes it easier for them and 
their fellows. This also spares pilgrims being exposed before one another or being 
jammed in certain places. We would like to point out that those mosques in the 
sites for ihr&m were not there during the lifetime of the Prophet (PBUH), and 
that they were not built tor the purpose of assuming ihram. However, thev were 
built for the inhabitants of and around such places to perform prayer therein. 
This is very important to bear in mind, and may Allah grant us all success. 

A pilgrim is free to choose either the three kinds of ihram, namely tamattu ', 
i/rdd, and qiram 

Tamattu ': It means that a pilgrim assumes tyrant for performing "Umrah 
during the mouths of Hajj, and then, after performing 'Umrah, a pilgrim 
assumes ihram for performing Hajj in the same season, 

Ifradi It means that a pilgrim assumes ihram for performing Hajj only, 
keeping in the state of shram until he finishes performing the rites of Hajj. 

Qiranx It means that a pilgrim assumes ihram for performing both ' Umrah 

and Hajj together, or to asau me ihra m for ' Um rah t h en, be fore start i ng t he tawaf 
(circumambulating the Ka'bah) for 'Umrah, a pilgrim intends performing 
both "Umrah and Hajj either from the miqat or before the £awdfoi "Umrah. In 
this case, a pilgrim is to perform both tawaf and sa "y (going between As.- Sal a 
and Al-Marwah) for both. 

Tt is important to point out that a pilgrim who intends tamattu" or qiran 
is obliged to slaughter a sacrificial animal if itc is riot y resident of Mecca. We 
should also know that the best of the aforesaid three way* of ihram is tamattu " 
for various legal proofs. 

Once a pilgrim assumes ihram in any of the aforesaid three ways, he is to 
chant tatbiyah, saying: 

"Here Sam at Your service, O Allah, here! am at Your service. Here 1 am 
at Your service, You have no partner, here lam at Your service. Verily, 

all praise, blessings, and dominion are Yours. You have no partner" 

A pilgrim should raise his voice with talbiyah, saying it repeatedly. 



Chapter 5: How to Assume Ihtfan ^23 

Endnotes 

1 See: Mnjmt'i' Ul-Falawil J2&/22, I OR]. 

2 At-Tirmidhi (830) [3/192], 

3 Muslim (2900) |4/37] | and (2941) [4/404]. 

4 Muslim {2929) [4/392]. 

5 Al-Bukhari(1539) (3/4991 and Muslim (2818) [4/337], 

6 $tt:M<tjmti'itS-i ; atawfl [26/107], 
7AMirmidhi(830) [3/193]. 

S At-Tirmidhi (819) [3/162] and An- Nasal (2753) [3/176]. 
9 Abu Dawud (1774) [2/258] and An-Nasa'i (2,(561) [3/136]. 
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Acts Prohibited during Ihram 



There are specific forbidden acts that a pilgrim should avoid while being in 
a state of ihram (a state of ritual consecration during Hajj or ' Umrah). These 

prohibited acts are nine: 

First? It is prohibited during ihdnn to cut, shave, pluck out, or remove any kind 
of hair from One's body without a legal excuse, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"... And do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal h(t$ 
reached its place of slaughter..." (Qur'an: A.l-Raqarah: 196) 

As shown in the verse, Allah prohibits pilgrims to shave their heads while 
being in a state of ihram, and this in turn applies to all kinds of hair in the body. 
This is because removing any kind of hair from the body implies luxury and 

elegance, which contradict the spirit of the state of ihram, in which a pilgrim 
is supposed to be unkempt and dusty, It is permissible, however, to remove 
any unusual hair that is abnormally around the eye or on the eyelid without 



42fl V: tiAJJ 

any expiation. This is because ir is not a normal place for hair to grow, and by 

removing ir one spares oneself harm or pain. 

Second: A muh T 't m [R prohibited to clip ones fingernails or toenails without 
any legal excuse. Yet, if a nail is broken and one has to clip it or to remove it 
with part of its skin, it is permissible lor one lo do so without any expiation for 
that. This is because it is removed as a consequence of being broken; as for the 
skin, it is related to the nail and thus the same ruling is applicable. In addition, 
it is permissible to remove the hair of the head if it causes any harm such as lice 
or headache, for Allah, Exalted be Ik, says: 

"...And whoever among you is ill Or has an ailment of the head 
[making shaving necessary must offer] a ransom of fasting [three 
days] or charity or sacrifice, . ," {Quran: Ai-Baqarah: 1 96) 

Also, Ka'b Ibn 'Ujrah reported: 

"There was an ailment in my head and ! was. carried to the Prophet 
(PBUH) while lice were scattering over my face. Upon that, the 
Prophet (PBUH) said to me, 7 have never imagined that your 
ailment has reached such ait extent as I see! Can yon afford a sheep?' 
I replied, 'No! Thereupon, the following verse was revealed: \.,And 
whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of the head [making 
shaving necessary mast offer] a ransom of fasting [three days] or 
charity or sacrifice.. .' (Q tit 1 am AS-Baqarah: 196) Then the Prophet 
(PBUH) said to me, 'Fast for three days, or feed six needy people, 
or slaughter a sheep (its expiation far shaving the hair of the head 
despite ihram)- "' 

The permissibility here is because the ailment is caused by lice, not by 

the hair itself. 

Murenver, it is permissible for the tnuhrim tti wash his hair with sidr 
(the extract of the lote tree leaves) and the like, for it is narrated in the Two 
Sahjhs* that the Prophet (PBUH) once washed his head while being in a 
state of ihram, moving his hands forward and backward through his head . 
Shaykhut- Islam Taqiyyud-Diti Ihn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on 
him) said: 

"Scholars unanimously agree that it h permissible for a muhrim to 

take a bath to purify f ram jandhah (a major ritual impurity; in case 
of having a wet dream during ihrAni) or far any other reason" 



Chapter (->'- Aos Prohibited during Ikrmn 429 

Third: A male muhrim is prohibited to cover his head, as the Prophet (PBUH) 
prohibited wearing a turban, hood, or anything of the kind while being in a 
state of ihram. In this regard, the great Muslim scholar lbnul-Qayyim (may 
Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"There is consensus that everything that touches the head with the 
purpose of covering it, stick as a turban, a cap, a hat, or anything 
else, is prohibited (during ihjam)" 

This is applicable to all sorts of head covers, be it somcth i ng usual such as a 
turban or unusual such as a paper, mud, henna, or a headband. A muhrim can 
seek the shelter of a tent, a tree, or a house* for it was narrated that a tent was 
pitched for the Prophet (PBUH) to take shelter therein while being in a state 
of ihr&m*. On the other hand, it is permissible for a muhrim to use an umbrella 
for shading, only when necessary. Likewise, it is permissible for a muhrim to 
ride a car with a roof or carry his baggage above his head, provided not for the 
purpose of covering the head, 

Fourth: It is also prohibited for a male muhrim to wear sewn clothes to cover 
all or parts of the body, such as a shirt, a turban, or a pair of trousers. Similarly 
it is prohibited for a male muhrim to wear anything made exactly to fit a 
certain part of the body, such as shoes, gloves, or socks. It is narrated in the 
Two Sahihs that when the Prophet (PBUH) was asked what a muhrim should 
wear, he (PBUH) replied: 

"A muhrim should not wear a shirt, or a turban, or a hooded cloak, 
or a pair of trousers, or a cloth touched with 'wars' (a yellow good- 
smelled plant used for dyeing) or with saffron, nor {should he wear) 
khuffs (leather socks or shoes)?'* 

Shiiykhul- Islam Ibtt Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) prohibited muhrims to wear shirts, hooded 
cloaks, trousers, khuffs,' or turbans, He (PBUH) also forbade them 
to cover the head of a male muhrim in case he died, and ordered the 
man who assumed ihram white wearing a jubbah to take it off. So, 
wearing anything similar to a jubbah (on the pretext that it is not a 
jubbah) is regarded as a dishonest, interpretation of what the Prophet 
(PBUH) forbade. A muhrim is also prohibited to wear something 
similar to a shirt, be it with or without sleeves, or new or torn. The 
same prohibition applies to wearing a jubbah or a cloak in whose 
sleeves one passes one's hands..." 



Ibn Taymiyah then continued: 

"... This is the juristic meaning of not wearing 'sewn' clothing while 
being in a state ofihram; sewn clothing is any garment made to fit a 
certain part oj 'the body. Therefore, a muhrim is not to wear anything 
simitar to trousers, inch as shorts and the like" 

However, if a muhrim does not find a suitable pair of slippers, he may wear 
kuffs (leather socks or shoes), and if he does not find a suitable loincloth, he 
may wear a pair o! trousers until he rinds a suitable one. Once the muhrim 
finds a proper loincloth, he rnust take off the trousers and wear it, as the 
Prophet (PBUH) gave permission for male muhrims over Mount 'Arafat to 
wear Iruusers if they do not find a loincloth , 

As for a female mahrim, she may wear whatever clothes she likes while 

being in a state ofihram, for she must be covered well. Still, she is not allowed 
to wear a burqu " (i.e., a veil covering the face and has Two holes for the eyes to 
permit vision). So, a female muhrim is not to wear a burau ', but she is to cover 
her face with other things such as a khimav {a shawl -like cloth covering the 
head and shoulders) and a gown. Moreover, a female muhrim should no I wear 
gloves to cover her hands, for the Prophet (PBUH) said in XhzhadUh related 
by Al-Bukhari and other compilers o(Hadtth: 

"A female mufirim must not wear a niqdb (a face-covering veil), 
nor must she wear gloves? 

In this connection, Imam [bnul-Qiiyyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"The Prophet's prohibition (for female pilgrims) of covering their faces 
or wearing gloves indicates thai a woman's face is treated as a mans 
body, not head. A male muhrim is not to cover his body with sewn 
clothes made specifically for certain parts of the body. Similarly, a 
female muhrim is not to cover her face with a specific face-cover such 
asuniqdb (aface-coverittgveil)ora burqu '. However, she should cover 
herself with a veil (which thaws only her face) and a gown according 
to the more valid of the two juristic opinions in this regard" 

The gloves are specifically in a tie for the hands to protect them from cold, 

A female mufarim is primarily obliged to hide her face from the eyes of 
men, and this is not through wealing a burqu'. 'lb illustrate, "A'ishah (may 
Allah be pleased with her) narrated: 

"Men would pass by us when we accompanied Allahs Messenger 
(PBUH) while we -were in the state ofihram (a state of ritual conse- 



Chapter 6: Aces Prohibited dtL ring Ihram 43] 

cation during Hajj or 'Umrah). When they came by us, every one of 
us would let down her gown over her face, and when they had passed 
on, we would uncover our faces'" ' 

(Related by ImAm Ahmad, Abu Dywud, antf other compilers of Hadith) 

There is no harm if the face-cover of a female pilgrim touches her face T as 
she is just forbidden from wearing a burqu " or a niqab., not from covering her 
face with SO met King else. Shaykhul-lslam Ibn Taymiyah said: 

"A female pilgrim should not bother keeping her face-cover separate 
from her face either with a small piece of wood, or with her hand, 
or with anything else: the Prophet (PBUH) made the hand and 
the face of a woman equal in this case (i.e. they are permitted to 
be uncovered), and both of ihem should be regarded as the male 
pilgrims body, not his head. Moreover, the wives of the Prophet 
(PBUH) used to cover their faces without having to keep the cover 
away from their faces" 

Ibn Taymiyah also said, "It is permissible for her (i.e. a female pilgrim) to 
cover her face with any face-cover that touches the face, provided it is neither a 
niqab nor a burqu \" 

Fifth: It is prohibited for a muhrim to wear perfume - whether on the body or 
the clothing of ihr&m - or even to use it in food or beverage, for the Prophet 
(PBUH) said to a man in a state of ihrans to take off his cloak and to wash 
away the traces of perfume from his body ' . Likewise, he (PBUH) Mid to the 
people about the muhrim who fell down from his mount and broke hts neck 
(and died): 

"Do not apply any perfume to him" 

The idea behind the prohibition of wearing perfume during ihrAm is to 
detach Oneself from luxury and worldly ornaments and pleasures, and to draw 
one's attention to the Hereafter. It is also impermissible for a pilgrim to smell 
perfumes on purpose or rub the body with a perfumed substance. 

Sixth: A muhrim is also prohibited to kill game animals* as Allah, Exalted be 
He, says: 

"Oyou who have believed* do not kill game while you are in the 
state of thrum,.? (Quran: Al-Ma idah: 95) 

That is s do not kill game animals while being in a state of ihr&m to perform 

Hajj or Umrah. Allah, Exalted be He, also says: 



432 V--HA]] 

'.♦. But forbidden to you is game from the land as long as you are 
in the state ofihram, . ," (Qur an: Al-Ma idah: 96) 

That is to say, those in a state of ihram are forbidden to hunt or kill game 
animals, or help in hunting or slaughtering them. Likewise, it is prohibited fur 
a muhrim to eat a game animal which he hunted, which was hunted for him, 
or which he helped in hunting, as it will be regarded as a dead animal in this 
case, which is unlawful to eat. Still, it is not prohibited for a muhrim to eat fish 
or animals from the sea, whether he hunts it or anyone else does it for him, as 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Lawful to you is game from the sea and its food..." 

(Quran: Al-Ma'idah: 96) 

On the other hand, it is permissible for ;i muhrim to slaughter a domestic 
animal such as chicken, sheep, and cattle* as they are not game animals, A 
muhrim is also per milled to kill wild inedible animals, such as lions and tigers, 
for such creatures threaten peoples lives. 

Generally, if a muhrim has to do any of the acts prohibited during shram 
for a legal excuse, he/she is permitted to do it, provided he/she is to slaughter 
a sacrificial animal in expiation, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"...And whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of the head 
[making shaving necessary must offer} a ransom of fasting [three 
days] or charity or sacrifice..." (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 196 J 

Seventh: A muhrim is prohibited to marry (while being in a state of ihram) or 
arrange the marriage of another by guardianship, as Tmam Muslim related on 
the authority of 'Uthmin Tbn " Affrn that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

'X muhrim must neither many himself nor arrange the marriage 
of another one." ' 

Eighth. A muhrim is prohibited to have sexual intercourse, for Allah, Kx silted 
be He, says: 

"...Si? whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein 
[by entering the state ofihrdmj, there is [to be for him] no sexual 
relations.*" (Qur'an: Al-Baqarah: 197) 

According to Ihn 'Abbas, it refers to the activity of engaging in sexual 
intercourse '", To clarify if a tnan in a state ofih/Am (i.e. a muhrim) has sexual 
intercourse with his wife before the first release from thj&m, it will invalidate 



Chaprerri: Aas Pro liibirtJ during Ifardm 433 

his Hajj. Yet, it is obligatory for him to continue performing the rest of the rites 
of Hajj, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And complete the Hajj and n Umrah for Allah.. ." 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 196) 

Still, it is obligatory for such a person to re -perform Hajj the following 
year, and to slaughter a camel or a cow, On the other hand, if a mufcrim has 
sexual intercourse with his wife after the first release of ihram, his Hajj is still 
considered valid, provided that he slaughters a sheep in expiation, 

Ninth: A mukrim is prohibited to touch his wife (or any woman) lustfully 
(such as kissing or the like), as these are among the acts that lead to sexual 
intercourse. Therefore, the muhrim must avoid sexual intercourse, lewdness, 
and dispute, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

".., So whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein 
[by entering the state of ihram], there is [to be for him] no sexual 
relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj. .." 

(Quran: AI-Baqarah; 197) 

The verse refers to the actual sexual intercourse and any related matter 
that might lead to it, such as kissing, touching, winking, or talking about sex, 
"Disobedience" in the aforesaid verse means committing sins, which is a grave 
act to do while being in a state of ihram, whereas a Muslim is supposed to be 
in a state of devotion and supplication. As for "disputing* which is prohibited 
for a mukrim, it refers to arguing about matters that do not concern one, 
quarrelling with one's pilgrim mates, insulting others, etc. However, it is 
permissible for a muhrim to argue for the sake of showing the right, enjoining 
good, or forbidding evil, for argument is a divine command in such cases; 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"., And argue with them in a way that is best.." 

(Qur'an; An-NahJ: 125) 

It is an act of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) for the muhrim to talk less, 
except in matters of benefit. It is narrated in the Two Sahihs, on the authority 
of Abu Hurayrah, that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"He who believes in Allah and the Last Day should either say 
something good or keep silent" 



434 V: WVJ 

He (PBUH) also said in a mtirfu (traceable) hadhh: 

"A sign of one's good observance of Islam is having alone what does 
not concern him , 

It is also recommended for a muhrim to be preoccupied with chanting 
talbiyalu praising Allah, reciting the Qur an, enjoining what is good, forbidding 
what is evil, and not wasting his time in what is useless. A muhrim should also 
perform Hajj devotedly with sincere intention, seeking Allah's great rewards, 
as the muh/irtt is about to perform a great act of worship ant] visit great sacred 
precincts and shrines. 

Then, if a muhrim reaches Mecca with the intention of tamattti, he is to 

begin with performing the l Umrah rites as follows: 

A muhrim begins with perform tngtawafi i.e. circumambulating the Ka h bah) 
seven times. 

Afterwards, he is to offer two rak'ahs (units of prayer) which are recom- 
mended to be performed at the Standing Place of Ibrahim (Abraham) if possible. 
Otherwise, the muhrim can perform them elsewhere in the mosque. 

Then, the muhrim is to head for As,-£afa to perform sa "y (going between 
As-£afa and Al-Marwah) seven times, starting from A£-£afa and ending at 
Al-Marwah; the way from the one of them to the other is considered one time 
and the way back is another. During sa'y, a pilgrim is recommended to be 
preoccupied with supplicating and invoking Allah, Glorified be He. 

After finishing the seventh round of sa y, a male pilgrim must shave all his 
head, and a female pilgrim should cut a small part (equivalent to a fingertip) 
of the hair of the head. 

In this way, a pilgrim will have accomplished the l Umrah rites, so he exits 
the state of ihrtim and, thus, is allowed to do all lawful acts that have been 
prohibited while being in a state nf ihram such as lawful sexual intercourse, 
wearing perfume, wearing sewn cloLhes, clipping the fingernails, trimming the 
moustache, and plucking mil the hair of the armpits if necessary. A pilgrim 
remains in this condition until the Day of Tarwiyah (the eighth day of the 
month of Dhul-Hijjah), then he declares the intention of performing Hajj* as 
will be pointed out in detail later, Allah willing. 

As for those mufarims who reach Mecca with the intention of performing 
qiran or if rod, they start with performing the Arrival Tawaf following it with 
the sa ' v for Hajj (instead of performing it later) if they like, Then, they should 
keep in the state of ihram until the Day of Sacrifice, as will be explained later, 
Allah willing, 



Chapter 6: Acts Prohibited during [fordm 435 

Endnotes 



t Muhrim: One in a state of' ritual consecration d u ri rtg ijcijj or Umrah. 

2 Al-Bukharl{1816) (4/22] and Muslim (2875) [4/360] . 

3 The Two sSniJiiS; Tile Two Anlll-Ocltic Books of Al-Buktiari and Muslim. 

4 Al-BukhArf{1640) [4/72] and Muslim (2R8i> ( 4/363 1. 

5 Muslim (2941) [4/411]. 

6 Al-Bukh4r](1542) [3/505] and Muslim (2783) [4/313]. 

7 Khuffs: Leather socks or shoes or their like. 

8 See: Majm<ful-Fat&w& [26/110 -1 1 1 1. 

9 Al-I3ukhari{1841) [4/751 and Muslim (278ft) [4/316], 

10 AJ-Bukhari (1838) [4/68], 

1 1 "Tahdhfb As-Sunan* [2/350 -352]. 

12 Ahmad (23903) [6/30], Abu Dawud (1833) [2/285] and Ibn Majah (2935) 13/429], 

13 See: Majmu ul-Fatawa [26/112]. 

14 "Al-Ikhtiyarat AS-Fiqhiyyah" [p. 174]. 

15 AI-Bukhafi (1789) [3/774] und Muslim (2790) [4/317], 

16 Ai-BukMri (1265) [3/174] and Muslim (2834) [4/365] and (2839) [4/368]. 

17 Muslim (3432) [5/196]. 

18 Ibn Abu Shaybah (13224) [3/173] and (13236) [3/174] and Al-Hakim (3153) [2/332]. 

19 Al-Bukhari (6018) [10/547] and Muslim (172) [1/2091, 

20 Ahmad (! 737) [1/201], At-Tirmidhi (2322) [4/552], and lb 11 Majah (3976) [4/344], 



. 




CHAPTER 




Rites of Tarwiyah and 
* Arafah Days 



Upon reaching the site for ihmm (a state of ritual consecration during Raj] 
or "Umrah), a pilgrim declares his intention to perform one of three types of 

H ajj (Pilgrimage): 

Ifrddi It means that a pilgrim enters the state of ihr&tn with the intention 
of performing Ha;; only, keeping in the state of ihram until lie stones /dmrctfiJ- 
' Aqabah on the Day of the Feast of Sacrifice ( Idul-AdhA; on the tenth of Dhul- 
tiijjuh). Then, a pilgrim shaves his head, and performs the If Adah (Goi rig- 
forth) Jawd/along with sa y (going between As.-Safo and Al-Marwah) in case 
he has not performed it (i.e. sa y) following The Arrival Tawaf. 

Qirdti: It means that a pilgrim assumes ikram for performing both ' Ummh 
(Lesser Pilgrimage) and Hajj (Pilgrimage) together. The rites of performing 
qir&ti are the same as those of performing ijrad, except that a pilgrim is obliged 
to slaughter a sacrificial animal in the former case. 



433 __ V: HAJJ 

Yamattu x : II means that & pilgrim assumes ihrthn for performing "Umrah 
only, keeping in such slate of ihram until he finishes the rites of 'Umrah, such 
as tawaf, sa 'y, and shortening ur shaving the hair. After that, a pilgrim may get 
out of the state of ihram until he assumes another ihram for performing Hajj. 

The best of the three forms is tamattu\ It is desirable for a pilgrim 
performing ifrad or qiran and has not got a sacrificial animal tn change his 
intention tuid perform tamattu' instead, carrying out all its rites. 

It is also desirable for the one performing tamattu (even if it has been 

sfrAd or qiran that converted to tamattu '), as well as the residents of Mecca and 
the surrounding places, to assume ihram for Hajj on the Day of Tarwiyah (the 
eighth day of Dhul-£[ijjah). This is because Jablr (may Allah he pleased with 
him) narrated, in his description of the Prophet's performance of Hajj: 

"... Ail the pilgrims dissolved the si ate of ihram except the Prophet 
(PBUH) and whoever had a sacrificial animal with him. When it 
was the Day of Tarwiyah, they proceeded to Mind and assumed 
ihram for Hajj!' 

A pilgrim performing tamattu L may assume ihram from the place where he 
stays, whether in Mecca, Mina T or any place outside Mecca, but he should not 
perform fatvafafter assuming ihram (or Hajj (as it has been aJ ready performed 
during "Umrak). Shaykhul-lstam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on 
him) said: 

"On the Day of Tarwiyah, a pilgrim performing tamattu' assumes 
ihram for Hajj and does the same as he did Mien he has assumed 
ihram for 'Umrah from the miqat. The right opinion is that such a 
pilgrim can assume ihram from Mecca or from outside Mecca, for 
the Prophet's Companions used to assume ihram for Hajj from the 
place enjoined for them by the Prophet (PBUH), namely Al-Batha 
(in Mecca). Thus, it is an act of the Summit (Prophetic Tradition) for 
a pilgrim to assume ihrctm (for Hajj) from the place where he stays. 
Likewise the people of Mecca can assume ihram from Mecca, as the 
Prophet (PBUH) said, 'And whoever is living within these boundaries 
can assume ihram from his home, and the people of Mecca can assume 
ifcrtimftvm Mecca.' " 

Ibnul-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy upon him) said: 

"When it was Thursday fbrenoon t the Prophet (PBUH) and his 
Companions proceeded to Mind, and those who previously terminated 



Chapter 7: Hiies of Tarwiyah and ' Auafah Days 4^n 

their ihr&m declared their intention of a new ih.rAmforH.aiJ- Yet, they 
did not do this in the mosque, hut they assumed ihram while Mecca 
was behind them." 

Once a pilgrim assumes ihram (otHajj, he should then preoccupy himself 
with chanting talbiyah and continually repeat it every now and then, raising 
his voice with it until he stones Jamwtul- Aqabah on the Day of the Feast of 
Sacrifice (on the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah), Those pilgrims who have assumed 
their ihram from Mecca on the Day of Tarwiyah should head for Mina; the 
optimum time for moving is after the sun has reached its meridian. Then, 
they perform the Zuhr (Noon) Prayer there, at Mina, camping there until they 
perform the rest of the Five Daily Prayers including the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer of 
the following day (the ninth of Dhul Hijjah). Jabir (may Allah be pleased with 
him) narrated: 

"...The Prophet (PBUH) rode his mount (heading for Mind) and 
performed there the Zuhr, the 'Asr (Afternoon), the Maghrib 
(Sunset), the ' Isha f (Night), and the Fajr (Dawn) Prayers. Then, he 
(PBUH) stayed there for a while until the sun rose" 

It is worth mentioning that spending that time in Mina (from the noon 
of the Day of Tarwiyah until the dawn of the following day) and performing 
those five prayers there is an act of the Sunnah, not an obligatory one. Likewise, 
assuming ihram on the Day of Tarwiyah is considered an act of the Sunnah. So, 
it is permissible for a pilgrim to assume it/Am before or after that day. 

On the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah and after sunrise, a pilgrim proceeds to 
1 Arafah; the whole area of n Arafah is a standing place except for the valley 
called Bain Uranahl Thus, it is sufficient for a pilgrim to stand anywhere on 

that day within the boundaries of h Arafah, excluding the place pointed out by 
the Prophet (PBUH), namely Batn "Uranah. The boundaries of 'Arafah are 
clearly distinguished by means of signs, so standing anywhere within these 

boundaries will be regarded as standing at ' Arafah. Still, a pilgrim has to pay 
attention to these signs in order not to stand outside ' Aratah, 

When the sun passes its meridian, a pilgrim performs the Zjihr (Noon) 
and the "Asr (Afternoon) Prayers, shortening and combining them at the due 
time of the Zuhr Prayer (i.e, performing each as two rak 'ahs instead of four) 
with one prayer call {adhdn) and two immediate prayer calls {iqamahs). We 
should know that a pilgrim shortens every four-rakah prayer (i.e. performs 
it as two rak ahs) at 'Arafah, Muzdalifah, and Mini, However, at Arafah and 
Muzdalifah the prayers are to be shortened and combined whereas they are 



440 V: HAJj 

only shortened at Mina, i.c, performing each prayer at its due time for there is 
HO need for combining them at Mina. 

After a pilgrim performs the Zuhr and the "A;T Prayers, shortening and 

combining them (for he is at ' Arafah), he should spend the rest of the day 
remembering, invoking, glorifying, and praising Allah, seeking His forgiveness, 
and so on and so forth. This is to be done while a pilgrim is sticking to his 
place at l Arafah. In other words, a pilgrim docs not have to go to the Mount 
of Ar-Rahmah, or to watch it, or even to face it, while performing such 
supplications; standing anywhere at 'Arafah while facing the direction of the 
Ka T bah is sufficient. 

A pilgrim should spare no effort supplicating Allah and turning to Him 
in repentance on such a glorious day whether he is walking, sitting, riding, 
standing, or even lying down. He should also choose the most comprehensive 
supplications that were reported to have been observed by the Prophet (PBUH), 
forhe{PBUH)said: 

"The best supplication is the one on the Day of 'Arafah, and the 

best thing which I and the prophets before me hove said is: 'There 
is no deity but Allah Alone, Who has no partner. Tn Him belongs 
dominion, and to Him belongs (ail) praise, and He is overall things 
Omnipotent.' " 

A pilgrim keeps supplicating Allah at 'Arafah until sunset. It is imper- 
missible To leave before sunset, and if a pilgrim does, he must go back soon 
before sunset, to witness it there. However, if a pilgrim leaves 'Arafah before 
Sunset and does not go back, he is then obliged to slaughter a sheep of Hajj 
(or to get one seventh of a camel or a cow) and divide it among the poor 
residents of the Sanctuary of Mecca in expiation for missing an obligatory 
ritual of Hajj. 

The Day of "Arafah starts from the noon of the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah 
until the dawn of the tenth of Dhul-Hjjjah (the Day of the Feast of Sacrifice) 
according to the sound opinion in this regard. As for a pilgrim who is present 
at ' Arafah at daytime, he is obliged to stay there until sunset as we previously 
said. Bui if someone arrives at ''Arafah at night, it is sufficient for him to stay 
there for any length of time, even if for only one moment, as the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"If anyone gets (i.c, stays at) 'Arafah before the dawn (of the tenth 
of Dhul-Hijjah) breaks, then he has performed Hajj. 3 ' 7 



Chaprcr 7: Riici of Ttirwryab an*i % Ar;il;Ji D;iys 4^ 

Staying at 'Arafah is one of the obligatory fundamental rituals of Ha}}, 
and it is the most important and the great est one as well, for the Prophet 
(PBUH) said: 

"Hajj is 'Am/ah (Le. staying at y Arajah is the most important ritual 
a/Ha}}." 

As for the place of staying a I ' Arafah, a pilgrim may stand anywhere within 
the boundaries of 'Arfifah, and this ritnal is deemed invalid if one stands 
outside them. 

May AUah guide us all to the deeds and words He likes and pleases. Verily, 
He is the Hearing and the Responsive. 

Endnotes 



1 Muslim (2941) |4/402], 

2 Al-Bukhart (152ft) |3/4S8] and Muslim (2795) [4/321], 

3 See: " Majmu ui-Fatawa' [26/1291. 

4 See: "ZMul-Ma 'AtT [27233], 

5 Ibn Majah (3012) |3/<16G| and Muslim (3943) [4/422]. 

6 At-Tirrnidhl (3594) [5/572], 

7 Abu Dawud (1949) (2/332], At-Tiruiidht (WK9) (3/237), An-Nasai (3016) [3/232], and 
IbD M*jah (3015) J3/46SJ. 

8 The Five Compilers of Ratflth. 






-£\i 











Acts on Muzdalifah and Mina 



When the sun sets on the Day of l Arafah (the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah), pilgrims 
leave 'Arafah setting out for Muzdalifah calmly and tranquilly, for Jabir (may 
Allah be pleased with him) narrated: 

"He (the Prophet) kept standing there (at 'Arafah) until sunset, 

when the yellow light had somewhat gone, and the disc of the sun 
had disappeared. He (PBUH) then mounted Usamah behind him, 

and pulled the reins of Al-Qaswa" (the name of his she-camel) so 
forcefully that its head touched the saddle (in order to keep it under 
full control), and he (PBUH) pointed to the people with his right 
hand saying, 'O people! Be moderate (in speed)! Be moderate!' " 

Thus, pilgrims must be in a state of tranquility and serenity while leaving 
'Arafah and heading for Muzdalifah, avoiding jostling against their fellow 
pilgrims, pushing them, or disturbing them with their cars. A pilgrim should 
also have mercy on the walking weak and old people at such a crowd- It is 



fjH V' UAJJ 

desirable for pilgrims to keep asking Allah's forgiveness while departing from 
1 Arafah (heading for Muzdalifah), for Allah, Hxalted be He, says: 

"Then depart from the place from where {all} the people depart 
and ask forgiveness of Allah, indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Me 
rciful" (Quran; Al-Baqarah: 199) 

Linguistically, the word "muzdalifah" (i.e., close) is an adjective derived 
from the Arabic word "izdildf which means closeness, and Muzdalifah is 
so-called because when leaving ' Arafah, the pilgrims become closer to it, 
Muzdalifah is also referred to as "fain"" (i.e. gathering), as pilgrims gather 
there. It is called Al-Mash'ar Al-IIar^m (the Sacred Landmark) as well. In 
his volume entitled Al-Mughnf {the Sufficient), Ibn Qudamaru an eminent 
Hanbali scholar said, "Muzdalifah has three names: Muzdalifah (i.e. dose), 
jam ' (i.e. gathering), and Al-Mash or Al-Hamm (Le. the Sacred Landmark)." 

A pilgrim should keep on remembering Allah all through his way from 
4 Arafah to Muzdalifah, supplicating Him devoutly, for a pilgrim at that stage 
is still shifting from one ritual to the other. Upon arriving at Muzdalifah, a 
pilgrim is to perforin the Maghrib (Sunset) and the 'Isha (Night) Prayers, 
shortening the ' Js/td'ta two ruk Yifrs and combining them with one prayer cat I 
and two immediate prayer calls (one tor each) before encamping. To illustrate, 
Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him), in his description of the Prophet's 
performance aiHajj, narrated: 

"... When he (PfiUH) rand led Muzdalifah, he performed the Maghrib 
(Sunset) and the Isha (Night) Prayers, with one prayer call (adhan) 
and two immediate prayer calls (iqdmahs) (i.e. one for each)." 1 

A pilgrim then encamps at Muzdalifah and offers the Fajr Prayer at its due 
time, for Jabir narrated: 

"..Allah's Messenger (PliUH) then lay down until dawn and offered 
the Fajr Prayer with one prayer call and one immediate prayer call 
when the morning light was dear."' 

It is worth mentioning that a pilgrim may stay anywhere at Muzdalifah, as 
the whole area between the two bottlenecks of "Arafah and to Eatn Muhassir' 1 
(esc Ending the valley of Bain Muhassir itself) is called Al-Mash'^r Al-Haram 
(the Sacred Landmark), as the Prophet (PB-UH) said: 

"All Muzdalifah is a standing place, but be away from Bain Muhassir"* 



Chapter 8; Acts on MuzdaLifah and Mina 445 

It is Jin act of the Siumah (Prophetic Tradition) U> spend the night at 
Muzdalifah and offer the Fajr Prayer ar its due time. After that, while standing 
at Muzdalifah, a pilgrim keeps nn supplicating Allah until the daylight spreads. 
Then, before sunrise, a pilgrim proceeds to Mina. As regards feeble pilgrims, 
such as old people, women, children and the like, as well as those who take 
care of them, they are allowed to head for Mina after midnight or when the 
moon disappears, instead of waiting at Muzdalifah until dawn. However, 
healthy pilgrims who do not have any weak people with them should not 
leave Muzdalifah before offering the Vajr Prayer, and they should stay until 
the daylight spreads. 

Spending the night at Muzdalifah is one of the duties of Hajf A pilgrim 
who enters Muzdalifah before midnight must not leave before dawn. As for a 
pilgrim who arrives there after midnight, it is sufficient for him to spend any 
length of lime there. Still, it is much better in the latter case to stay until dawn, 
offering the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer and following it with supplicating Allah. Ibn 
Qudamah stated in his book entitled ' Al-Mughm (the Sufficient): 

"There is no harm on the one who arrives at Muzdalifah in the 
second half of (lie night* and the previous ruling related to arriving at 
the first half of the night (which obligates staying at Muzdalifah until 
dawn) will not be applicable to him" 

It is permissible for those pilgrims who have legal excuses, such as sick 
people who need to be hospitalized and those helping them, as well as shepherds 
and water providers, not to spend the night at Muzdalifah, as the Prophet 
(PBUH) gave permission to shepherds not to spend the Eiight at Muzdalifah . 
According to the above, spending the night at Muzdalifah is obligatory for all 
pilgrims who enter Muzdalifah before midnight, because the Prophet (PRUH) 
spent the night there, and we should follow his Sunnah, as he (PBUH) said: 

"Learn your rituals from me (by seeing me performing them)!'* 

So J caving Muzdalifah (and heading for Minii) after midnight is permissible 
only for those who have legal excuses, as indicated in hadiths. 

Afterwards, a pilgrim heads for Mina shortly before sunrise (of the tenth 
of Dhul-Hijjah, i.e. the Day of Sacrifice), as 'Uniar lbnul-Khattab (may Allah 
be pleased with him) said: 

"The polytheism did not use to depart (from jam \ i.e. Muzdalifah) 
until the sun had risen* and they used to say, 'Let the sun shine on 



446 V- HAjj 

you, O Thabir (a mountain in Mecca which overlooks Muzdalifah), 
so ns to let us depart.' 'therefore , the Prophet (PBUH) contradicted 
them and departed (from Muzdalifah) before sunrise" 

Pilgrims should leave in a state of tranquility and calmness, but when 
they pass through the valley called Bain Muhassir, they should go foster. It is 
preferable for a pilgrim to pick up the pebbles, with which he intends to do 
the ritual of stoning, while he is on his way to Minn. StilL it is permissible for a 

pilgrim to pick them up from Muzdalifah, Mina or elsewhere, as Tbn 'Abbas, 
(may AUah be pleased with htm) narrated: 

In the morning of the Day of Al- "Aqabah (the day of throwing 
the pebbles atjammtul- 'Aqabah), Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said 
to me, 'Pick up pebbles for me! I picked up seven pebbles for him 
as large as beans. He (PBUH) then started shaking them, while 
saying, You should throw pebbles as large as these ones.' Then, 
the Prophet (PBUH) said, '0 people! Beware of excessiveness in 
religion, far those (nations) before you were ruined because of 
excessiveness in religion,' " 

Thus, pebbles should be as large as beans, i.e. slightly bigger than chickpeas. 
It should be noted that it is insufficient to use anything other than small pebbles 
or to use stones for this purpose, for the Prophet (PBUH) used small pebbles 
(as large as beans) for stoning. So, we have to follow in the Prophet's footsteps, 
as he (PBUH) said: 

"Learn your rituals from me (by seeing me performing them)? 

Upon reaching Mina, which is between the valley called Batn Muhassir 
and jamratul- 'Aqabah, pilgrims are to head (or jamratui- 'Aqabah (the nearest 
Jamrah to Mecca which is called the Great jamrah) and stone it with seven 
consecutive pebbles. The time for stoning is after sunrise, and extends until 
sunset. Each pebble should be thrown into the throwing place (the fenced area 
surrounding the pillar), whether it settles there or not after falling inside. A 
pilgrim should point at the fence while throwing the pebbles, not at the pillar 
itself, for it is not built to be stoned, but to help as a sign showing the throwing 
place. So, it is insufficient if a pilgrim throws a pebble at the pillar and then it 
falls Outside the fenced area. 

It is permissible for the weak pilgrims and those who have valid excuses to 
thruw the pebbles at jamratui- ' Aqabah after midnight. It is also permissible 



Chapter fi: Au* tin Miwcisilifah and Minn 447 

for healthy pilgrims lo delay stoning until midnight, yet it is not desirable 
for them. 

It is an act of the Sunnak to start throwing pebbles at Jamratul-* Aqabah 
as soon as a pilgrim arrives at Mina and before doing anything else, for it is 
regarded as a sign of greeting to Mina. On the other hand, it is desirable for a 
pilgrim to utter takbir upon throwing each pebble, saying: 

"O Allah! Make it an accepted Hajj of ours that serves as a pardon 
for our sins" 

It is important to point out that a pilgrim should by no means throw pebbles 
at any jamrah other than Jamratul- Aqabah on the Day of Sacrifice (the tenth 

of Dhul-Hijjah), as this ritual is restricted to jamratul- 'Aqabah nn that day. 

After stoning jamratul- 'Aqabah,. it is preferable for a pilgrim who perforins 
H&j] as tamaliu or qivan to slaughter the obligatory sacrificial animal. Such 
a pilgrim has to buy a sacrificial animal to slaughter and distribute its meat 
among the poor, keeping a share for himself to eat from. 

Afterwards, a pilgrim shaves his head or cuts his hair short, yet shaving is 
better, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

" .. With your heads shaved and [hair} shortened. . ." 

fQuran: AJ-Fath: 27) 

Moreover, Ibu ' Umar narrated: 

"The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) got his head shaved during the 
Farewell Ha]]." ' 

The Prophet (PBUH) invoked Allah three times to be merciful to those 
who have their head shaved, and invoked Him only once to be merciful to 
those who got iheir hair cut short". Tf a pilgrim chooses to shorten his hair, 
then he must shorten all his hair and not only some of it, for Allah, Exalted be 
He, says: 

".., With your heads shaved and [hair J shortened..." 

(Quran: Al-Fath: 27) 

The aforementioned verse indicates that shaving or cutting should be 
applied to the whole head, not only some or certain parts of it. As for a female 
pilgrim, she should only shorten her hair by cutting a small part equivalent to 



448 V-HAjj 

a fingertip of each hair braid (or of the tips of her hair). This is because it was 
narrated by Ibn Abbas that the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Shaving (the hair) is not a duty laid on (pilgrim) women; only 
dipping their hair is incumbent on them"" 

{Related by Abu Dawud, Al-Tabarani and Ad-DaraquJnS) 

Another reason is that shaving a woman's head is in fact a sort of disfigure- 
ment for her. It is worth mentioning that if a female pilgrim does not have her 
hair braided, she may gather it and clip a part equivalent to a fingertip. 

It is also an act of the Sunnah for a pilgrim who shaves or cuts his hair short 
to clip his fingernails, shorten his mustache, shave his pubic hair and pluck out 
the hair of the armpits. However, it is forbidden for a pilgrim (or any Muslim) 
to shave his beard or cut it short, as the Prophet (PBUH) enjoined growing 
the beard and forbade shaving it off or cutting it short, and Muslims should 
obey the Prophet's commands and avoid what he forbade, especially pilgrims, 
who are undergoing such a glorious act of worship. In the case of a bald man 
who has little or no hair at all, it is desirable to pass a razor over his head as if 
he is shaving his head, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"if I command you to do something, then do (of) it as much as 
you can" 

After stoning ]amratul-Aqabah and shaving or cutting the hair short, a 
pilgrim becomes in a state of semi -consecration, namely the first (partial) 
release of ihram. That is to say a pilgrim at this stage is partially released from 
the State of ihr&m, and everything becomes lawful for him, Such as wearing 
sewn clothes, wearing perfume, etc., except for having sexual intercourse with 
his wife. To illustrate, ' A'ishah (the Prophet's wife, may Allah be pleased with 
her) said: 

"When one of you throws pebbles atjamratul- 'Aqabah, everything 
becomes lawful for him except women (Le. sexual intercourse)? 1 * 

She also said: 

"I applied perfume consisting of musk to Allah's Messenger (PBUH) 
once before he assumed ihrdm, and once on the Day of Sacrifice 
before circumambulating the House (i.e. the Ka "bah)" 

(Related by Al-Bukhart and Muslim) 



Chapter 3: Acts on MuzuJWifilh and Mini 449 

A pilgrim reaches this first (partial) release of ihram after fulfilling two of 
the folio wing three rituals' 

■ Throwing the pebbles s.tjamratul- "Aqabah 

• Having the hair shaved or shortened 

• Performing Ifadah ( Going- forth ) Tau^/followed by sa "y [going between 

As-Saft and Al-Marwah) for those obliged To perform sa 'y 

However, the second (complete) release of Ihram is achieved after performing 
all the aforesaid three rituals; when a pilgrim fulfils them, everything that was 
unlawful due to ihjam becomes lawful for him, even sexual intercourse. 

A fte r th rowing the pebbles at Ja m ratul- 'Aqabah , slaughte ri ng t he sac r i ficial 
animal, and shaving or shortening the hair, a pilgrim then proceeds to Mecca 
to perform If&dah (Going- forth) Tawdf After that, a pilgrim performs sa "y if 
he is performing Uajj as tamattu , or as qirdn or ifradhvK he has not performed 
it following the Arrival Tawdf Yet. if a pilgrim is performing Hajj as qiran or 
ifrad and has already performed sa y following the Arrival Tawaf, then he 
does not have to perform another sa y after Ifadah Tawdf 

These four rituals are to he performed in the following order, if possible; 
stoning jamratul- 'Aqabah, slaughtering the sacrificial animal, shaving or 
shortening the hair, and performing the Ifadah Tawdf followed by sa'y. 
Performing these rituals in this order is an act of the Sunnah, so there is no sin 
on a pilgrim if he has to perform them in a way other than the aforesaid order. 
This is because on the Farewell Hajj (the Prophets one and only Pilgrimage) 
whenever a pilgrim violated that order of rituals and told him, he (PBUH) 
replied, "Do it and there is wo harm (sin)."™ However, sticking to this order is 
better, for the Prophet (PBUH) performed them in that way . 

As for ta wdf (circumambulating the Kabah), a pilgrim has to start it 
from the Black Stone, standing aligned with it, and kissing it if possible, or 
touching it with his right hand. If this is unavailable due to the huge throng of 
pilgrims, it is sufficient for a pilgrim just to wave to the Black Stone instead, 
without pushing others or thronging to reach it. From the Black Stone as a 
starting point, a pilgrim begins the first round of £awAf(circum ambulation) 
counterclockwise, keeping the Kabah on his left and occupying himself with 
supplications* the remembrance of Allah, and the recitation of the Qur'an. 

Upon reaching the Yamarti {the Yemeni) Corner," a pilgrim should touch it 
if possible, but not kiss it, and recite (when being between the Yamani Corner 
and the Black Stone): 



450 y^.HAjj 

"Our Lord, give us in this world [that which is) good and in the 
Hereafter [that which is] good and protect us from the punish- 
ment of the Fire." (Qur'an: Al-Baqarah; 201) 

By reaching the Black Stone again, a pilgrim will have completed one full 
round of faw&f. Then, a pilgrim approaches and kisses the Black Stone or 
at least waves to it, and starts the second round, and so on, until he finishes 
seven rounds. 

There are thirteen prerequisites for the validity of fa tt'^circurnambulation) 
as follows: 

1- Being a Muslim 

2- Being sane 

3- Having the intention of performing tawaf 
4- Concealing one's 'awrah" 

5- Being in a state of {ritual and physical) purity 

6- Completing seven rounds of circum ambulation 

7- Circumambulating counterclockwise, keeping the Ka'bah on one's left 

8- Circumambulating the whole Ka'bah, avoiding passing through Hijr 

Ism.Vil (Ishmael's Precinct)" 1 or ascending it and walking on its crest 

9- Circumambulating on font, if possible 

10- Observing succession while performing the seven rounds of tawaf 
unless there is a call for a prayer or there is a Funeral Prayer to perform. 
In such cases, a pilgrim is to interrupt his fflwi/and offer the prayer, 
then he resumes tawaf from where he has stopped and completes the 
remaining rounds. 

11- Circumambulating within the borders of Al-Masjid Al-Haram (the 
Sacred Mosque) 

12- Beginning each round of taw&f at the Black Stone 

13- Ending the round at the Black Stone as well 

After performing the lfa£ah (Going- forth) Tawaf, it is a confirmed act 
of the Sunnah for a pilgrim to offer two rak"ah& (units of prayer); they are 
recommended to be performed at the Standing Place of Ibrahim (Abraham) 
if possible. Otherwise, a pilgrim may perform them elsewhere in the Sacred 



Chapter 8: Acts or MuwJaiifeh and Mini 45 1 

Mosque or Al-Haram (the Sanctuary)- h is an act of the Sunnah to recite the 
Sura of Al-Kafirun (the Disbelievers] ' in the first rak'ah, and the Sura of Ai- 
Ikhl&i {Sincerity of Faith)'* in the second, and eaeh to be recited following 

Al-FAtihuh (the Opening Chapter of the Quran). Afterwards, a pilgrim heads 
towards As_-£afa to perform sa 'y (going between As-Safa and Al-Marwah). 
When a pilgrim first reaches As-Sata fie ascends it, says, " Aliahu-Akbaf (i,e, 
Allah is the Greatest) thrice, and then says; 

"There is no deity but Allah Alone Who- has no partner. To Him 
belongs dominion, and to Him belongs (all) praise; He gives life 
and causes death, and He is the Ever- Living Who never dies; in His 
Hand is (all) good, and He is over all things Omnipotent." 

After that, a pilgrim descends the hill of As-Safa and heads for Al-Marwah 
starting the first round. While so doing, a pilgrim is to walk at a norma! pace 
but to jog when being between the two green marked posts, and then a pilgrim 
continues walking normally towards the hill of Al-Marwah. When a pilgrim 
reaches Al-Marwah, he ascends it and repeats what he has said on As-S_aft; by 
so doing, the first round is completed. Then, he descends Al-Marwah heading 
for As-Safa, ensuring walking where walking is designated and jogging where 
jogging is designated. The pilgrim continues this procedure until he completes 
seven rounds ending at Al-Marwah; going from As-Safa to Al-Marwah is a 
round and returning is another. 

While perform ingifl "y (going bet ween As-Safa and Al-Marwah), it is desirable 
for a pilgrim to be occupied with making supplications, reciting the Quran, and 
mentioning and remembering Allah. There is no particular supplication to be 
made during sa 'y, so one may make any supplication he likes. 

As for the conditions of the validity of sa 'v. they are as follows: 

1- Having the intention of performing sa y 

2- Completing seven full rounds beginning from As-Safa and ending at 
Al-Marwah 

3- Having performed taiwifbefore sa 'y 



452 V; HAJJ 

Endnotes 

i Al-Mughni \5fB3). 

2 Muslim. 

3 Muslim, 

4 Main Muhassir: A valley between Muzdalifah and Mina. 

5 Abu Dawud (190?) f2/3l sj, An-Nasai (3045) [3/292] and Ibn Majah (3Q48) [3/4H3]. 

6 >»-M(i^m [5/286]. 

7 Abu Dawud (1975) 1 2/341 ], At-Tirmidbi {956} [3/289J, An-Nasa'i (3069) [3/301], and 
Ibn Majah (3037) | J/1 791. 

* Muslim (3124) [5/49] and An-Nasa'i (3062) [3/293] L 

9 Al-Bukhart (1684) |3/673] and [bn Majah (3022) [3/472]. 

10 An-Nasaj (3057) [3/296] and ibn Majah (3029) [3/476]. 

11 Takblr, Saying, ,L AflAha-Akb(ti" (i.e. Allah is the Greatest). 

12 Al Bukhari (4410) [3/137] and Muslim (3138) [5/57]. 

13 ANBukhari (1727) [3/708] and Muslim (3132) [5155\. 

14 Aba L>awud(l934) [2/344], Ad-DaraquUii (2640) [2/239], and Ad-Darimi (1882) [1/493]. 

15 Al-Bukharl (5*92) [ 10/428] and Muslim (601 ) [2/ J 42], 

\6 Sa id Ibn Mansiir in his "As-Sunan'\ AbO D&wud (1978) [2/342], and Ad-Daraqutni 

(2660) [2/2431. 
17 Al-Bukhari (1539) [3/499] and Muslim (2*33) 14/340], 
1ft Al-Rukliari (53) [1/237] and Muslim (3143) [5/59], 

19 Mu slim (3139) [5/57]. 

20 '[he Yamani [the Yemeni) Corner; 'lhe southern corner of the Ka'bah that faces Yemen. 

21 'Awttjfr: The private parts ur parts of the body which are illegal to expose to others; a 
males ' avrah is from rile navel to the knees, whereas in another view it is said to be the 
externa! organs of sex and excretion. As tor a female's 'awrah, it includes all her body in 
one view whereas in another it is all her body with the exception of her face and hands. 

22 Hijr isma"iJ (Ishmael's Precinct); The semi-circular short wall located a few meters 
east of the Ka'bah and considered part of it. 

23 Chapter No. 109 of the Quran. 

24 Chapter No, 1 12 of the Quran. 



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CHAPTER 




"n^-^ls^V, 



i^/'iM" 



Days of Tashriq 
and Farewell Tawaf 



After the completion of the Jj$tifdh (Going -Forth) Tmrd/ it is obligatory for 
a pilgrim to return to Mina on the Feast Day" and to spend the night there, as 
Ibn "Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) did not grant anyone (of the pilgrims) 
permission to spend the night at Mecca (during the nights of Mina) 
except for Al- 'Abbas, as he used to provide water for the pilgrims 

(to drink). "' 

Thus, a pilgrim is to spend the night of that day at Mir>a\ remaining there 
for three nights if he is not in a hurry Otherwise, if a pilgrim is in a hurry, 
he may stay there only for two nights: the eleventh and the twelfth of Dhul- 
Hijjah, At that time, a pilgrim is to shorten all the prayers without combining 
them; each prayer is to be performed at its due time. 



454 V: HA]] 

A pilgrim has to throw pebbles at each of the three Jamrahs of Mina on 
each of the Days of Tashriq. Throwing pebbles i& to be performed when the 
sun declines (i.e. at noon), as Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: 

"Allah's Messenger (PBUH) threw pebbles on the Day of Sacrifice 
at mid-morning, and after that (i.e. on the eleventh, twelfth, and 
thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah) (he used to throw pebbles) when the sun 
had declined" 

(Related by the Group of Compilers of Hadith) 

Moreover, Ibn T Umar (may Allah be pleased with hjm) said; 

"We used to wait until the sun declined and then we would throw 
the pebbles" 

{Related by Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud) 

This shows that the Prophet and his Companions used to observe the 
appropriate time for throwing pebbles, so pilgrims should follow in the 
Prophets footsteps, as he (PBUH) said: 

"Learn your rituals from me (by seeing me performing them)." 

Thus, the appropriate time for throwing pebbles on the three Days of 
Tashriq (the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah) is after the sun 
declines; it is insufficient to throw the pebbles before that time; rather, we 
should follow the example of the Prophet (PBUH) who said: 

K Learn your rituals from me (by seeing me performing them)" 

All acts of worship must be performed at the time specified by the Prophet 
(PBUH) in his Sunnah. For example, prayer has specific times at which it is to 
be performed; otherwise, it is impermissible. Likewise, throwing the pebbles 
has to be performed at the times specified by the Prophet (PBUH). 

The great Muslim scholar, Imam Ibnul-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy 
on him), in his description of the Prophet's (PBUH) way of throwing pebbles 
as stated in the honorable Sunnah, said: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) returned to Mind after performing the Ifadah 
TawA], and spent the night there. In the morning, he (PBUH) waited 
until the sun declined and then he took his camel, without riding 
it, and headed for the First [amrah which is next to the Mosque of 
Al-Khayf and began to stone it. He (PBUH) stoned it with seven 
consecutive pebbles, saying, "Allahu-Akbar" (i.e. Allah is the Greatest) 



Chapier^j Days of Tashrlq and Farewell Taiwf 455 

upon throwing each pebbie. After that, he (PBUH) approached it 
(the First Jamrah) until he became so near, and then he faced the 
qiblah, raited his hands and kept supplicating Allah for quite a long 
time approximately equivalent to the time taken to recite the Sura 
of Al-Baqarah (the Cow) . Afterwards, he (PBUH) moved towards 
the Middle Jamrah and stoned it in the same way. Then, he moved 
leftwards near the valley, faced the qiblah, raised his hands, staying 
at the bottom of the valley and standing so that the House (ie. the 
Ka 'bah) was on his left and Mind on his right, and stoned the Last 
jamrah (Jamratul- 'Aqabah) with seven pebbles as well.." . 

Ibnul-Qayyim continued: 

", ., After he (PBUH) had finished stoning (the Last Jamrah; Jamratul- 
' Aqabah), he hurried back without stopping there to supplicate- It 
was said that he did not stop there because of the huge throng of 
pilgrims. It was also said, and this is the most valid opinion, that 
the Prophet (PBUH) used to stop to make supplication during the 
act of worship itself (as he did at the First Jamrah and the Middle 
Jamrah). So, when he finished stoning the Last Jamrah (jamratul- 
' Aqabah), he thus finished performing the act of worship, namely 
throwing the pebbles (so he did not stop there to supplicate Allah), 
bearingin mind that making supplication during an act of worship is 
better than doing after finishing it This is just like the case of making 
supplications during prayers: the Prophet (PBUH) used to make 
supplications during prayer itself, not after finishing it" 

Thus, throwing the pebbles has to be performed in the following order: A 
pilgrim should start with the First Jamrah which is the nearest to Min3 and 
Al-Khayf Mosque, then the one that follows it namely the Middle Jamrah, 
and finally the Last Jamrah ( Jamratul '- n Aqabah, which is also called *the Great 
Jamrah'), the last of the three Jamrahs nearest to Mecca. A pilgrim should 
throw seven consecutive pebhles at each jamrah, raising his hands upon each 
throw and saying, "Allahu-Akbar" (i.e. Allah is the Greatest). In addition, each 
pebble should be thrown into the throwing place (the fenced area surrounding 
the pillar) whether it settles or not after railing inside; it is insufficient if a 
pebble falls outside it, and another pebble has to be thrown in compensation. 

As for pilgrims who cannot throw the pebbles themselves due to sickness 
or old age, as well as pregnant women and those women who might be harmed 

by the throng of pilgrims, it is permissible for them to ask someone else to 



456 V: HAJJ 

throw the pebbles on their behalf. The one who performs stoning on behalf 
of another can throw the pebbles for himself and for the other pilgrim at the 
same place. In other words, he is not obligated to stone all Jamarhs firstly for 
himself then return to the First famrah to start stoning on behalf of the other 
pilgrim, as this will be very difficult and exhausting due to the huge throngs; 
and Allah Knows best. If the one performing stoning by prosy is performing 
the obligation of Ha}} for the first time, then, at each jamrah, he has to throw 
his own pebbles before throwing those of the other pilgrim. 

Having finished stoning on the twelfth of Dhul-Hijjah, a pilgrim is free 
either to return to Mecca before sunset or to Spend the night (of the twelfth of 
Dhul-Hjjj^h) m Mina, and throw pebbles at the three jamraks on the following 
day, the thirteenth, after the sun declines (at noon). Yet, the latter choice is 
better, as Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"..-Then whoever hastens {his departure} in two days - there is 
no sin upon him; and whoever delays {until the third] - there is 
no sin upon hint -for him who fears Allah.." 

(Quran; Al-Baqarah: 203) 

On the twelfth of Dhul-Hijjah, if the sun sets while a pilgrim is still in 
Mi n a, then he must spend the night there and do the pebble throwing on the 
following day, as Almighty Allah says, as mentioned above: 

"... Then whoever hastens [his departure] In two days - there is 
no sitt upon him,," (Qur'anr Al-Baqarah; 203) 

"Day" here means "daytime" and does not mean "night" 

If a female pilgrim has menstruated or has a postpartum period after or 
before assuming ihrdm, she remains in her ihram. She can perform all the 
rites of Hajj as other pilgrims do, such as standing at Arafah, spending the 
night at Muzdalifah, throwing the pebbles, and spending the nights at Mina. 
Still, it is impermissible for her in such cases to perforin taw&fox $a y unless 
she purifies herself from the state of major ritual impurity. However, if she has 
menstruated after performing taw&f it is permissible for her to perform sa "y, 
as ritual purity is not a prerequisite for sa 'y. 

If a pilgrim desires to return to his home country or elsewhere after 
finishing all the rites of Hajj and prepared for traveling, just before leaving 
Mecca he has Eo perform the Farewell Tawaf so as to be the last thing done 
in Mecca, Again, a menstruating pilgrim is exempted from performing the 



Chapter 'J: Dnys of Tttshriq and Farrwdl Ihwdf 457 

Farewell Tawdf, so she can travel without doing it, as Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah 

he pleased with him) narrated: 

"The people (i.e, pilgrims) were commanded (by the Prophet) to 
perform the Farewell Tawdf around the House (the Ka "bah) as the 
last thing to do before, leaving (Mecca), yet menstruating women 
were exempted" 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

He also narrated that when the Prophet (PBUH.) saw the pilgrims departing 
from Mecca, he (PBUH) said to them: 

"None amongst you should depart until he performs the Farewell 
Tawdf around the House (i.e. the Ka 'bah) as the last thing to do (at 
Mecca)." 

(Related by Imams Ahmad t Muslim, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah) 

Moreover, Ibn h Abbas narrated: 

"The Prophet (PBUH) gave permission to menstruating women 

to depart from (Mecca) without performing the Farewell Tawdf 
around the House (i,e. the Ka 'bah) provided that they have already 
performed the Ifddah (Going- forth) Tawdf" 

(Related by Imam Ahmad) 

Furthermore, 4 A'ishah (the Prophets wife, may Allah be pleased with 
her) narrated; 

"£afiyyah Bint Huyayy menstruated after performing the Ifddah 
Tawdf, so I made a mention of her menses to Allah's Messenger 
(PBUH), whereupon he remarked* 'Well, then she will detain its' 
I said, 'O Messenger of Allah, she has performed the Ifddah Tawdf 
and circumambulated the House, and it was after that when she 
menstruated' Thereupon, he (PBUH) said, '(If so), then she may 
depart!"" 

(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 



458 V: fiM// 

Endnotes 

1 The Days of At-Tashriq: "The eleventh, the twelfth, and the thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah, 
i.e. the three days following the Day of Sacrifice. 

2 The Day of Sacrifice ( 'Idul-A^tti); l lie tenth of Dhul-Hijjah). 

3 Ibn Majah (3069) [3/492). 

4 Muslim (3128) [5/52], Abu Dawud (1971) [2/340], At-Tirmidhi (£94) [3/241), An- 
Nasa'i (3063) [3/29S], and Ibn Majah (3/305) [3/485 j. 

5 Al-Bukbari (1746) [3/733 ) and Ahii Diiwfld (1972) [2/340]. 
(5 The second Chapter of the Qiir'&n. 

7 See: "ZAdftt-Ma'AfT [2/2851, 

8 See: "Zarfw^-Mn'orf" [2/286|. 

9 Al-Bukhari(1755) [3/73.&J and Muslim 0207} [5/84], 

10 Ahmad (1936} [1/223], Muslim (32061 [5/54], Abd Dawud (2002) [2/343], and Ibn 
MSjah (3070) [3/4931, 

11 Ahmad (3505) [1/369], 

12 Al-Bukhari {1762) f 3/740] and Muslim (3209) (5/85]. 




^^^^^^^■i^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 



CHAPTER 





Sacrificial Animals (Hady 
and Udhiyah) 



Hady refers to a legally edible animal (such as a camel, a cow or a sheep) 

brought to the Sacred Mosque, slaughtered there, and sacrificed for the Sake 
of Allah, Glorified; and Exalted be He, 

Udhiyah refers to a legally edible animal slaughtered and sacrificed on the 
Day of Sacrifice or the Days of Tashriq for the sake of attaining the closeness 
and the pleasure of Allah. 

There is an agreement among Muslim scholars on the prescription of 
offering a sacrificial animal for the Sake of Allah. For instance, Imam Ibnul- 
Qayyim said: 

"Offering a sacrificial animal for the Sake of Allah, the Creator, is 
regarded as a sacrifice for one's own self as ones self tends to fall into 
ruin by sinning. Allah, Exalted be He, says, f ... And for all religion 



460 V: HAjJ 

We have appointed a rite [of sacrifice] that they may mention the 
Name of Allah over what He has provided for them of [sacrificial] 
animate,,,* (QurSn: Al-Hajj: 34) Moreover, the slaughtering of 
sacrificial animals and the shedding of their blood while mentioning 
the Name of Allah over them are legislated in all religions" 

The best sacrificial animal to offer is a camel, then a cow, then a sheep. It is 
better if a camel or a cow is offered by an individual, as it will be a sign of one's 
generosity, and il will also be more beneficial for the poor due tt> the amount 
of meat they have. On the other hand, the best animal to sacrifice is the fattest, 

then the most expensive, as Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"• •■ And whoever honors the symbols [i.e. rites} of Allah- indeed, 
it is from the piety of hear ts." (Q u ran : Al -fjajj : 3 2) 

It is insufficient to offer a sacrificial animal before it reaches the prescribed 
age for being slaughtered, which is six months for a sheep, five years for a camel, 
two years for a cow. and one year for a goal, 

A ewe is good enough to be offered as hady on behalf of one man, and as 
udjtjyah on behalf of one man and his household. A camel or a cow is sufficient 
as hady or udhiyah on behalf of seven people according to the hadith narrated 

by Jabir that states; 

"Allah '$ Messenger (PB UH) commanded us to become seven partn ers 

(in the sacrifice) of a camel or a cow!' 1 

Abu Ayyub (may Allah be pleased with him) also narrated: 

*ln the lifetime of the Prophet (PBUH)> a person used to sacrifice 
a ewe on behalf of himself and his household; and they would eat 
(from it) and feed (others)."' 

(Related by lbn Majah and At-Tirinidh! who deemed it sahih) 

Yet, it is important to point out that it is better to slaughter a single ewe 
than to have seven persons share in slaughtering a camel or a cow. 

It is a condition that a sacrificial animal, whether hady or udhiyah, must be 
free from aJI physical defects. Thus, it is insufficient to offer a skinny or a sick 
animal as sacrifice. Likewise, it is insufficient to sacrifice a blind animal, a one- 
eyed animal or a lame animal that can hardly walk, A mad animal, a toothless 
one, or a very old one with very small or dry udders, are not acceptable as 
sacrifice as well; the same goes for an animal which is obviously sick, for 



Chapter 10: Sacrificial Animals {H&dy and Udkjyuti) 45 1 

Al-Bara Ibn ' Azib (may Alhh be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet 

(PBUH) said: 

"Four (types of animals) are impermissible to be offered as 
sacrifice: a one-eyed animal which has obviously lost the sight 
of one eye, a sick animal which is obviously sick t a lame animal 
which obviously limps, and an animal with a broken leg and 
no marrow. 

(Related by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i) 

According to the most valid opinion, me optimum time for slaughtering 
a sacrificial animal, whether it is Uj£ttiyah or hady offered by one performing 
Hajj as tammatu\ is during the period from after the. Feast Vld) Prayer 
until the last of the Days of Tashrfq, IT is preferable for one to eat from the 
sacrificial animal one offers as udhiyah, or hady in case of performing Hajj 
as tammatu ' or qir&n; its meat is divided as follows: one third for the owner, 
one third to be given as gifts, and one third to be given in charity, as Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

" ., So eat iff them and feed the miserable and poor" 

(Quran: Al-Hajji 28) 

As for a pilgrim who is offering expiatory hady (in expiation for missing 
any of the essential rituals of Hajj or for committing something forbidden 
while in a state of ihram), he must not eat any of it at all. If one wants to offer 
a sacrificial animaL one should by no means cut any of one's hair or trim any 
of one's nails from the first day of Dhul-Hijjah until one offers the sacrificial 
animal, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"When it is the beginning of Dhul-Hijjah and anyone of you intends 
to offer a sacrificial animal, he should not get any of his hair cut or 
nails trimmed until he offers it" 

(Related by Imam Muslim) 

In case one does (i.e. one has trimmed ones hair or nails), one must seek 
the forgiveness of Allah, yet one is not obliged to offer anything in expiation 
in this case. 



462 V: UAH 

Endnotes 



1 Muslim (3173) [5/71]. 

1 Ar-TirmidEii (1509) [4/91] and IbnMajah (3147) [?>/ 5-11]. 

3 AbtiDawud (28G2) [3/1 61 J, At-Tirmidhi (1501) [4/85], An -Nasal (4381) [4/244], and 
IbnMajah (3144) [3/539). 

4 Muslim (5089) |7/!391. 




'Aqtqah (Sacrificial Animal 
for the Newborn) 



'Aqtqah is one of the duties of a father toward his newborn child. It is the 
slaughtering of a sacrificial animal as a sign of gratefulness ro Allah, Glorified 
and Exalted be He, for granting one a child, Offering aqtqah is considered a 
confirmed act of the Surtnah {Prophetic Tradition), as the Prophet (PBUH) 
offered sacrificial animals as aqiqah when his grandsons Al-Hasan and Al- 
tJusayn were born, as related by Abu Dawiid and other compilers of Ufl-dith , 
Also, the Prophet's honorable Companions and their followers used to offer 
sacrificial animals as 'aqiqah for their newborn children. 

Some scholars are of the view that 'aqiqah is obligatory, for Al-Hasan 

narrated on the authority of Sam u rah that Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said: 

"'Every (newborn) boy is pawned by the "aqiqah offered for him" 

Imam Ahmad Ibn HanbaK in explaining this hadtth, said, "Pawned here 
means that (if he dies as a baby) he can intercede with Allah in favor cf his parents 



464 V: HA]] 

who offered "aqiqah on the occasion of his birth." Imam Itmul-Qayyim said, 
14 child grows up good-natured and well-mannered if "aqiqah is offered on the 
occasion of his/her birth" 

According to the most valid opinion in this connection, "aqiqah is a 
confirmed act of the Sunnah. Moreover, sacrificing an animal as aqiqah 
is much better than giving its value in charity, 

'Aqiqah is a sign of the parents' gratitude to Allah for blessing them 
with a newborn baby. It is also a means of drawing oneself near to 
Almighty Allah, being charitable to the poor, and spiritually ransoming 
the newborn child. 

Two equal ewes, with nearly the same age and shape, are to be sacrificed 
as ' 'aqiqah for a newborn boy, whereas one ewe is to be sacrificed for a 
newborn girl. Umm Korz Al-Ka 1 biyyah narrated that she had heard the 
Prophet (PBUH) saying: 

"Two equal ewes are to be sacrificed for the (newborn) boy and one 
ewe is to be sacrificed for a (newborn) girl." 1 ' 

{Related by Imam Abjnad and At-Tirmidhi who deemed it §.ahjk 
(authentic) according to a hadhh narrated by h A'ishah) 

The difference in the number of the sacrificial animals offered as 'aqiqah 
for males and females is due to the fact that a males portion of inheritance 
in Islam is equal to that of two females. Moreover, the happiness of a father 
whom Allah grants a boy is usually much greater than the case of being 
granted a girl; this is why Aqiqah, which is offered as a sign of gratitude to 
Allah, is double in case of a newborn boy. 

Regarding the time of offering aqiqah t it is preferable to be on the 
seventh day after the child's birth. However, it is permissible to offer it 
before Or after that day. It is also more preferable to name the child On 
that day, as it is stated in the Sunan and other books of Hadith that the 
Prophet (PBUHJ said: 

"Sacrifice is made for him (the newborn baby) on the seventh day 
and he is to be named as well (on that day). 

It is permissible, however, to name the child on the day of his/her birth, 
for some scholars maintain that this is more preponderant than naming the 
child on the seventh day of his/her birth, 



Chapter U: 'Aqiqsb (Sacrificial Animal For the Newborn) ^ge 

On the other hand, ir is an act of the Sunnah to give the child a good name, 
for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"(On the Day of Resurrection,) you will be called by your names 

and by your fathers names, so give yourselves good names" 5 

(Related by Abu Dawud) 

The Prophet (PBUH) liked good names,* and forbade giving children names 

suggesting worshipping other than Allah/ such as calling a child "Abdul- 
Ka'bah" (servant of rhe Ka'bah), '"Abdun-Nabf (servant of the Prophet), 
"' Abdul -Masth" (servant: of Jesus), " Abdu 4 Alf (servant of 'Alt), or ^ Abdul - 
Husayn* (servant of Al-Hu$ayn). In this regard, Imam Ihn Baitm (may Allah 
have mercy on him) said: 

"Muslim scholars agree on the prohibition of giving children names 
indicating servitude to other than Allah, such as 'Ahd Umar f Abdul- 
Kabbah, and the like. However, there is no unanimous agreement on 
the prohibition of referring to or mentioning the people who already 
have these names, such as, f1 Abdul-Muttalibl 'Ban! ' Abdud-Darl 
and "Abdu-Shams' but not to name after them?" 

Moreover, it is detestable to give a child an inappropriate name that 
suggests a bad quality, such as "Al^A^i" (the disobedient), "Kulayb" (doggy), 
"Hanzalah" (colocynth), "MurralT (bitter), and "Hazan" (sadness or difficulty). 
The Prophet (PBUH) hated bad names of persons or places/ and he (PBUH) 
also pointed outr 

"The dearest of your names to Allah are "Abdullah' (servant of 
Allah) and ' ' Abdur-Rakm&ri (servant of the Entirely Merciful)." 

(Related by Imam Muslim and other compilers vf Hndlth) 

Thus, parents should choose good names for their children and avoid 
giving them prohibited or odious names; this is one of parents' duties towards 
their children. 

Back to the issue of aq'tqah, the sacrificial animal ottered is just like that 
offered as udhiyah with regard to age and characteristics; the animal chosen to 
be sacrificed as "aqiqah should be at the prescribed age for being slaughtered, 
be free from any physical defects or sickness, and be of proper health and 
fleshiness. It is also desirable for one to eat from the meat of the sacrificial 
animal one offers as "aqiqafc its meat is to be divided into three parts: one 
third for the owner, one third to be given as gifts and one third to be given in 



4&6 v^j/y 

charity, just like udjuyah. Unlike udhiyah, it is insufficient for people to share 
in buying an animal and sacrifice it as "aqtqah. They cannot, for example, 
share in one camel or one cow and sacrifice it like the case with udhiyah. This 
is because aqiqah is sacrificed for a soul, so it cannot be shared Moreover, 
neither the Prophet (PEUH) nor his Companions were reported to have shared 
in the sacrificial animals offered as aqiqah. 

It is the duty of parents to bring up their children on moral values 
and noble manners so as to grow up as virtuous men and women; an 
Arab poet said: 

The infant seems to grow up 

In the way he was brought up. 

When the children grow up, it is so difficult to change their characters 
or natures. Many individuals are corrupt because of the way they were 
brought up and the lack of moral guidance in their childhood- Therefore, 
children should be kept away from bad gatherings and corrupt associates. 
Home should be a righteous, religious atmosphere for a child, for it is the 
first school in a child's life. Thus, parents should spare their homes all 
means of corruption and viciousness, especially today, when the means 
of corruption are prevalent everywhere and fill up homes, except for 
those safeguarded by Allah's mercy So, parents should beware of such 
corruptive means, and bring up their children on worshipping and 
obeying Allah, honoring their religion, appreciating the Quran and 
loving tt; these are the true means of achieving felicity in both this world 
and the Hereafter. 

In short, parents or guardians should represent good ideals for their chil- 
dren through their good manners, morals, habits, and ethics. May Allah guide 
us all to what He likes and pleases. 

Endnotes 

1 Abu Dawud (2841) [3/177], An-Nasa'I (4230) [4/186], and At-Timudhi (1523) [4/99], 

2 Abu Dawud (2837) [3/1 75], At-Tirmidhi (152&) 14/101 ), An-Nasat (4231) [4/136], and 
Ibn Majah (3165) [3/55]. 

3 Ahmad (23910) [6/31], Abu Dftmid (2S35) [3/174], At-Tjrmidhl (1517) [4/9*1, An- 
Nasal (4227) (4/185], and Ibn Majah (3162) [3/549], 



Chapter 11: *Aqiqab {Sacrificial Animal for the Newborn) ^7 

4 The Five Compilers of Hndit h. 

5 Ahmad (21539) [5/139], Abti Dawud (4948) [5/149], and lull fclibbin (no. 1944), 

6 See: "Zadul-Ma W [2J$3$\. 

7 Note that the prefix "Abd" in Arabic means "servant of." For example, the name 
"'Abdullah" means "servant of Allah" and so on r 

S See the footnote of "Ar-Rawd AUMurbi "' [4/246]. 

9 See: "Z&dul-Maad" [2/337] and At-Tirmidhi (2&44) [5/134|. 

10 Muslim (5552) {5/132], Abfl Dawiid (4949) [5/149), At-Tirmidhi (2S3S) [5/l32j t and 
IbnMajah (3728) [4/216], 



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Jihad (Fighting in the 
Cause of Allah) 



Allah has ordained jih&d {fighting in the Cause of Allah) in order to render 
His Word the highest, His Religion the victorious, His enemies the defeated, 
and to test the faith of His true servants. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

".<.. That (is the command}. And if Allah had willed, He could 
have taken vengeance upon them {Himself), but [He ordered 
armed struggle] to test some of you by means of others. And 
those who are kitted in the Cause of Allah - never will He waste 
their deeds. He will guide them and amend their condition - and 
admit them to Paradise, which He has made known to them." 

(Qur'an; Muhammad: 4-6) 

In Islam, jihad enjoys a great importance, as it is the highest level in religion 
and one of the best acts of worship to the extent that some scholars consider 



4?2 V\:JIHAD 

jihad the s belli pillar of Islam. Jihad is ordained according Co the Quran, the 
Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) and consensus (of Muslim scholars), Allah, 
Exalted be He, says: 

"Fighting has been enjoined upon you. . ." 

(Quran: Al-Baqarah: 216) 

The Prophet (PBUH) also fought in the Cause of Allah and used To enjoin 
;iW; he (PBUH) said: 

"Whoever dies without fighting in the Cause of Allah, nor docs he 
express any desire (or determination) for it, would die with a char- 
acteristic of hypocrisy"" 

Linguistically, jihad means fighting the enemy vigorously and jurispru- 
dentially. It involves fighting the disbelievers and it also includes much more 
activities showing striving in the Cause of Allah, not only mere fighting. 
Ihnul-Qayyim said: 

"Jihad is a task which is to be fulfilled by means of heart, tongue, 
money, or hand. Every Muslim must strive in the Cause of Allah 
though any of these means! 1 " 

Jihad, in addition, iaicludes striving for the purification of the soul through 
self-control, striving against Satan and against dissolute, disobedient, and 
straying people. So, self-restraint is a sort of jihad that a Muslim can achieve 
through seeking religious knowledge, acting in accordance with the knowledge 
he learns, and then teaching such knowledge to others. One can strive against 
Satan, as another type of jihdd, thro ugh keeping a way from the doubtful matters 
portrayed by Satan and resisting Satanic wicked desires. As for striving against 
the disbelievers, it can he by means of hand (fighting), money tongue, and 
heart. A Muslim must also strive against the defiantly disobedient, dissolute, 
and straying people, as much as lie can, forbidding their wrongdoing either 
by his hand first, then his tongue if he cannot, and finally with his heart if the 
other means are impossible; it depends. 

Jihad, in fact, is a collective duty which if sufficiently fulfilled by some 
Muslims, the rest will not be accountable for it as an obligation, and it becomes 
an act of the Sunnah for them. Jihad is the best voluntary act of worship which 
has great virtues and rewards. There are so many verses in the Noble Qur'arc, 
as well as many hadiths, enjoining jilmc I and urging all Muslims to undertake 
it. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and 
their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise. 



Chapter t : jihad (Fighting in the Cause of Allah) 473 

They fight in the Cause of Allah, $0 they kill and are killed. 
[It isj a true promise {binding] upon Hint in the Torah and 
the Gospel and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant 
than Allah? So rejoice in your transaction which you have 
contracted. And it is that which is the great attainment." 

(Quran"At-Tawbah: 111) 

For a Muslim, there are certain cases in which jihad is an individual duty: 

1) When a Muslim is present at the battlefield, it is obligatory for him to 
fight and he is prohibited to leave the battle and flee. 

2) When enemies attack a Muslim country 

In the a fores a id two cases, a Muslim fights back his enemies as 
a means of self-defense only not a conquest. If Muslims abstain 
from fighting in these two cases, the disbelievers will take their land 
defiling their sanctities, 

3} When a Muslim is needed to help his fellow Muslims fight rheir 
enemies. 

4) When a Muslim is called by the ruler (or the one in authority) to fight 
in the Cause of Allah, for the Prophet (PBUH) said: 

"Whenever you are called for fighting in the Cause of Allah, you should 

go immediately''* 

Also, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

".„ When you encounter a company (from the enemy forces], 
stand firm..." (Quran: Ai-Anfal: 45) 

Moreover, Allah says: 

* .. What is [the matter] with you that when you are told to go 
forth in the Cause of Allah, you adhere heavily to the earth?.." 

(Quran: At-Tawbah: 38) 

ShaykhuHsl&m Ibti Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

"jihad can be either by the hand or the heart, or by calling Muslims 
to jihad through sound argument, eloquence, demonstration, or by 
helping to prepare others for fighting; it is obligatory for a Muslim to 
strive in the Cause of Allah as much as he can. On the other hand, 



474 W:jIHAD 

if a Muslim is unable to join his fellows in the battlefield for a legal 
excuse, he has then, being at home, to support and take care of the 

families and properties of the Muslim fighters." 

It is obligatory for the Muslim ruler {or the one in authority) to check 
the army before setting out for fighting to exclude whatever does not fit the 
battlefield, be it related to men or equipment, For example, the ruler (or the one 
in authority) has to exclude whoever discourages Muslims to fight, disheartening 
and dispiriting them, He should also exclude those fearful and fainthearted men 
who might dissuade the other fighters, and those who report the news of the 
Muslim army to the enemies, or cause dissention among the Muslim fighters. 
The Muslim ruler should also appoint a commander who can lead the army 
in accordance with the Islamic principles and policies. It is obligatory for the 
Muslim army to obey their commander in what is right, to give him sincere 
advice, and to be patient with him, for Allah, Exalted be He, says; 

"Oyou who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger 
and those in authority among you..." (Quran: An-Nisa*: 59 J 

Jihad has been ordained in Islam for some noble objectives: 

• To rid people of the worship of taghuts (false objects of worship) and 

idols, and to lead them to worship Allah, Alone, associating no partner 
with Him, for He is the One Who has created them, and gives them 
provisions. Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And fight them until there is nofttnah and [until] the religion 
[i,e, worship], all of it, is for Allah.. ." (Quran: Al-Anftl: 39) 

* To eliminate injustice and give rights to their rightful owners, for Allah, 

Exalted be He, says: 

"Permission [to fight} has been given to those who are beingfought t 
because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah is competent to 
give them victory [They are} those who have been evicted from 
their homes without right - only because they say, 'Our Lord is 
Allah...' " (Qiir'an: Al-Hajj: 39-40) 

- To humiliate the disbelievers, take revenge on them, and weaken their 
power, for Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Fight them; Allah will punish them by your hands and will 
disgrace them and give you victory over them and satisfy the 
breasts [i.e. desires] of a believing people. And remove the fury 



Chapter J: Jihad (Plotting in die Cause of Allah) 475 

in tkeir [i.e. the believers'] hearts. And Allah turns in forgiveness 
to whom He witfs; and Allah is Knowing and Wise." 

(Quran: At-Tawbah: 14-15) 

Fighting the enemies must be preceded by calling them to Islam. The 
Prophet (PBUH) used to call the enemies to Islam, if they did not know about 
it, before fighting them . He (PBUH) also sent messages to kings calling them 
to Islam and used to advise the commanders of the Muslim army to call the 
disbelievers to Islam before fighting them, and not to fight whomever would 
accept Islam. This is because the main objective of fighting in Islam is to elimi- 
nate disbelief and polytheism, and to help people enter the Religion of Allah 
(Islam). Thus, if this noble objective is fulfilled without fighting, Muslims are 
not allowed to fight others; and Allah knows best 

Jihdd has so many rulings mentioned in detail in volumes on SharVah 
(Islamic Law) among which are the following: 

• If a Muslim's parents (or one of them) are free Muslims, a Muslim is not 
permitted to volunteer to fight in the Cause of Allah unless they permit 
him to. To illustrate, when a man, whose parents were alive, wanted to 
join the Muslim army injihdd, the Prophet (PBUH) said to him: 



Then go and exert yourself in their service (i.e. his parents). 



»■■■> 



This is because filial piety is an individual duty in Islam whereas jihad 
is a collective duty, and an individual duty is considered worthier of 
fulfillment than a collective one, 

' The ruler (or the one in authority) must appoint the commanders of the 
army and he is permitted to give anyone he selects from the spoils if 
this serves the cause of jihtld. Then, he is to divide the rest of the booty 
among all the soldiers. 

> It is impermissible to kill a child, a wdinan, a monk, an old man, a man 
infected with a chronic disease, or a blind man* as long as they do not 
fight against Muslims nor incite others to do so. When captured, those 
people become slaves to Muslims; the Prophet (PBUH) used to have 
such people as slaves when he captured them , 

1 Muslims are permitted to take the spoils of battles including all the 
money and property taken forcefully through fighting the non- 
Muslim enemies, as well as any ransom (taken from them). Spoils are 
to be divided among whoever witnessed the battle, whether they have 



476 VI. JIHAD 

fought or not, for they are considered supporters of all the Muslim 
fighters as they have been ready to fight at anytime. Such people are 
legally considered like fighters, as- l (J mar ibnul-Kha£fab (may Allah be 
pleased with him) said; 

"Spoils are for those who witnessed the battler" 

• As for how the booty should be divided, the ruler (or the one in authority) 

is to dedicate one -fifth of the booty to Allah and His Messenger 
(PBUH), i.e, to be allocated to the relatives of the Messenger (PBUH), 
the orphans, the poor, the needy and the wayfarers Then the ruler is 
to divide the remaining four- fifths among the Muslim fighters; one 
share among the infantry and the remaining three shares among the 
cavalry; each cavalry soldier receives a share for himself and two more 
shares for having a horse. It was. related by Al-Rukhiri and Muslim 
that when Allah's Messenger (PBUH) divided the booty of the Battle 
of Khaybar, he granted each cavalry soldier three shares; two for his 
horse and one for himself' 2 . 

• The spoils of war can be divided by the representative of the ruler on 

the latter 's behalf. 

- Tt is prohibited to embezzles partof the war booty before its distribution; 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"It is not [attributable] to any prophet that he would act 
unfaithfully [in regard to war booty}. And whoever betrays 
{taking unlawfully] will come with what he took on the Day of 
Resurrection.," (Quran: Alu ' Imran; 161) 

• It is obligatory for (he ruler (or the one in authority) to mete out 

discretionary punishment to whoever embezzles part of the war booty 
before its distribution as a means of deterrence to him and his likes. 

• If the spoils are estates, the ruler has the right to choose whet her to divide 

them among the fighters or to declare them waafs (legal endowments) 
for the benefit of all Muslims, getting a regular kharaj (land fax) from 
their new Muslim owners, 

• The property left by the disbelievers when terrified by Muslims, the 

property of an heirless person, and a fifth of one-fifth of the whole 
booty (the share of Allah's Messenger) are considered fay (spoils 
gained without fighting or war) allocated for the benefit of Muslims. 



Chapter i: jihad (RgJirLng in (he Cautc of Allah) 477 

* It is permissible for the ruler to agree to a truce with the disbelievers to 

stop fighting for a specific period if this serves the interests of Muslims, 
and only when it is permissible to delay jih&d due to the weakness 
of Muslims, The Prophet (PBUH) agreed to a peace treaty with the 
disbelievers (of Mecca) at Al-Hudaybiyah Peace Treaty/' 1 and made a 
peace treaty with the Jews in Medina. However, it is impermissible for 
the ruler to agree to a truce with the disbelievers when Muslims are 
strong and able to fight, 

♦ If the ruler fears that the disbelievers may breach the truce, he is permitted 

to terminate the truce, provided that he informs them thereof before 
fighting, Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"Jjf you [have reason to} fear front a people betrayal, throw (their 
treaty} back to them, [putting you] on equal terms. Indeed, Allah 
does not like traitors" (Qur'an: Al- Anfal: 58) 

Thus, Allah commanded the Prophet (PBUH) to inform the disbeliev- 
ers of his termination of the truce. 

. It is permissible for the ruler to agree to a covenant of protection 
with the People of the Scripture (i.e. the Christians and the Jews) 
and the Magi, granting them freedom of religion, provided that 
they give the jizyah" and adhere to the Islamic laws, Allah, Exalted 
beHe,sayS: 

"Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and 
who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger 
have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth 
[i.e. Islam} from those who were given the Scripture - {fight} 
until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled." 

(Qur'ari: At-Tawbah: 29) 

The money taken from the Dhimmfc ' once a year d& jizyah, while 

they are humbled, is to allow them to stay in an Islamic state (without 
fighting them), 

• The jizyah is not to be taken from a child, a woman, or an insane person, 

nor is it to be taken from a man infected with a chronic disease, a blind 
man, an old man, or a needy who cannot afford it, 

# So long as the Dhimmh give the jizyah, it is obligatory for the ruler 

to accept it, not to fight them, and to defend them against attackers. 

Allah, Exalted be He, says; 



47fl V\:JJHAD 

"... Until they give thejizyah..." (Quran: At-Tawbah: 29) 

Thus, Allah has made their payment afjizyak a reason for not fighting 
them, The Prophet (PRUH) also said: 

"Ask them for jizyah and if they agree, then accept it from them and 
stop fighting them." 

Allah knows best, 

• Te is permissible for the ruler to grant a disbelieving individual protec- 
tion even from Muslims as long as he causes no harm to Muslims, for 
Allah, Exalted be He, says: 

"And if any one of the polythei$ts seeks your protection, then 
grant him protection $0 that he may hear the words of Allah [i.e. 
the Qur'dn}. Then deliver him to his place of safety.." 

(Quran: At-Tawbah: 6) 

It is also permissible for a ruler to grant protection to all or some 

disbelievers since he has authority over all people living in the Islamic 
country under bis rule. This authority is not given to anyone of the 

Muslim subjects except with the permission of the ruiet himseJf. 

However, it is permissible for a Muslim governor of a district to grunt 
protection to disbelievers Jiving in a neighboring district. 

Endnotes 

1 See: Ahmad (121 8(5) (3/I24J, Abit DkwM (2504) [3/lfil, An-Na^'H3l92) [3/3531, and 
Al-Hakim (2472) [2/81]. 

2 Muslim (4908) [7/58]. 

3 See; "ZAditl-Ma 'fai" [3/641. 

4 Al-Bukhirf (18341 [4/61] and Muslim (3289) [5/127], 

5 Sec: Al-lkhtiyrimt [447]. 

6 See Ibn Abu Shaybah (33057) [67480] . 

7 See Muslim (4585) [fi/319], 
3 See Muslim (4497) [6/265 1 . 

9 Ai-Bukhiri(3004) [6/ifi9|, Muslim (6451) [3/320], and At -Tinnidht (1675) [4/191], 
in Al-Hukhan (2307) [4/609]. 

II , Abdur-Rji77.aq In his "Musmnnaf (9689) [S/3G2|, Al-Bayhaqi (17954) [9/86] and 
(9/86— 37}, and Al-Bukhari [6/270], 



Chapter I: Jihtti [Yighiing in the Causc of AU;ili) 479 

1 1 Al-Bukbart US 63) 16/83] and Muslim (4561) |6/304]. 

13 A]-liuk]iarH2693) [5/373| and Muslim (4605) [6-/348J. 

14 /rs>Yifj: A tribute of a tax required of non -Muslims living in an Islam it state exempting 
them froni military' service and entitling them to the protection of the Islamic state. 
Concurrently, Zaknh is not taken from them,, being an obligation only upon Muslims. 

J 5 Dhhmni: A non-Muslim living in jnd under the protection ut an Islamic stale, 
16 Muslim, 



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APPENDICE 




V^^SfSMgi&ii;: 



GLOSSARY 



NOTE; For easier search for the terms beginning with "AJ-" "Ar-" "Ad-" "As-" etc, omit 
them, as they are in Arabic, equivalent* to the article "the". For example, a term. Jike 
As-SafawLllbe found under letter "S", and AJ-Wasilah under letter "W". 



The Ansar 



Ayatul-Kursi 
(the Verse of the 
Throne) 
l Awrah 



Bttsmtilah 

Batn Miiiiiis-sS]' 
Bid ah 



The Mcdinian ! lelpcrs; the inhabitants of Medina who had accepted 
Islam and supported the Prophet (PBUH) and all the Muhajiritn 
(the Emigrants) upon their arrival at the Medina. 
Verse No. 25S of the Sura of Al-Iiaqamh (the Cow): Chapter No. 2 
of theQur'an, 

"Awrah refers to the private parts or parts of the body which are 
illegal to expose to others; a male's ' txwnih is from the navel to the 

knees whereas in. another view it is sjitt to be the external organs of 
.sex and excretion. As tor a females "nwrah, it includes silt her body 
in one view whereas in another it is all her body with the exception 
of her lace and hands. 

B 

Silyihg, "'BisyniHtViif-Rolimanir-Rahim" i.e. "In the Name of Allah, 

the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. 11 

A valley between Muzdalitah and Mina. 

A matter innovated in religion. 

A veil covering the face and has two holes for the eyes to permit vision. 



Collective duty 



The Day of 
" Arafah 
The Day of 

Tarmyah 
The Days of 

Toshriq 

Bhikr 



A religious duly which if sufficiently fit! filled by some Muslims, the 
rest will not he accountable for it as an obligation, and it becomes 
an act of the Sutmah for them, 

D 

The ninth day of Dhiil-Hijjab. 
The eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah. 

The eleventh, the twelfth, and the thirteenth of Dhul-UJjjilh, i.e. 
the three days following the Day of Sacrifice. 

Invocations implying remembrance and mentioning of Aliah. 



GIossd 



iisrv 



484 



Dhimini 

Dmar 

Dirhani (of sUvicr) 

fttqlk 
Fatwa 



The Five Com- 
pilers ofHaditti 

The Four 
Imams 



A free non-Muslim living in and under the protection of a Muslim state. 
An old A rub coin that equal!; 2.y75 grams of gold, 
A dirham of silver equals Jl."? 7,"n grams of silver, 

F 

A scholar of Islamic Jurisprudence. 

A legal opinion issued by a mufti [a Muslim scholar specialized in 

issuing Legal ruhngsj in response to a question on a point of the 

Islamic Law. 

They are Imams Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa't, 

and Ihn Majah. 

They are Imam* Ahu Hantfah, imam Malik, Imam Ash-ShaTi h i, and 

Imam All mad. 



The Group of 
Compiler* of 
Hadith 

Hasan (good) 
hadith 

Hijrtth 

Ijipr [sma n il 

([shmael's 

Precinct) 

Ifrad 

Individual duly 
lrtittm Un prayer) 
litihd&d 
Istiha&ah 
Istijmar 

Istittp' 



They are Al-Uukhari h Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, 
An-NasiVi, and Ibn Majah. 

H 

It ha hadith whose chain of transmission is linked 10 the narration 
of an authority with weak exactitude, and the- fiadith is free from 
eccentricity or blemish, 
The Prophet's Immigration tti Medina. 

The semi-circular short wall located a Few meters cast of the 
Ka 4 bah and considered part of it. 

I 

It means that a pilgrim assumes iliriun for performing ffajf only, keeping 
in the state of ifoam until he finishes per forming the rites ofHajj. 
A religious duty whose obligation extends to every Muslim. 

The imam is the one who lends the congregational prayer. 

Shaving the pubic hair. 

Vaginal bleeding other than menstruation. 

Cleaning one's stooi and urine exits after defecation or urination 
with stones or what may substitute for them. 
Cleaning one's stooi and urine exits after defecation or urination 
with water. 



485 



A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence 



The Jahniiyyah 



fatltiflJiir 

Jamratul- 
' Aqahah 



Jihad 
fizyah 



Khim&t 

Khuffi 

The Lawgiver 

Mahram 

Mar fit' 
(traceable) 

Mithqai 
Miqdts-ot Huff 

Mudd 
Muhall 

Mithrint 
Mukatab 



1 

It isaji Islamic sect thatdeiiies snmeof the Attributes ul Allah, claiming 

thai those attributes are ascribed to people and cannot be ascribed to 
Allah. This belief violates that of the Adherents of tin." Summit and 
Muslim Community. 
A slate of major ritual impurity related to sexual discharge 

It is a small stone- made pillar in ;i walled place. There are three jttmmhs 
situated at Mini. The closest one to Mecca is known as Jammtul- 
'Aqabah; it is also called the Great Jamrah and the Last famrah. 
Fighting in the Cause of Allah 

A tribute or a tax required from non-Muslims living in an Islamic 
state exempting them from military service and entitling them 
to the protection ot the Islamic state. Concurrently, Zak&h is nut 
taken from them, being, m obligation only upon Muslims. 

K 

A shawl-like cloth covering the head and shoulders worn by Muslim 

women. 

Leather socks or shoes or their likes, 

L 

The Lawgiver of Hlutri'ah {i.e.. Islamic Law] is Allah, .Exalted be 
He; the term can also refer to the Prophet (PRUH) as he never 
ordained hut what was revealed to him by Allah. 

M 

A woman's husband or any un marriageable kin of hers. 

Et is whatever word, deed, approval or attribute, Tmced directly 
hack to the Prophet {PRUH) with a connected or disconnected 
chain of transmission. 
A standard measure that equals 4.25 grams, 

The fixed times for Hfiij. It also refers to the sites for entering the 

state of ih rum. 

A Standard measure that equals 543 grams. 

'Hie site for entering the slate of ihram. 

The one in a state of ritual consecration for Ha'jj (Pilgrimage) or 

"L'mrah (Lesser Pilgrimage). 

A slave who has concluded a contract with hi.s/ber master to pay 

him a certain ransom tor his/her freedom. 



Glossary 



486 



Mtirsal (incom- 
pletely trans- 
mitted) hadith 

Mustah&dah 

The MutaziHtes 
(Mu' taziJah) 

Mufawaiir (con- 
tinuously recur- 
rent) hadith 

(Nisab (in Zakih 
Niqab 

The opening 
takbir {'in prayer) 

Theqiblah 
Qiran 



Qudsi (Divine) 
hadith 



The Rafidah 



Sflhth (authentic) 
hadtth 



It is a hadith whose chain nf trans mission lacks a Companion trans- 
mitter i.e. a l$adith that a Successor of the Companions has directly 
attributed to the Prophet without mentioning a Companion. 

A woman in a state of istihAdnh (i.e. a woman having vaginal 

bleeding other than menstruation). 

It is an Islamic sect that claims that those who commit, major sin* 

are in a state between belief and disbelief. This belief violates that 

of the Adherents of the Sumuth and Muslim Community, 

it is a hadith reported by a large number of narrators whose 

agreement upon telling a lie is inconceivable (this condition must 

be met in the entire chain from the beginning to the end), 

N 

The minimum amount upon which Zak/ih is due. 
A face-covering veil worn by Muslim women. 

o 

Opening prayer with saying, "AMhtt-Akbar" (i.e. Allah is the Greatest), 



The- direction of prayer, namely towards the Ka'bah. 

It means that a pilgrim assumes ihratn for performing both ' Ummh 
and 11a}} together, or to assume Hiram for l Orrirdfr then, before starting 
the tawaffoi 'Umrah, a pilgrim intends performing both 'Umrah 
and Ha}} either from the miqat or before the town/of ' Umrah. In this 
case, a pilgrim is to perform both Jen™/ and sa 7 for both. 
Divine Words, other than the Glorious- Qur'an, revealed to the 
Prophet (PBUH) from Allah. Unlike the Qur'an, the wording of 
the Qudsi (Divine) hadith are neither used for worship nor deemed 

miraculous. 

K. 

A Shiiie group that refused the caliphates of Abu Bakr As.-£k1diq 

and ' Umar lb ni.il -Khattab and waged accusations against them 
and against many of the Prophet's Companions as well, 

s 

A standard measure that equals 2172 grams. 
It is a hadith whose chain of transmission has been transmitted by 
truly pious persons who have been known for their uprightness and 
exactitude!, such a hadith is free from eccentricity and blemish. 



487 



A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence 



'The Shtif rt generally refers to any prayer consisting of an even number of 

r&k 'ahi. and it particularly refers to the even number of rak'ahs 
performed before the final rak'ah of the VVJfrr Prayer. 

Ash-Sham The Levant; the region covering Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine. 

Sidf The extract of the Lote tree leaves. 

The Sunatt The Stimiu refers to compilations of the Prophetic hadiths classified 

according to the Islamic jurisprudential Themes; the main four 
compilers of the Sunatt are Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, At-Tirmidht 
and Au-Nasa i. 



Tahajjud 

Tahiti 

Tahmid 

Talmud (in 

prayer) 

Takbir 

Talbiyah 



Tamattu' 



Ta'min (in 
prayer) 
Tar&wlh Prayer 

Tasbih 

Tasbih ( in 
prayer) 



The Night Vigil Prayer. 

Saying, "La Mha illall&h" (i.e. There is no deity but Allah). 

Saying, " Al-hamdu-litlati" {'i.e. Praise be to Allah}. 

Saying as a reply to tasmi\ " Rnbbana-walakat-hamrf"' i.e. "Our 

Lord, to You be (All) praise," 

Saying, "All&hu-Akbar" (i.e. Allah is the Greatest). 

A formula recited by a pilgrim during Hajj or n Uftuuh after assuming 
the state of j£n?m; a pilgrim says, "Here 1 am at Your service, O 
Allah, here I am at Your service. Here J am at Your service, You have 
no partner, here I am at Your service. Verily, all praise, blessings, 
and dominion are Yours. You have no partner." 
It means that a pilgrim assumes ihrum (state of ritual consecration) 
for performing ' Ummh during the months of Hajj, and then, after 
performing ' Umrati, a pilgrim assumes ibram for performing Hay 
ill the same season- 
Saying, "Amin" (i.e. "Amen") after the recitation of Al-Fatthah (the 
Opening Sura of the Qur'an) in prayer. 

Supererogatory prayer performed after the 'Isiiii' (Night) Prayer 
during the month of Ramadan 

Saying, "Subhfin-Aiidii" (i.e. Glory be to Allah). 

Saying, "Subbfinn Rabbiyal- ' Azitn" (i.e. "Glory be to my Lord, the 
Most Great") while bowing, and "Subhana Rabbiyai-A'In" (i.e. 
"'Glory be to my Lord, the Most High") while prostrating. 



Glossary 



4fi8 



Tashahhud 



Taslim 



TasmV 

Tttsmiyah 

Jawdf 
Tayammutn 

TheTwo&i&f&s 

The Two 
Testifications of 
Faith 

AS-Wasiiah 



The Witr Prayer 



Wasq 



Reciting; "(All) compliments, prayers and good things are due 
to Allah; peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the Mercy of Allah 
and His bles.sitng.s (he upon you). Peace be upon us and upon the 
pin us servants of Allah. [ testify that there is no deity (worthy 
of worship) but Allah, Alone, with no partner, and f testify that 
Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger O Allah! Confer 
Your blessings upon Muhammad and the family of Muhafnm ad 
as You conferred Your blessings upon Ibrahim (Abraham) 
and (.lie family of Ibrahim. Verily, You are Praiseworthy and 
Honorable. And bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad 
as You blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim, Verily, You are 
Praiseworthy and Honorable." 

Saying the final Salsms in prayer (saying, "As-salumu 'ttttiykum 
nifl Riifamiititili'ih" i.e. "Itacebe upon you, and the mercy of Allah") 
when concluding prayer. 

Saying "Sami* attaint limtm hawidah" i.e. 'Allah listEns to the one 
who praises Him," when standing following bowing in prayer, 
Saying "Bismitlaft" (i.e. In the Name of Allah). 

Circumambulating the Ka' bah, 

Performing dry ablution with clean earth (when water is unavailable 
or one cannot use it}. 

The Two Authentic Books of AI-BukhSrl and Muslim. 

Saying, "I testify that I here id no deity but Allah and that Muham- 
mad is the Messenger of Allah." 

w 

It is the greatest and the most superior degree in Paradise reserved 
fur only one of Allah's servants, and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) 
hopes to be that one. So, he (PBUH) asks everyone of his nation to 
pray to Allah following each prayer call [adhan] to grant him that 
place, Al-Wttsilnh. 

A supererogatory prayer consisting of an odd number of rak'ahs 
(one, three, five, seven, nine, eleven or thirteen) and it is performed 
any time between the 'Mil' (Night) and the Fajr (Dawn) Prayers, 
A standard measure that equals 130320 grams. 



489 



A .Summary oi Islamic Jurisprudence 



The Vaioani 
(the Yemeni) 
Corner 



The southern corner of the Ka'bah that faces Yemen. 



Znkah 



Zakatul-Fifr 
(Fast -breaking 
Zakah) 



Zthar 



Zakafi is an annual expand Hun- far the benefit of the Muslim 
community; primarily to help the poor, it is required from those 
Muslims who have excess wealth. Paying Zakckh is one of die five 
main pillars of Islam (for more elaboration, refer to the chapter 
OTiZakAh). 

An obligatory charity to be paid by the rich to the poor. In a juristic 
view,, it is to be paid at any time throughout Ramadan, whereas 
it is most preferable to give it two or three days right before the 
Fast-breaking feast {'idul-Fitr). A third view maintains thai it is 
to be given before going out for performing the Prayer of the Fast- 
breaking feast. 

Zsh&r is the saying of a husband to his wife, when lie wauls to 
abstain from having sex with her, "(Sexually,) you are to me lite 
the back of my mother" i.e. unlawful to approach sexually. That 
was a type of divorce practiced by Arabs in the Pre- Islamic Period 
of Ignorance {the Jaliiiiyyali). 






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V".' ':'■< *::*<•';:'• .> ; * 



NAME INDEX 



Abraham 30,60, 

132, 302, 307, 404, 434 , 450 

AbuAyyub 151,460 

Abti Bakr, „, 198, 204, 

223, 240, 269, 300, 301, 319, 

326, 32S, 329, 330 

Abii DSw&d 23, 38, 

43, 51, 54, 61, 62, 79, 81, 89, 102, 
103,104,140,151,159,170,174, 
177, 185, 196, 204, 206, 210, 218, 
230, 240, 244, 255, 260, 268, 295, 
298, 3 1 0, 326, 332, 342, 343, 348, 
359, 361, 377, 383, 431 , 443, 454, 
457,461,463,465 

AbuDhnrr, 151, 199 

Abii Hurayrah 27, 29, 

55, 73, 173, 176, 181, 191, 204, 
223, 228, 250, 253, 257, 262, 295, 
305,311,377,390,406,433 

Abii Mas 1 ud Al-Ansari 282 

Abii Mfisa 195, 282 

Abu Qatadah 72, 230 

Abii Sa Id 140, 173, 267, 336 

AbuUmamah .,„., 152 

Adam (Adam) 176,248 

Ad-IHraqutni , 37, 54, 256, 

268, 272, 275, 276, 413, 448 

AVJbL , 465 

Al-Bay d# , 42 3 

Al-BayhaqJ 170,194, 

248,249,257,269,271,408 



Al-Biizzar,... , .„„„ 27 

Al-Bukhart 16, 27, 7 1 , 76, 

77, 79, 106, 109, 115, 116, 135, 
136,141,164, 168,169,175,176, 
182,186,190,191,206,217,223, 
230, 235, 243, 244, 252, 258, 260, 
267,269,274,275,282,283,284, 
288, 290, 295, 297, 298, 300, 305, 
308, 309, 322, 323, 327, 329, 330, 
336, 337, 338, 342, 352, 358, 365, 
366,383,392,396,398,412,415, 
419,430,448,454,457,476 

Al-Hafil 2,229 

Al-Hakim 79,180, 

249, 288, 294, 328, 342, 377 

AbHasan... 48,463 

Ai-Hasan, and Al-Husayn 463 

Al-Hudaybiyah 476 

Al-fuhfah , 418 

Al-KhattabS 218 

Al-Marwah , 405, 

407,424,434,437,449,451 

Al- Mash ' ar Al- Haram 444 

AbMasjid AI-£|nrant ..108, 

265, 267, 450 

Al-Miqdad 27 

Al-Mughirah fhti Shu bah 150 

Al-Mughni .444*445 

AJ-JYlujiafiqutt (the Hypocrites). ,262 
Al-Walhan , 44 



Name Index 



Ayi 

Dhul-Hijjah ......... 275,276, 

277,434, 437, 438, 439, 440, 443, 
445, 447, 453, 454, 456, 461 

-F- 

Fatimah Bint Abu Hubaysh ,..54, 

76,79 

-H- 

Hamnah Bint Jabsh „ 80, 240 

Han za I ah 465 

Hariin 205,206 

Hazan .,,..,.,„„.,.,, 465 

Hudhayfab... . . 27 1 , 274 

-I- 

Ibn Abbas 78, 140, 141, 

192, 270, 274, 288, 289, 352, 
365, 371, 393, 396, 397, 406, 

407, 403, 412, 418, 432, 446, 
448,453,457 

Ibn Abdul-Barr ....20, 101 

Ibn ' Umar. .29, 168, 

169, 175, 176, 177,243,251,258, 
260, 269, 272, 275, 336, 337, 342, 
352. 354, 377, 447, 454 

Ibn Abu Awfa 230, 356 

Ibn Abu Shaybah. 276 

Ibn Ha jar ,.2 

IbnHibban... 79, 151, 

196,294,298,328,377 

Ibn Hub ay rail 1 2, 20 

Ibn Khuzaymah , 23, 269 

JbnMajah 37,44, 

51*81* 103, 104, 136, 140, 151, 
1 76, 1 95 , 222 , 260, 273 , 298, 3 1 2, 

322, 332, 342, 457, 460 



Anas 16,174, 

223, 228, 268, 300, 326, 328, 342, 
343,382,383,390,423 

Anas Ibn Malik............ ,„. .,16 

An -Nasa b i... ...... 20.62, 

79, 106, 151, 152,235, 244, 310, 
326,330,343,461 

An-Nawawi 16,48, 198, 260 

Ansar 268,359 

Ar-RawduE-Murbr fiSharb Zadul- 
Mustaqni ,..., ..,.,.2 

Ash-Shafi i 78,111, 

155,241,248,268,273 

As-Safa 405,407, 

424,434,437,449,451 

As-Sayl 418 

At-labarani 152, 343, 448 

At-Tirmidhi 22,50, 

61,72, 80,81,89.100, 101,103, 
104, 106, 108, 140, 146, 151, 170, 
186, 224, 237, 239, 240, 254, 261, 
270. 288, 289, 294, 299, 309, 310, 
311,312,313,322,366,370,383, 
404,406,415,460,464 

A L-Tu r tAshi , 313 

Az-Zuhrf 274 

-B- 

Bani ' Abdud-DSr ,465 

Batiu * Amr Ibn ' Awf. 198 

Banu Salamab .197 

Bilal 94,273 



D- 



Dhatu-' Irq.. 



.418 



m 

lbn Mas iid 123. 144, 

170, 192, 263 , 271, 274, 294, 
295,366,413 

lbn Qudamah 444, 445 

IbnTaymiyah 11,71, 

77, 78, 80, 106, 110, 155, 207, 
2 17, 224, 229, 239, 240, 248, 250, 
252, 254. 256, 259, 272, 276, 277, 
285, 313,314, 348, 354, 362, 394, 
421,422,429,431,438,473 

lbnni-Mubarak 48 

lbnul-Miindhir... 48,54, 

256,301 

lbnul-Qayyim 1 07, 1 36, 

169,176,194,211,248,250.258, 
271, 293, 296, 312, 353> 393, 397, 
423, 429, 430, 438, 454, 455, 459, 
464, 472 

Ibnus-Sakan .. 51 

Imam Ahmad IbnHanbal 261, 

29ft, 463 
ImamAn-Nawawi 27,199, 

229, 276 

Imam lbn Daqiqul-' Id.. 229 

Imam lbn Hazm... 465 

Imam lbn Kathir 381 

Imam Muslim 48, 55, 

60, 79, 90, 99, 1 14, 1 22, 144, 1 60, 
174,186,199,207,223,247,261, 
262,270, 273, 275, 297, 298, 308, 
31 1,312, 33", 36fi, 406, 418. 422, 
432,461,465 

Ishaq 394 

-T- 

Jablr , 50,160, 

243, 244, 256, 260, 269, 270, 273, 



A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence 

276, 311, 327, 337, 343, 4 1 S, 439, 

443, 444, 454, 460 

JaMr 244, 43S 

Jeddah 419,420 

Jahmiyyah ,.,.221 

„K- 

KablbnUjraJi 428 

Ka'bah 21,64, 

76, 102, 108, 121,135, 186,310, 
404. 407, 408, 4 1 S, 424, 434, 440. 
448, 449, 450, 455, 457, 465 

KnLayb... ......... 465 

-M- 

Malik 78, 103. 

196,241,372 

Maliklbnul-Huwayrith.... 196 

Mecca 139,140, 

174, 267, 403, 404, 41 8, 4 19, 420, 
42 1 , 424, 434, 438, 439, 440, 446, 
449, 453, 455, 456, 457, 476 

Mina 241,277, 

407, 438, 439. 440, 443, 445, 
446, 447, 453, 454, 455, 456 

Mount of At- Rah mall ..440 

Mifiidh 239,297, 

322,328,330,365 

Mn l adh lbn JabaL, 297, 

330,365 
Mnawiyahlbn Haydah 102 

Mnrrah..... 237,465 

Musa 205 

Mutazilites 221 

Muzdalifah 241,407, 

439, 443, 444, 445, 446, 456 



Name lnd-ex 

-N- 
Najd 418,419 

Q 

Qarnul-Manazil 418,419 

-R- 

Rafidah 137,221 

Rabigh 41S 

-s- 

Safwan Ibn 'Assal. „,.....,.,. .....,...„49 

Sahih Al-Bukhari 275, 282, 

295,327,329,330,366,415 
Sahib Ibn Khuitaymah 269 

Sahih Muslim 150,151, 

152, 168, 170, 180. 192, 198,204, 
2 1 1, 218, 251, 272, 273, 295, 336, 
364,406,412 

Sahl Ibn Abu Hath mall Al-Ansari 
242 

Salamah 100, 

103,151, 161,236,298,366 



494 



Samurah 272, 348, 463 

Sheikh Muhammad Ibn L Abdul- 
Wahhab , _..3 



Thawban 150 

-U- 

Ubayylbn Kab ..,„., „„„,164 

Umm ' Atiyyah., 77, 267, 

275, 309 

Umm Hablbah , „. ,,,79 

Umm Hani*. „ m „ 174 

Umm Qays Bint Mihsan 71 



,,418 

.,20,328, 



Yalamlam.., 

Yemen, „ ,..„,.,.. 

330,365,418 



Zadul-Maad 250 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Aqlqah (Sacrificial Animal for 
the Newborn ) ! 63 

Conditions of 465 

Confirmed act of the Sunnah 464 
Naming the child 464 

Time nf offering 464 

Acts on MusdaUfah and Mina 443 
Heading for Mina 445 

Leaving "Arafali 443 

Performing Sfadoh 449 

Performing sa 'y 45 1 

Shaving or cutting hair 447 

Spending the night at Muzdaiifah 

444 

State of seniE-coniecration (i.e., first 
pari ial release of f h ram ) 44fi 

Tk obligatory of sacrificial animal 447 

The ritual of stoning 446 

The second (complete) release of 
ihratn 449 

Breaking the Fast: Illness or Old 

Age 395 

Hopelessly sick people 396 

Intention of observing obligatory 
fasting from the previous night 

397 

Legal excuse 396-397 

Congregational Prayer 189 

Latecomers and 203-207 

Legality of 189 



Number in 
Obligation of 



195 
ISO- 192 



Ruling on One Who Does Not 
Observe 193-195 

Virlucsof 190 

Women and 196 

Days of Tashrtq and Farewell 
Xawaf 453 

Farewell Tawat' 457 

Rulings on Menstruation and 
Postnatal Bleeding 456 

Shortening Prayers 453 

Spending the Night at Mina 453 
Throwing Pebbles 454 

Death and Burial 293 

Condolence and Visiting Graves 

312-314 



Deceased 



Funeral Prayer 



298-299 



305-308 



Funeral Proces-sioji and fit) rial 

30S-312 

Shrouding 304-305 

Sickness and Dying 295-298 

Sunnah Regaining Sick and Hying 
People 293-294 

Washing the Body of the Deceased 

299-304 

Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah) 
Following Prayer 1 49 

Following Different Acts of Worship 

149 



4% 



A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence 



Following Sunnah in Remember- 
ing Allah 150 

Supplications to Be Said Following 
Prayer 153-154 

Duha (Forenoon) Prayer 173 

Legality of 173 

Number of Rakahs 174 

Time of 174 

Eclipse Prayer 28 1 

Due Time of 233 

Legality of 281-283 

Wily of Perform ing 2&3 ■ 2$5 

Etiquette of Heading for Mosque 

L13 

Legalized Standards of Behavior 
Prior to Prayer 1 | 3 

Standing in the First Row I ] 5 

StratghEen ing Row,*. 1 ] 6 

Waiting for Prayer in Mosque 1 1 5 

Fasting Ramadan: Obligation 
and Timing 375 



Divine Wisdom 
Moonlighting 
Obligation 
Ihram 



376 
377 
378 
421 



Acts Prohibited during 42 7 

Clipping fingernails/ toenails 428 
Covering head 429 

Having sexual intercourse 432 
Killing game animals 431 



Marrying 432 

Removing hair 427 
Touching women lustfully 433 

Wearing perfume J31 

Wearing sewn clothes 429 

Mow to Assume 421 

Desirable Deeds 421 -423 

Hrad 424-437 

QiTcm 424-437 

Tamatttt* 424-438 

Imamate (in Prayer) 215 

Duties of Imam 227 

Conditions of Those Led in Prayer 

228-231 

Giving It its Due in Ful I 2 28 

fmamate 215 

Those Unworthy of 221-225 
Those Worthy of 216-2 19 

Virtue of 215 

Jihad (Fighting in the Cause of 
Allah) 471 

Noble Obj ec Lives of 474 

Prescription of 471 

Rulings on 475 

What Is Obligated on the Muslim 

Ruler? 474 

What is Obligatory for the Muslim 

Army? 474 

Jutttu'ah (Friday) Prayer 247 
Friday Sermon 253-261 



Subjcc: bide* 

Legal Conditions of 257-259 

Manner of Performing 261-262 

Rulings On jumu'ah 252-25ft 

Special Acts of Worship to Be 
Observed on 250-251 

Special Features to Be Observed 
on Friday 248-250 

Wisdom Behind 24i5 

Making up for Missed Days of 
Ramadan 39 1 

Breaking Fast Due to a D?ga! Excuse 

391 

Dying before Making up for 392 

Dying before Performing Due 
Espia tor y Fasting 393 

Dying without Observing 
Expiatory Fasting for Not 
Fulfilling a Vow 393 

Miq&ts of Hajj 417 

Fixed Ti mes of Hajj 4 1 7 

Sites for Entering the State atlhram 

418 
Non -regular Supererogatory 
Prayer 179 

Desirability of I BO 

Legatity of Performing 179 

Night Vigil ISO 

Ufljj (Pilgrimage) 403 

"Umrah 405 

Obligation of 405 

Perform i ng Hajj by a Boy 406 

Performing Hajj on Behaif of 
Another 408 



497 



Purpose of 


405 


Virtues of Hajj and ItiPrepa 
Accepted Performance c 


rations 
415 

if Hajj 
416 


Prayer 


87 


Conditions of 


97 



Prerequisites of 



406 



Avoiding Impurity I05-IQ& 

Concealing Awrah 10E-105 

Facing Qi blah 108- J 09 

Intention 109-111 

Specified Times 97-101 

Detestable Acts 135 

Detestable Acts during Prayer 
135-138 
Integral Parti, Obligatory Prac- 
tices and Act a of the Sunnah 

119 

Eight Obligatory Acts 124-125 
Fourteen Integral Parts 120-123 

Legal licenses 233 

l-'ear Prayer 241-245 

Prayer of a Traveler 238-241 

Pra yer ui Rider* 23 7 ■ 23K 

Prayer Performed by the Sick 234-237 

M aimer of Prayer ] 29 

Prophet's 1 29 

Obligation of tlie Five Prayers 87 

Abandoning Performing Prayer 90 

1 >day ing Perform i ng Prayer* 90 



498 



A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence 



What Does Prayer Mean? $7 

Prayer Call (Adkan) and Imme- 
diate Prayer Call {Lqimah) 

93 
Immediate Prayer Cull Formula 

% 

Prayer Call Formula 94-95 

Prescription of 93 

The Basic Character] stic of a 
Prayer Caller 94 

The Great Virtues of 94 

What a Muslim Has Lo Do upon 
Hearing the Prayer Call? 95-96 

Prostration of Fnrgetfulness 

Cases of 144-146 

Legality of 143 

Prostration of Recitation L75 
Legality of 175 

Pronouncing Takbfr before 1 77 
Suras of Quran 176 

Those Who Should Perform i 76 

Rain Prayer 287 

Due Time of 2S7-2ftfi 

Legality of 287 

Rulings on 288 

Sermon of Asking for Rain 289-290 

Rites of Tarwiyab and Arafah 

Days 437 

Assuming I brant for iffify on the 

DzyofTanviyah 43ft 

Chanting Talbiyah 439 



Day of Arafah 440 

Proceeding to 'Arafah 439 

Shortening Every Four -Rak' ah 
Prayer 439 

Sacrificial Animals (Hotly and 
Udhfyah) 459 

Conditions of 460 

Optimum Time for Slaughtering 461 

Prescription of Offering 459 

The Best Sacrificial Animal to Offer 

460 

Summit Ratibah: Prayers Per- 
formed along with Obligatory 
Prayers 167 

Desi rability of Performing ] 68 



Making up for Missed 


170 


Proof of 


168 


Rak"ahs Considered as 


167 


TarawSh Prayer 


163 


Desirability of 


163 


Number of Rakahs 


164 



Things Nullifying Fasting 387 

Bleeding 388 

Deliberate Eating or Drinking 33-8 
Ejaculation 388 

Having Sexual Intercourse 387 

Vomiting 389 

Times When Prayer is Forbidden 

185 

Five Times 185-136 

Making up at Forbidden Times 186 



Subject Index 



Two Feasts { Ids) Prayer 265 

Acts of Sunnah Regarding 268-270 
Delivering the Sermon 273-274 
Due Time 267-26S 

Ugaliryof 265 

Proof of 266 

Rulings on 274-277 

Voluntary Prayer 157 

Non-Regular 158 

Regular 15ft 

Witr Prayer 1 59 

Legality of 159 



m 



Time of 160 

Ways of 160-161 

Womenk Attendance in Mosques 

209 
Adhering to High Moral Standards 

210-213 

Dele-stability of Preventing Women 

from Going Co Mosoue 2 1 

Women's Uajj and Rulings 00 

Performing It on Someone^ 

Behalf 411 

Malurarn 4J2 

Dying before Doing 4J2 

Performing [lay on Relief of Parents 

413 



::i-:i-;Vy.;-f.:.y.::$ 



'■SISSY'S* ''' ■■--■■:■ ■:■!:■::■■■■■■-- ;:■-'. ■■: >: 



;: : : : : : : : ^. 



....:: -■•■■ ■■'■-.' lili 



QURMC VERSE INDEX 



SurahAl-Fatihah PR 

1:1 22 

1:2 22 

1:6-7 3,4 

1:7 224 

Sura 2: AL-Baqarah 

2:43 88,320,351,357 

2:60 287 

2:7S 165 

2:114 195 

2:136 141,170 

3:144 108,237 

2:148 98 

2:177 369 

2:183 .... 375 

2:184 378,391,396 

2:185 150,233,275, 

377,396 

2:187 376,381, 388 

2:190 365 

2:196 427,428,432,433 

2:197 417,432,433 

2:199 444 

2:200 150 

2201 450 

2:203 256,276 

2:216 472 

2:222 56,61,76 

2:238 98.99,137 

2:239 244 

2:245 369 

2:264... 370 

2:267 220,335,338, 

339,416 

2:271 365,370 

2:280 369 



PR 

2:282 5 

2:286 234,235,395 

Sura3:AhTImran 

3:64 141 

3:85 213 

3:97 403,405 

3:133 93 

3:161 476 

Sura 4: An -Nisi 1 

4:S 372 

4:29 65 

4:43 11,12,21,23 

4:59 474 

4:101 238,241,242 

4:102 191,242,245 

4:103 88,90,97, 149,257 

Sura 5; Al-Ma'idah 

5:&„„„ 11,20,35,37,54, 

59^4, 65j66 

5:58 94 

5:95, 431 

5:96 432 

Sura 6: Al-An'Am 

6:141 339,372 

6:160 89 

Sun7:Al-A*i£f 

7:26 103 

7:27 102 

7:28 102 

7:31 105 

7:31 101 

7:96 289 

7:204 205,252 

Sura 8: Al-Anfal 

8:11 10,12,70 



Quranic Verse Index 



502 



8:39 474 

8:45 473 

K:5H 477 

Sura 9: At-Tawbah 

9:5 320 

9:6 478 

9:14,15 475 

9:18 194 

9:29 477,478 

9:34 335,341 

9:38 473 

9:60 361363 

9:84 301 

9:98,99 350 

9:99 350 

9:103 3S320347 

9:108 27,197 

9:111 473 

9:113 301 

Sura 10: YQnus 

10;5 281 

10:88 205 

10:89 206 

Surd 14: Ibrahim 

14:31 88 

Sura 16: An-NaM 

16:16,- ., 109 

16:97 209 

16:125 433 

Sural 7:AL-lsia* 

17:2(5 371 

17:59 282 

17:78 98,99 

Sura 19: Mar yam 

13:59,60 101 

Sura 20: Tah-i 

20:14 89 

20:114 2 



Sur^21;Al-Anbiya > 

21:83 295 

Sum 22: Al-Hajj 

22:27. h . 404 

22:28 370,440 

22:29.,., 404 

22:32 460 

22:34 460 

22:39,40..... 474 

22:77 121,122 

22:78 ,.,. 233 

Sura 24: An-Nur 

24:31 104 

24:36,37 96,194 

Sura 25: Al-Furqan 

25:48 10 

25:74 219,228 

Sura 30: Ar-ftum 

30:17,18 88 

Sura 32; As-Sajdah 

32:16,17,.,.. 180 
Sura 33: AI-Ahzab 

33:21 133,155,171,259, 

290384 

33i41 149 

33:53 104 

33:59 104 

Sura 39: Az-Zumar 

39:9 5 

Surq 4 1 : Fuggilat 

41:33 , 219 

41:37 281 

Sura 47: Muhammad 

47:4 471 

4733 200.285 

Sura48:Al-Fath 

48:27 447 

48:28 2 



503 



Sura 49; Al-Hii jurat 

49:6 222 

49:16 Ill 

Sura 51: Adh-Dbariyal 

51:16,18 180 

51:19 371 

Sura 56: Al-Waqi'ah 

56:10,11 98 

56:79 20 

Sura 58: AI-MujadUah 

58:11 5 

58:22 302 

Sura 59: Al-Hashr 

59:7 100 

Sura 60: Al-Mtimtahinah 

60:4 302 

60:13 301 

Sura 61: As-Saff 

61:4 365 

Sura 62; Al-Juttiu'ah 

62:9. 94,248 

62:10 150,205 

62:11 260 

Sura 64: At-Taghabun 

64:16 42.65,67,90,109, 

234,235,236,231} 



A Summary uf Islamic Jurisprudence 

Sura 65: At-TalBq 

65:1 77 

65:2 344 

Sura70;Al-Ma'arij 

70:24,25 347 

Sura 73: AI-MuzzammiL 

73:6 181 

73:20 142,350 

Sura 74; Al-Muddaththir 

74:4 69,105 

Sura 77: Al-Mursalat 

77:25,26 308 

Sura HO: ' AbaSa 

80:21 308 

Sura 87: Al- A la 

87:14 351 

87:14,15 266,269 

Sura 90: Al-Balad 

90:14 371 

Sura 98: Al-Bayyinah 

98:5 88 

Sura 107: Al-Maun 

107'4 100,383 

Sura 108: Ai-Kawthar 
108:2 266 


















■■SM-.&Mii'.r.;. 






HADITH INDEX 



No, Hadith p „ 

1 "If Allah wants to do good for a person „ 2 

2 "Men oj kn u wledge are the it i h errt u rs ofp rophets". ,..,. 2 

3 "The key to prayer is purification". jq 

4 "Do not drink in gold or silver vessels nor eat in similar 

bowk „ 15 

5 "He who drinks in silver vessels is only filling his abdomen 

with Hellftre?. l6 

6 "The cup of A llahs Messe nger (PR UN) go i broken 16 

7 K Tunn ing is the purify ing means for hides''. \j 

8 "No one shot ihi touch the Book of the Quran unless th ey a re 

?*»** 20 

9 "Allah does not accept a prayer without purification...". 2 1 

10 "Allah does not accept the prayer of anyone of you if he 
passes wind. 21 

11 "Taw&f is (considered) a prayer. „„,„.„.„ ,..,„„.„ 21 

12 "Nothing prevented him (i.e. the Prophet, PBUH) from 
(reciting) the Quran,,.,.., M , 22 

13 "He (PBUH) used to recite the Quran for us unless he was 

in a state of jandbah.". , ^ 

14 "The Prophet (PBUH) used to mention Allah in all his 
conditions.". 23 

15 "Ido not deem the mosque law Jul for a menstruating woman,. . . 23 

16 "I saw some of the Companions staying at the mosque 

while being in a state of jandbah 23 

\ 7 "Men struating women should keep a way from i h e place 

of performing prayer" r ,„ , 24 

18 "In the Name of Allah, 1 seek refuge with Allah from all 
offensive and wicked things* „ .,.„ 25 

19 7 seek Your forgiveness. Praise be to Allah, Who removed 

harm from me 25 

20 "One should wash one's penis and then perform ablution." 27 



Hadith Index 50fi 

21 "Purify yourselves from urine., 27105 

22 "TheQuran becomes dubious to us 27 

23 "We use water after using stones". ,, .,„„,.„ 27 

24 "Siwak (tooth-stick) is a way of purifying the mouth and 
satisfying the Lord.". .... 29,30 

25 "Five (practices) are of the natu mi disposition: circumcision 29 

26 "Cut the moustaches short and leave the beard (us it is).".., 29 

27 "But far my fear that it would be ha rdfor my followers 30 

28 " . .washed his hands (during ablution) until he reached the 

upper arms", ., 37 

29 "The ears are treated as part of the head.". 37 

30 "This is an ablution without which Allah does not accept 

any prayer", 3S 

31 "No one keeps Iteing in a state of ablution except the believer." 39 

32 "If I command you to do so mething, then do (of) it as m uch 

as you can". 42,67 

33 "I testify that there is no deity but Allah, Alone, with no 
partner. , 43 

34 "Go back and perform ablution well."..,..., 43 

35 "Woe to the heels (if not washed during ablution) from the 

Fire!", 43 

36 "The prayer of any of you is not complete until he performs 
ablution perfectly. .....„,,„.„„. , 44 

37 "Why are you wasting all this water?... ,. „.„..„ 44 

38 "There is a demon of ablution called Al-WaJkan 44 

39 "Leave them as I had put them after performing ablution." 49 

40 K We are commanded (by the Prophet) to wipe over 

the khuffs ,„.„, 49 

4 1 "He who is n ot purified by wiping over the turban 50 

42 "They kilkd him; may Allah kill them , 51 

43 "Perform ablution and then (you can) offer prayer, for it is 

(due only to) a vein'\.,. tt ..,.. ,„„ „.™„„ 54 

44 "Allah will not accept the prayer of anyone of you if he 
passes urine 54 

45 "One should not leave prayer (to re-perform ablution) 

unless one hears sound, ,-„„,. ,,,,., 55 

46 "If a nyone ofyo u feels a nyfla tulence (while being in a sta te 

of ablution)... 56 



507 A Summary f>f Islamk Jurisprudence 

47 "When anyone sits amidst four parts (of the woman) 60 

48 "So, when your menstruation period begins,...,..,,, „. 61 

49 "There is janabah under every single hair...... , .„.. ^ 

50 "Verily A Rah is Modest and He likes modes ty a nd veiling. ... 62 

51 "...And its clean earth has been made (by Allah) as a 
purifying means for us..". 64 

52 "When a dog licks a utensil belonging to anyone of you,,, ►. 70 

53 ",„ The chihi urinated on the garment of the Prophet (PBUH). ., 71 

54 "It (i.e. a cat) is not impure; it is one of those 72 

55 "Purification is half of faith.". , 72 

56 "Give up prayer when your menstrual period begins,", ,. 76 

57 "When we menstruated during the life of Allans 
Messenger (PBUH) ' 76 

58 "You can do everyth ing (with your wives during menstruation) 

except 77 

59 "We never considered yellowish discharge as a thing of imp 
ortance ,. , 77 

60 "Remainaway(frottiprayer)equal(tothelength oftime)that 

your menstrual 79 

61 "This (i.e. istihadah) is from a blood vein, not (usual) 
menstruation , , 79 

62 "When the menstruation blood comes, it is black blood 

that can be recognized , ♦ - 79 

63 "This (i. e. istihadah) is a strike (i.e. harm) ca used by Satan. . . BO 

64 "She should give up prayer during her menstrual period... 8 1 

65 "J advice you to use cotton: stuff the place (the vagina) 

With it" > 81 

66 "Whoever m isses a prayer out of oversleeping orforgetf'ulness. .. 89 

67 "Does th is one ha ve to perform Hajj (Pilgrimage) 89 

68 "Command your children to perform prayer when they 
become seven years old. ..... ,. 89 

69 "Verity between man and between polytlieism and disbelief is. . . 90 

70 "O Allah, Lord of this perfect call and of this established 
prayer. 95 

71 "Prayer has specified times stipulated by Allah..,, „., 97 

72 "Perform ing prayers a t their spec if led tim e$", 98 

73 "The timccfthcZuhr (Noon) Prayer. 99 

74 "In a very hot weather, delay the Zuhr Prayer. 99 



Hndirh index 50S 

75 "When night falls from this side and the day vanishes from 

that side and the sun sets 99 

76 "If anyone forgets a prayer orm isses it beca use. of sleeping. . . 101 

77 "A llah does not a ccep t the prayer of a worn an wh o has reached 

puberty unless 101,104 

78 Conceal your 'awrah (private parts) except from your wife 

and from 102 

79 "Do not unveil your thigh, and do not look at the thigh of 

the living or the dead.". ,..„ 103 

SO "Cover your thigh for a mart's thigh is a part of his 'awrah 

(private parts)", 103 

81 "A woman is (regarded as) \uvrah {i.e. she has to be 
concealed just like "awrah)". 103 

82 "Can a woman perform prayer while wearing 103 

83 "Men wotddpass by us when we accompanied the Messenger 
(PBUlt) 104 

84 "The whole earth is a masjid (a place for prayer) except 
bathrooms and graveyards" 

85 "Do not face graves in prayer and da not sit on ihem".. .-,... 
&6 "There is qiblah (direction of prayer) between the east and 

the west,". -.,,, ..— ... 

87 "Deeds (i.e. their correctness and rewards) depend upon 
intentions". ,.., ......... ,..,„,.,„,„,.,.... -. 

88 "If the iqamah is declared - (in another narration* 'When 
you hear the iqamah...'').... 

89 "...When one of you is preparing for prayer, he is in fact 
engaged in prayer". , ,...„ ,.. 

90 "If a person performs ablution and does it perfectly^ 

91 "., O Allah! Forgive my sins and let the doors of Your Mercy 
be open forme". 

92 "... and let the doors of Your Favor be opened for me.". ,.... .. 

93 "If anyone ofyou enters a mosque, he should perform two 
rakahs before sitting". 

94 "When anyone of you is in the mosque, he should not 
interlace (his fingers), -.— 

95 If t he people kn c w the reward for p rono it n cii ig the adh&n 
(prayer call) ,..,. ... 

96 "The best rows for men are the first rows.."..... 



r . . 



106 


106,107 


108 


110 


113 


114 


114 


114 


114 


114 


115 


U5 


115 



509 A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence 

97 "Let those of you who are sedate and prudent be near me 

(i,e. be in the first row)." 115 

98 "... And ike best rows fo r women are the last on es.'\ 115 

99 "Straighten your rows, for (he straightening of a row is pari 

of the perfection of prayer". 116 

1 00 "Straigh fen your rows or else A lla h will alter yo ur faces,". .. 116 

101 "Straighten your rows and stand dose to one another". 116 

102 "Perform prayer irs the way you see me performing \ 20, 122. 

Pm'^ ■ 123,129 

103 'Perform prayer while standing: if 'you cannot., „., , ... 120 

104 ".. Then face the qibiah (direction of prayer towards the 
Kabah) and say takbir.". 121 

105 "... And takbir is the beginning of prayer,,.,,, 121 

106 "No prayer is (accepted) from whoever does not recite 
Al-Fatihah (in it)." 121 

1 07 "The state in which a servant is nearest to his Lord is while 
prostrating himself",.-, . ,-..-„,, 122 

1 08 " When he (the Prophet) raised h is head after prastru iio n.,.. 122 

1 09 "Before Tashahhud was decreed, we used to recite instead, .,"„ 123 

1 1 "O Allah' Co nfer Your blessings upon M uhamn uid. .". 1 23 

111 "„. And its conclusion is laslim,". 123 

112 "When the imam says t 'Allah listens to the one who praises 
Him,..,, 124 

113 "O my Lord, forgive me". 125 

1 1 4 "(All) complimentSt prayers and good th ings are due lo A Ikih ... 125,131 

1 15 "(Our Lord, to You be (all) praise) with which are filled the 
heavens and the earth ,--. ,....,.,,., 126 

116 "O Allah! 1 seek refuge with You from the torture of the 

Fire , 126 

117 "Glory be to You, O Allah, and to You be all praise, and 
Blessed is Your Name ..„.„ 130 

118 "1 seek refuge with Allah from Satan, the expelled (from the 

mercy of Allah) 130 

119 "Our Lord, to You be (all) the praise.". , 130 

120 "OA llah I Forgive me, ha ve m ercy o> i me, set me right, guide 

me, and sustain me,"., ....-- ,..,„>,.. 131 

121 "...0 Allah ! Confer Your blessings upon Mufaa mmada nd the 
family of Muhammad ,..„„,. 132 



Hadirh Index ^m 

122 fi Allahl I seek Your forgiveness (thrice) ,...,„ , 132 

1 23 "It is wha t Sata n steals from the prayer of any one of you." 133 

1 24 "What is wrong with those people who look toward the sky 
during prayer?", 135 

125 "They sho uldst op (looku tg towa vd t he sky du ring prayer) or 

else 136 

126 "When you raise your head after prostration, do not squat 

as a dog squats". , , ..„,.<„„.„..„. 136 

127 "Perform the prostration properly.. ,,.,,,,..„,„, 136 

128 "No prayer should he performed when the food is present.,.. 137 

129 "When anyone of you perforins prayer, he should not let 
anyone pass in front of him ,-,.,„,„ 139 

130 "Wh en any o ne ofyo u pe rform s prayer, he should have (o r 

place) a concrete object , , „.. 140 

131 "The Prophet (PBUH) performed prayer in an Open space 
without 140 

1 32 "Kill the two black things during prayer: the snake and the 
Scorpion". „<-„,„,.„ 140 

133 "If some problem arises during prayer, then the men should 

say, "Subhdn-AUdh". 141 

1 34 "When anyone of you forgets (i.e. errs inattentively during 
prayer) 144 

135 " When one (in a ttentively) a dds or om its something in one's 
prayer. „.„., 144 

1 36 "When anyone of you is in doubt whether he has performed 

one or two rak"ahs , 146 

137 "O Allah, You are the Perfection and You are the One Who 

grants perfection. , ...... „,.„..„ 150 

\ 38 "0 A llah ! No ne cq n withhold what Yo u gran Land none can 151,135 
grant what You withhold „ .„. 

139 "There is neith er might nor po wer except it i A llah , 151 

140 "Whoever says ten times immediately after finishing the 

Fajr (Dawn) Prayer. , ,..„ , 151 

141 "O my Lord, protect me from the Fire". ,..,. 151 

142 "...and He is overall things Omnipotent''. , , 152 

143 "If anyone extob Allah after every prayer thirty-three times. .. 152 

144 "Whoever recites dyatul-Kursl nothing will be between him 

and 153 



511 A Summary of Islamic jumprudeuct 

1 45 "Whoever recites aya tul-Ku rsi will be in A llah's covena ntof 
protection 153 

146 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) commanded me to recite Al-M 
u'awwidhatan 153 

147 "0 Allah, You are the Perfection and You are the One Who 

grants perfection until.. 153 

143 "There is neither might nor power except in Allah. 153 

149 "0 my Lord, protect me from the Hell fire.".... 154 

150 "Keep on the right course and (know that) you will not be 

able to do allgoodacts 157 

1 5 1 "Whoever does no t perform t h e Wit r Prayer does not beio ng 

tons.". 159 

152 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) performed the Witr Prayer at 
different nights ,. ...»...„„„.. 160 

1 53 If anyone of you is afraid that he may not be able to get up 

at the end of the night.... . r ...„ ...». ,.. 160 

1 54 "A llah's Messenger (PB UH) used to perform eleven rak " ahs 

at night 160 

155 "...uttering lasttm the end of every two rak'ahs 160 

156 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) used to perform the Witr with 

five or seven rak'ahs , 161 

157 "O Allah! Guide me among those You have guided.. .". 161 

158 "...but the fear that it (i e. the prayer) migh t be enjoined on 
you..!'. 164 

159 " Whoever stands (perform ing prayer) with the imam un til 

he finishes prayer. 164 

160 "Whoever performs prayer during the nights of Ramadan 
faithfully. 164 

161 "1 remember ten (supererogatory) rak'ahs from Allah's 
Messenger (PBUH) 168 

162 "Before the Zuhr (Noon) Prayer, the Prophet used to 
perform four rak'ahs 168 

1 63 "Perform some ofyo u r ($ tipe reroga tory) prayers at h ome. . . 168 

164 "The two (supererogatory) rak 'ahs of the Fajr Prayer are 

better than . < .............. 169 

1 65 "The Prophet (PB UH) used to make the two rak "ahs befo re 

the Fajr. 169 



Hjdkh Index 512 

166 "I cannot count (the number of times) I heard Allah's 
Messenger (PBUH) reciting. 170 

1 67 "If anyone c versleeps and m isses the Witr o rfo rgets it. ...... 1 70 

1 68 "Wh en sleep or pa in overpo wered the Prophet (PBUH) 1 70 

J 69 "My friend (i.e. the Prophet) advised me to do three 

things 173 

1 70 "Th e Prophet (PB UH) used to perform the Duha Prayer. . . 1 73 

171 "...the two rak l ahs of the D uhd Prayer, . ." 1 73 

172 "If anyone sits in his place of prayer after finishing the Subh 
(Morning) Prayer, 174 

173 "...the Prophet (PBUH) performed eight rak'ahs as the 

Dttha Prayer,". 174 

J 74 "The Prophet (PBUH) used to perform the Duha Prayer 

with four rak' 'ahs.. ,„. „ ... ,.„.. 174 

175 "The prayer of those who are penitent 174 

176 "When the Prophet (PBUH) recited a sum of the Qurttn 

that contains the prostration ..,.,„. „ , , 175 

177 "When the son of ad am (Adam) recites a verse of 
prostration..... „.„.,. „ , 176 

178 "...but ' Utlnnan did not perform prostration and said.. 176 

179 "AUahs Messenger (PBUH) used to recite the Quran to 

us 177 

180 "Subhaiia Rabbiyai-A "la" (Chry be to my Lord, the Most 

High) 177 

181 "My face has prostrated before Allah 177 

182 "Performing prayer in the middle of the night". 179 

183 "There is an hour in the night during which 179 

184 "Adhere to (the performance of) the night vigil super- 
erogatory prayer.. ,,, „...„..„ 180 

1 85 "The most beloved prayer to A Hah is i hat ofDawiid (David). .. 1 80 

186 "All praise be to Allah, Who gave me life after causing me 

to die (sleep) 181 

187 "When any of you stands up at night to perform the night 

vigil supererogatory prayer,, .„, , 181 

188 "The nigh t vigil s uperercga tory prayer should be 182 

189 " . , Perfo rm (supere rogato ry) prayer at your horn es,.... 182 

190 " Whoever performs prayer sit t ing gets half th e reward 182 

191 " When t h e servai 1 1 (of A Ha h) falls ill or travels, 1 8 2 A 9 3 



192 



513 A Summary of Islamic Juris prudence 

192 "Whoever is overpowered by sleeping 1 83 

193 "When the dawn breaks 185 

194 "There are three times at which,...* , 186 

1 93 "No prayer sho aid be per jo rmed after the fajr Prayer u n til 

the sun rises , 186 

196 "If anyone misses a prayer out of oversleeping or 
forget j illness . 186 

197 "Do not prevent anyone from circumambulating this 
House - 186 

195 "Do not differ (white standing in prayer. 190 

199 "Da not differ (while standing in prayer. 190 

200 "Th e most diffk u It prayer fo rthe hypocrites is the Fajr. 191 

201 "Certainly, I was about to order the prayer. 191 

202 "O Messenger of Allah! I have no one to guide me to the 
mosque , - 

203 7 have seen the time when no one among tts 192 

204 "St e rnness, ail sternness, a nd disbelief and hypocrisy a re in 
him who , - ....... 192 

205 "The Hand of Allah is with the (Muslim) community. 192 

206 "HewillbeinHellfire:\ 193 

207 "No (obligatory) prayer of the one who is a neighbor of 
a mosque „ 194,197 

20S "The neighbor of the mosque is the one who hears the caller 

to prayer! 1 . 194 

209 "The congregational prayer is to be performed by two 
persons or. 195 

210 "Who can do an act of charity to this man , 195 

211 "Let the oldest of you lead the prayer'". 196 

212 "The prayer in congregation is twenty seven times 
superior to 190,196 

213 "A mans prayer performed along with another is better..... 196 

214 "The people who get the best rewa rdfor th e prayer arc....... 1 97 

215 "Th e prayer perfo rmed in congrega tion is t wen tyjive times 
more superior..... 191,197 

216 "OBanu Salamah! Keep living in your houses 197 

217 "No man should lead another in prayer in a place wher..... 19S 

218 "Perform prayer at its prescribed time ...,. 199 

219 * . . It will be co nsidered a supereroga to ry p raye rfor yo u". .. 1 99 



Hadiili Index 514 

220 "Whiti the prayer commences , ,. )99 

221 "...No prayer (is to be performed) but that which has begun". 1 99 

222 "If anyone catches up (the people in prayer when they are) 
bowing. ,.„..,„...... 204 

223 "if you come to praye r wh tie we are p rosi ra ting. 204 

224 "...And complete whatever you have missed". 204,205 

225 "...And make up for whatever you have missed". 204,205 

226 "7s he who raises his head before the imam „, 206 

227 "The imam is appointed to be followed 206 

228 "You nc ither perform ed the prayer alone nor did yo u folio w 

your imam". „..„ ,., 206 

229 "Do not precede me in bowing and prostration and ending 

of prayer!'. 207 

230 "Do not prevent the female servants of Allah (women) 21 

231 "If your women ask permission to go to the mosque at night, 

allow them." 210 

232 "...Yet their houses (women's) are better for them (to 
perform prayer therein)''. 210 

233 "... But they should go while they are not perfumed.". 210 

234 "Whoever woman perfumes herself „,„ r 21 1 

235 "Afte r me, I have no t left any affile tic n more ha rmful to men 

than women!. 211 

236 "...Yet their houses are better for them (to perform prayer 
therein)". 211 

237 "Had Allah's Messenger (PBUH) witnessed what the women 

were doing , , 212 

238 " Three perso ns will be on the h illock. of musk on the Day of 
Resurrection 21 5^227 

239 "The reward of him (the imam in prayer) 215,227 

240 "Appoint me to lead my people in prayer.". 215,228 

24 1 "The one who is most versed in the Book of Allah. 216 

242 "If people are equal in recitation (of the Qur'an) 216 

243 "Let the oldest one. amongst you lead the prayer.". 217 

244 "The one who is most versed in Allah's Book (the Quran) 
should act as the im&m for the people. „._ M . r 217 

245 "No man should lead another in prayer where (the latter) is 

in his house .„ 218 



^ 1 5 A Summary of Isiarri ic Ju risprudence 

246 "No woman should lead a man in prayer, nor should a Bed- 
ouin had an immigrant , ... 218 

247 " , . Nor should a wicked man lead a believer in prayer"...., . 222 

248 "The Prophet (PB UH) perfo rmedp rayer in h is ho use wh lie 
sitting, 223 

249 "... Then perfo rm prayer s itting a 11 together!'. 2 23 

250 "If the one in a state of janabahft) leads the people in 
prayer...... .„„„,.,„>„„ ™ 223 

251 "(There are) three persons whose prayer does not rise over 

their ears..... „ , <..„-♦... 224 

252 "(There are) three persons whose prayer does not rise over 

their ears ,... ,.„.„..„..... 225 

253 "If anyone of you leads people in prayer, he should 
lighten it... ..,.,.„.,., 228 

254 "0 people! Some of you make people dislike good deeds 228 

255 "J never performed a light and perfect prayer as I performed 
behind the Prophet , 228 

256 "The Prophet (PBUH) used to prolong the first rak ah!'.,... 230 

257 "He (the Prophet) used to stand in the first rak "ah of the 

Zuhr. 230 

258 "If I order you to do something, then do of it as much as 

you can".... — 234 

259 "I had hemorrhoids so I asked the Prophet (PBUH) how I 

could perform prayer.,.,.. 235 

260 "...And if you cannot, perform prayer lying on your back," 235 

261 "...then he proceeded on his she- camel and led them in 
prayer. 237 

262 "When the prayer was enjoined (by Allah) 238 

263 "The prayer perfo rm ed on journ eys is of two rak K ahs 238 

264 "On the Battle ofTabuk. when the Prophet (PBUH) had 

gone forth.,,.,,,, - 239 

265 "... But if you are $ trong en o-ugh to delay th e Zuhr Praye. . . . 240 
2 66 "The Prophe t (PB UH) led the row tha t was w ith h im in one 

rak'ah (unit of prayer) .„,♦ 243 

267 "I witnessed the Pear Prayer with Allah's Messenger 
(PBUH) - 243 

268 "The Prophet (PBUH) led one of the two groups in one 
rak'ah in the Fear Prayer. 244 



269 K We went with the Prophet (PBUH) until we reached 
Dhatur Riqa\.\ 244 

270 "Then the immediate prayer call (iq&mah) was announced 

and 244 

27 1 "A mong the most excdlc n t of you r days is Friday". 247 

272 "We (Muslims) are the last (to come) but (will be) the first on 

the Day of Resurrection 247 

273 "It was Friday from which Allah diverted those who were 

before us 247 

274 "Confer blessings upon me frequently on Friday and the 

night preceding it". H , .„.„.„, 248 

275 "He who commits an evil act will have no (reward for) 
Friday.". 249 

276 " Wh oever asks h is compa n ion to keep quiet 249 

277 "If anyone recites th c Su ra of Ai-Kahf on Friday. 249 

278 "There is an hour (a period of time) on Friday. 250 

279 "...Then he may perform prayer as much as (Allah has) 

willed for hint...'. ,„,„ 250 

280 "When any one of you performs the Jumu "ah Prayer. 251 

281 " When the Prophet (PB UH) perform ed Jam a' ah Prayer. , . 25 1 

282 "If any one of you comes for the Jumu "ah Prayer. 252 

283 "...and should make them short". 252 

284 "Get up and perform two rak'ahs"..., ,,... rr 252 

285 "If anyone even says (to his companion siiiing besides him), 

'£ahin (i.e. shush) 253 

286 " Whoever talks while the ima m is delivering the (Friday) ser- 
mon .„ , 253 

287 "If you ask your companion to keep quiet and listen 253 

288 "Whoever touches pebbles „ 254 

289 "...And whoever makes an evil ach no Friday. 254 

290 "The prayer of the traveler is two rak L ahs 255 

29 \ "(Performing) the Jumu ah (Friday) Prayer in congregation 

is obligatory. „, 255 

292 " Whoever believes in A llah and the Last Day m ustpcrfo rm 

the Jumu 'ah , 256 

293 " Whoever co uld get one rak' ah of the Jumu 'ah Prayer. 2 57 

294 "The Prophet used to deliver two sermons while standing..... 253,2260 



517 A Sum ma ry of Islamic Jurisprudence 

295 "The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the 

evening too". „,„„„ „„ 259 

29 6 " When Allah's: Messenger (PB UH) ascended th e pulpit 260 

29 7 "Who. nthe Proph c t (PB UH) ascen dedthe pulp it, he used to 

sit until the prayer. „, „,„„ 260 

29iJ "When the Prophet (PBUH) stood on the pulpit we used to 

face him". 261 

299 % mans prolongation of the prayer and shortening of the 
sermon,. .„„ , ... ... ,, 261 

300 "Allah has given you instead of them what is better. , . „ . 265 

301 "If any one imitates the manners of any people ,.,„ 266 

302 "The best of speech is that of the Book of Allah 266 

303 " They (women) m ust go while they are no t perfu med". 266 

304 "The menstruating women should keep away from the 

place of prayer"...... ,, 267 

305 " We we re o rde red to com e out on the Day of Feast 267 

306 "The new moon of (the month of) Shaww&l was overcast. . . . 268 

307 "Perfa rm th e prayer of the Day ofSa crifice early. 268 

308 "The Prophet (PBUH) used not to go out (for prayer) on 

the Day of Fast-breaking. ...... 268 

309 "The Prophet (PBUH) had a loose outer garment 269 

310 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH), Abu Bakr, ' Umarand ' Uthmdn 

used to. „ 269 

3 1 1 "The Prophet (PBUH) performed a prayer of two rak "ahs. 270,274 

3 1 2 "The Prayer of the Fast- breaking Feast and that of the Feast 

of Sacrifice are 270 

313 "I performed the Feast Prayer along with Allah s Messenger 
(PBUH) 270 

314 "The Prophet (PBUH) pronounced takbir in a Feast Prayer 
twelve times... 271 

315 "Allah is truly Great .„„„ 271 

316 "One may praise Allah...... , , , 271 

317 "The Prophet (PBUH) used to recite the Quran aloud 272 

318 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) used to recite in the prayers of 

the Two Feasts ,....,..,„ ....„..„ , 272 

319 "It is among the acts of the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) 

that 273 



HaJifh Index 5 IS 

320 "...After finishing the prayer, the Prophet (PBUH) would 

stand in front of the people and. , ........... 273 

32 1 "After finishing ih e Feas t Prayer, the Prophet (PB UH) used 

to „„ 274 

322 "Pray whatever you get, and complete whatever you 
missed". .,».«..»...« 274 

323 "We were commanded to make the menstruating women go 

out to 275 

324 "...They (the menstruating women) would stand behind 
people,, , 275 

325 "...They (the menstruating women) used to pronounce 

takbir along with people"........,.,,,,..,,. ,.„ 275 

326 "When the Prophet (PBUH) performed the Subh Prayer in 

the momingof Arafah... ... ,.„,,«„,„.„ 276 

327 "The Prophet (PBUH) used to pronounce takbir 
immediately after. „,.,.,,., 276 

328 " Wh en he (the Proph et) finished Subh Prayer on the Day of 
Arafah .„.„ 276 

329 "The Day of 'Arafah, and the Day of Sacrifice and the Days 

of Mind .„„„ 277 

330 "Allah is the Greatest. .„,,„ 277 

33 L "There was an eclipse on the day when Ibrdhim, the son of 

the Prophet (PBUH), died 282 

332 "In voke A llah a nd per jo rm prayer u n til the eclipse clears." 2 82 

333 "These signs, which Allah sends, do not occur because of... 282 

334 "When you see the eclipse, perform prayer". , 283 

335 "When you see any of this (i.e. edipse) t perform prayer 

until it clears". 283 

336 "Allah listens to the one who praises Him 283 

337 "In the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (PBUH), the sun 
eclipsed , , r , ,.„.„„.„.. , 284 

338 "The Prophet (PBUH) came to the people^ after the sun 
became visible again..... ,..„ .„.„ .„ , L .„. 284 

339 "...until the eclipse is clear,*..,.. , , „..„ 285 

340 "...until the eclipse is over.". < rM 285 

34 1 "The Prophet (PBUH) went out to invoke Allah for rain.., 288 

342 "The Prophet (PBUH) performed two rakahs as 288 



5-13 A Sum mary of Islam ic jurisprudence 

343 Allah's Messenger (PBUH) went out to perform the Prayer 

for Rain „, 289 

344 "...the people fallowed him (the Prophet) and traversed 

their clothes!'. 290 

345 "D Allah! Let it be a strong fruitful rain 1 /. 290 

346 "The rain is due to the Pavorand Mercy of Allah"...... 290 

347 "O Allah! (Let the rain be) around us 290 

348 "There is no deity but Allah"..... H . r ,. r ,. r , r r ,, 293 

349 "Mention the pleasure destroyer (i.e. death) frequently" .„. 294 

350 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said, 'Show due bashj&lness to 
Allah.. hrH T „ 294 

351 "Allah has never made your remedy in what...... 295 

352 "The Prophet (PBUH) said, 'Allah has sent down both 
disease and cure.......... ., 295 

353 "It is not a remedy; it is a malady"............ „ .„, 295 

354 "Do not worry, it (your illness) is a means of purification..... 296 

355 "It is not permissible for any Muslim who has something to. , . 297 

356 "I am just as My servant thinks of Me 297 

357 "There is no deity but Allah .". 297 

358 "Exhort the dying among you tosay.. ...,..„..,„..,..„ 297 

359 "Whoever his last words are , , , ,,.,„,. 297 

360 "Recite ike Sura of Yd Sin over those dying among you"..... 298 

361 "When the soul is taken away the sight follows it 298 

362 "When the Prophet (PBUH) died, he was covered with 298 

363 "The corpse of a Muslim should not remain withheld 298 

364 "The soul of a (dead) believer is suspended to his debt 

until it 299 

365 "...washhim with water and sidr[9].. ."..... , 300 

366 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said, 'Whoever attends the 

funeral procession. , 305,308 

367 "O Allah! Forgive those of us who are living and those of us 

who are dead. „ . 306 

368 "O A Hah ! Forgive her...". 307 

369 "0 Allah! Make him precede his parents (to Paradise). „ „,. 307 

370 "Whoever escorts the deceased to the grave,.". 308 

371 "Whoever goes out accompanying a funeral from its 

house ,.., 308 

372 "Hurry up w ith the dead body for if if is righ teous.. 309 



Hadith Index 5211 

373 "We (women) were forbidden (by the Prophet) to follow 
funeral processions.",,.,, .. 309 

374 "Diggraves and make them wide find deep.". 309 

375 "(We bury him) in the Name of Allah and according to the 
religion 309 

376 " When you put your dead persons in the graves, say. ,.„ 310 

377 "It is your qibla h in yo ttr life and after you r dea th.". „ 310 

378 "Seek forgiveness for your (Muslim) brother and beg steadf 
astness T 310 

379 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) forbade that the graves should 

be plastered or. „.„ 311 

380 "The Messenger (PBUH) forbade plastering the graves 3 1 1 

3 8 1 "May Allah c urse the worn en wh a vis it the gra ves . . . 3 It 

382 "May Allah curse the Jews and Christians, for 31 1 

383 "It is better (hat one of you should sit on live coals which 
wotdd. 312 

3 84 "No belie ver consoles his (bereaved M uslim) bra ther. 312 

385 "May Allah make your reward great , „.„..., 312 

386 "Prepare some food for the family of fa far, , ,....,,.. 312 

387 "We (the Co mpanions) used toco nsider gat hering with .... 313 

388 "I forbade you (men) to visit the graves, but you may visit 

them now". 313 

3 S9 " . .for it (i. e. visiting graves) will remind you of the Hereafter? 313 

3 90 "May Allah curse women wh o visit the graves.". 314 

391 "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques..."... 314 

392 "By Allah! I will fight those who differentiate between 
Prayer and Zakdh7.. „,,„..„ .. 319 

3 93 "Isla m is based on (th e folio wing) five (prin ciples) 320 

394 "The wealth does not decrease out of giving in charity."...... 321 

39 5 " . , Invite the people to testify that there is no deity but Allah. . . . 322 

396 "... If they obey you to do so.. 322 

397 "No Zakah is to be taken from a property an til a year passes 

on iC, 322 

398 "...Allah's debts have more right to be paid.". 323 

399 "Concerning the (grazing) livestock 326 

40U "... If there is not a she-came! in its second year. ,.... 326 

40 1 "...If the number of the camels is fro m th irty-six to forty- 
five 326 



*>2\ A Juim-mary of Islam ii: Jurisprudence 

402 "...If the camels are from sixty- one to seventy-five 32 7 

403 "...if the number is from seventy-six to ninety. 327 

404 "...If they are from ninety-one to one hundred and twenty. ^ 327 

405 "...If they are over one-h u ndred a n d-twei t ty (camels). ...... 327 

406 "I heard Allah's Messenger (PEUH) saying, 'No owner of 
camels 327 

407 "When the Prophet (PBUH) sent me to Yemen.,,. 328 

408 "When Allah's Messenger (PBUH) sent me to Yemen (to 

collect Zakah) 328 

409 "These are the orders for Zakah which 328 

410 "...As regards Zakah for the (flock of) sheep. 329 

411 "...'We are ordered (by the Prophe t) to take from what 329 

412 "If somebody has got less than forty sheep .. 329 

413 "„ If the (number of) sheep is over one hundred and twenty. . , „ 329 

414 ".,. If they are over t wo h undred, three sh eep are due". 329 

415 "...As regards the (flock of) sheep* for ever} 1 forty sheep up to. .. 330 

416 * . , Neither an old nor a defective animal nor a male-goat is 

to be taken as .„., 330 

417 "...But one should give animals of medium quality. 330 

41JS *„. Avoid taking the best of their properties". 330 

419 *.., But one should give animals of medium quality". 331 

420 "Neither the property of different people may be taken 
together nor. 332 

421 "No Zakah is due on less than five wasqs[Il} of grains or 
dates.". 336 

422 "On a land irrigated by rainwater or by natural water 
channels or. 336 

423 "No Zakah is to be paid on (a quantity) less than five 
wasqs.". , 336 

424 "One-tenth is payable (as Zakah) on the land irrigated by 

rivers, or rain"... , 337 

425 "...And on the land irrigated by the well.. 337 

426 "...And a one-twentieth is to be paid (as Zakah) on what is 
irrigated by camels.". , rt „ rr , ..„ 337 

427 "One-fifth of the rikdz is to be given to the Public 
Treasury.". 338 

42S "No Zakah is due on vegetables". 339 



1 ladiih Index 521 

429 "No Zakah is to be paid On (a quant ity) less than five wasqs 

[12]:. 339 

430 "If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on h 

im 341 

431 "The Prophet (PBUH) used to take half a dinar as Zakah 

from 342 

432 "One- fortieth (i.e. 2.5%) is to be taken from pure silver (as 
Zakah)". , ,.„.. , *..„+ .,.♦,„..,,..<.„... 342 

433 "The one of you seems anxious to lift live coal from the 
Hcllfire and 342 

434 "Gold and silk are made lawful to the females of my nation 
while..... , 343 

435 "No Zakah is due on jewels used for ornament."..... 343 

436 "He who drinks in a vessel of gold or silver. 344 

437 "The Prophet (PBUH) used to order us to pay Zakah on 

what we prepare for trade-', ♦ 348 

438 "No Zakah is due upon property until one year has 
passed.".,, ,,♦.»..„.► . ».., 348 

4 39 "A llah s Messenger (PBUH) enjoin ed Zakd t ul -Fitr t o be paid 

with one sa' of dates or. ,...., , 352 

440 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) enjoined Zakatul-Fitr to be 

paid on every Muslim . . . ... 352 

44 1 "if anyone pays it (Zakdtul-Fitr) before the Feast Prayer. .. 352 

442 "Give Zakdtul-Fitr on behalf of whomever you support.".... 353 

443 "Zakah is never mixed with a property but ruins it 357 

444 "Deeds (their correctness and rewards) depend upon 
intentions..:. . 358 

445 "O Allah, make it a profit and do not make it a loss,". 358 

446 "May A llah reward you for what you h ave given 358 

447 "When some people brought their Zakdh to Allans 
Messenger (PBUH) .„.„.„. 358 

448 "Allah, Exalted be He t did not take the judgment of 

a prophet or 362 

449 "If you are (one) of these kinds (that deserve receiving 
Zakdh) 362 

450 "I have taken upon myself a compensation to settle the 
dispute between 364 



523 A Summary of islamic jurisprudence 

45 1 "... Tell them that Allah has made it obligatory for them to 

pay Zakah from „.„ , , 365 

452 "Wait until we receive Zakah. so that we order to give you 

from it"'. 366 

45 3 "Giving ch a rity to th e poor in to be reco rded asach arity. . . 366,3 7 1 

454 "Charity must not be given to the family of Muhammad... 366 

455 "Yes, (give them).". 366 

45 6 "Ifyo u wish, I shall give yon fro m it (i. e. Zakah) 367 

457 "(Giving) charity appeases the Wrath of the Lord and 

averts an evil death.". 370 

458 "Allah will give shade to seven on the Day when there will 

be no shade but His...". .. 370 

459 " . , a person who gives to charity so secretly.......... , 370 

460 " Which charity begets the greatest re ward?. 370 

461 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) was the most generous of ait the 
people 371 

462 ". . , Two rewa rds: A rewa rdfor ma in ta ining thet i<!$ oj kinship 

and , 371 

463 "Islam is based on five (pillars)...'". , „ 376 

464 "fasting the month of Ramadan". , _..„.,. 376 

465 "Start fasting on seeing it „.,„ 377 

466 "The people were looking far the new moon (of Ramadan).. r . 377 

467 '"I he (lunar) month (can be) twenty- nine nights (i.e. days). ... 377 

468 ". . . And if the sky is overcast... 377 

469 "Take sahur (pre- dawn meal) for there is a blessing in 
sahur" 382 

470 "The people will remain on the right path as long as they 
hasten breaking of the fast.". 383 

471 "The most beloved of My servants to Me are those who 
hasten to break fasting. 383 

472 "Allah's Messei ige r (PBUH) used to break h is fast befo re.... 383 

473 "Verily, a fasting person has an invocation when breaking 

his fast that is not rejected. , 334 

474 "O Allah! Tor You I have fasted, and with Your provision I 

have broken my fast". , , 384 

475 "Thirst has gone, the arteries have become moist, and 384 

476 "Whoever eats or drinks something forgetfully while he is 
fasting, should. , „ 388 



IJUdirh Index t24_ 

477 "Avoid that which makes you doubt and adhere to that 388 

478 "If anyone cannot help vomiting. „ ... ., .... 389 

479 "Take water into your nostrils well....... 389 

480 "lam in a state of justing) r. 389 

481 " Whoever does not give up evil speech and related deeds, , . 390 

482 "The fasting person is in a state of worship as long as he... 390 

483 "He does not observe fasting who continues eating. 390 

484 "It could happen that I miss some days of Ramadan . 392 

485 "A woman eame to the Prophet (PBUH) and said, 'My 
mother has died and... „, 393 

486 "The verse refers to those old men and women who are too 

old to fast.. * 396 

487 "It is not righteousness to fast on a journey!'. 397 

488 "Indeed, (the correctness and rewards of) deeds depend 

upon intentions , , 397 

489 "When one does not intend fasting before dawn, his fasting 

is invalid". 39& 

490 "... Thereupon, he (PBUH) said. 'Then I will observe fasting 
(today)r. 398 

491 "Whoever has the provision and the riding animal (or the 
means) that can carry him. ,..,.„,„,.„► .„,„.„,.. 404 

492 "Islam is based on five (pillars) 404 

493 ". . . ( going between As- §tlfa and Al- Mar wah) a re made for 
mentioning Allah".-. ... 405 

494 "Yes, there is a jihad prescribed for them in which there is 

no fighting.... ,,. M . f .. ,....„. 405 

495 "Perform Raj) and "Umrah on behalf of your father". 406 

496 "Perform Hajj only once, and whoever performs it more 

than that ................ ,.. r , „„,►,,,„.„ 406 

497 "O people! Allah has made Hajj obligatory for you, SO 
perform Hajj ,. 406 

498 "Make haste to (perform the a biigation of) Hajj 406 

499 "A woman lifted up a boy to (show him to) the Prophet and 

said ,,„„,,,„„., .„....„.„... 406 

500 "A woman from (the tribe of) Khath am said. 407 

501 "The Prophet (PBUH) heard a man saying talbiyah in this 

way. 408 

502 "A woman should not travel except with a mahram 411 



525 A SmTiffiary of Islamic Jurisprudence 

503 "D Messenger of Allah! My wife is proceeding for Hajj and . ... 411 

504 "It is impermissible for a woman to travel for one day and 

night except with 412 

505 "It is not lawfu I for a woman believing in A Uah to undertake 

a journey. „. .„. 412 

506 'X woman said to the Prophet, 'My mother had vowed to 
perform Hajj but , „ ...... 412 

507 "Perform Hajj and 'Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage) making 

them follow each other. ,... 415 

5 08 "We see that jihad [1 4] is the best of (good) deeds, so 415 

509 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) specified Dhul-Hulayfah (as a 

site for ihram) for, ,, , „.„,, 418 

510 "! . , The m ukail[ 1 6] of the people of Iraq is Dhdtu - irg." ... . 418 

5 1 1 "Make you r sitefo r i^rdm a place situa ted opposite to it.... 419 

512 7 used to scent Allah's Messenger (PBUH) whenever he 
wanted to assume ih_ram .... 422 

5L3 "Indeed, (the correctness and rewards of) deeds depend 

upon intentions...". 423 

5 1 4 Here I am at Your service, O Allah here I am at Your service. . . 424 

515 "There was an ailment in my head and I was carried to the 
Prophet (PBUH) 428 

516 "A muhrim should not wear a shirt, ok 429 

517 "A female muhrim must not wear a niq&b. 430 

518 "Men would pass by us when we accompanied Allah's 
Messenger (PRUH) 430 

519 "Do not apply any perfume to him". 431 

520 "A muhrim must neither marry himself, nor arrange the 
marriage of another one.". , 432 

521 "He who believes in Allah and the Last Day should either 

say something good or. 433 

522 "A sign of one's good observance of Islam « „, 434 

523 " . . All the pilgrims dissolved the state ofihjam except the 
Prophet (PBUH) 438 

524 And whoever is living within these boundaries can assume 
ihjdmfrom his home 438 

525 * . . The Prophet (PB UH) rode his mount (heading for Mind) 

and performed there -.<>-.---, ... 439 

526 "The best supplication is the one on the Day of "Arafah.,,, 440 



* 



Jjadtih Index S26 

527 "If anyone gets (i.e. stays at) 'Arafah before the dawn (of 
the. tenth of Dhul-Hijjah) breaks 440 

528 "Hajjis "Arafah 441 

529 "He (the Prophet) kept standing there (at 'Arafah) until 
sunset... „.,.. 443 

530 ". . . When he (PB UH) reached Muzdalifa h , 444 

531 "...Allah's Messenger (PBUH) then lay down until dawn 
and offered ...„..<...„..... , <..„.„„< „„.„..„ 444 

532 "All Mu zdalifah is a si anding place, but be away from Batn 
Muhassir.". 444 

533 "The polyiheisis did not use to depart (from fam\ i.e. 
Muzdalifah) until. ,.,,, , , , 445 

534 "In the morning of the Day of Al-' Aqabah 446 

535 "O Allah! Make it an accepted Hajj of ours that serves as a 
pardon for our sins". .„..„ ,. 447 

536 "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) got his head shaved 
during the Farewell Hajj'\ 447 

537 "Shaving (the hair) is not a duty laid on (pilgrim) women.. . 448 

538 "If I command you to do something, then do (of) it as much 

as you can", 448 

539 "When one of you throws pebbles at jamratul- "Aqabah.... 448 
5 40 "I applied pcrfu i n c co> isis ting of musk to A Halt's Messenger 

(PBUH) once 448 

541 "There is no deity but Allah Alone Who has no partner, ... 45 1 

542 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) did not grant anyone (of the 
pilgrims) permission to , „ 453 

543 "Allah's Messenger (PBUH) threw pebbles on the Day of 
Sacrifice at mid- morning .. ...,..„.,_,„„,.„,.„„ .... 454 

544 "We used to wait until the sun declined and then we would 

throw the pebbles.".. ,.„,„ 454 

545 "Leant your rituals from me (by seeing me performing them).". 445,446 1 454 

546 "The people (i.e. pilgrims} were commanded to perform 

the Farewell Tawaf. 457 

547 "None amongst you should depart until he performs the 
Farewell Tawaf. 457 

548 "The Prophet (PBUH) gave permission to menstruating 
women to... 457 



527 



,\ Summary ur Islamic Jurisprudence 



549 "Saftyyah Bint Huyayy menstruated after performing the 
IfedahTawdfiso 

550 "Alia hi Messenger (PB UH) commanded us to become seven 
partners (in , ,.,..„...,.„„ „,„..,,,„„ 

551 In the lifetime of the Prophet (PBUH), a person used to 
sacrifice a eve „ . rf <,..,.. 

552 "Four (types of animals) are impermissible to be offered as 
sacrifice , 

553 "When it is the beginning of Dhul-Hijjak and anyone of 
you intends to offer........ , „.„„,,.,„. 

554 "Every (newborn) boy is pawned by the 'aqiqah offered for 
him.". ,....„ 

555 "Two equal ewes are to be sacrificed for the (newborn) boy 
and one ewe is to , , 

556 "Sacrifice is made for him (the newborn baby) on the 
seventh day. .. 

557 "(On the Day of Resurrection,) you will be called by your 
names and..... 

558 "The dearest of your names to Allah are "Abdullah'. 

559 " Whoever dies witho u t fighting in the Ca use of A llah ........ 

560 ™ Whenever you a re called for fighting in the Ca use of Allah. . . 

561 ",. Then go and exert yourself in their service (i.e. his 
parents)". 

562 "Spoils are for those who witnessed the battle". ,. 

563 "Ask them for jizyah and if they agree, then...... „ 



457 

460 

460 

461 

461 

463 

464 

464 

465 
465 
472 
473 

475 

476 
478 



TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM 



Arabic 
Character 


Sj/m6oJ 


Example 




Arabic 
Character 


Symbol 


Example 


%.„.,„.,„.., 


fl/ 1 


amtnf isha 




* 


f 


faitbjfatwa 




& 


bad/Bilai 




H 


a j Quran 


u 


f 


iap/tasmiyah 




4 


k kili/Ka'bah 


* 


tfi 


think/thaqif 


J 


I 


qiblah 
man/marwah 


£ 


; 


Jcw/jandbab 


^ 


m 


t 


& 


Muhammad 


+ 


n 


Noah/nasVah 


+ 


tt 


At-Bukhari 


4 


h 


has/hilal 


J 


d 


day/diyah 




41 


h/t 


zakah/zakatul-fitr 


J 


d/i 


Dhul-Hijjah 




J 


w 


way/witr 


J 


r 


far/ribd 




* 


y 


yard/talbiyah 


J z 


zero/zayd 




- 


a 


fail 


1 


say/sura 




T 


I 


flqk 


£ sh 


show/'iihi' 




J 


U 


sunnah 


J* i 


"Air 




wc 4 


Adam/siw&k 


* J 4 


if&4ah 




> | * 


DawHd 


i* 
£ 


i 

E 


tnwAf 




V^ 


I 


^adith/^aua/s 


zubr 






aw 


await/ 'awrah 


£ 


h 


mk'ah 




Cr ay 


ayman 


t 


** 


tnaghrtb 




L 









This, book is an Introduction to Islamic J jrispruder.ce for readers 
without substantial background In this field. In two volumes, 
Sheikh £311 h. Al-Fawzan has projected light on jurisprudential 
issues of utmost Importance tn a genuine and reader- friendly 
Style, free From any jargon or sophisticated expressions. 
A Summary of islamic Jurisprudence, in this translated version, 
fulfills a long-standing need on the part oF English-speaking 
Muslims for a brief, introductory book on Islamic jurisprudence. 
It Is a valuable book For novice readers, be they Muslims Or 
non-Muslims, who do not have thorough knowledge of the 
Islamic jurisprudence. The chapters of this book focus on major 
issues In Islamic jurisprudence. Volume one covers issues 
such as Purification, Prayer, Zak$h, Fasting, tfa/j and llh$d. 
Sheikh £&lib Al-Fawzin (bom In 1935) has obtained a PhD in 
Islamic jurisprudence and has a high profile in teaching Jurisprudence. 
He is a member of many academic institutions including the Board 
of Senior Uiema, the Permanent Committee lor Fatvva a nd Research, 
He has written more than sixty published works covering Muslim 
Creed P Islamic jurisprudence and Muslim's conduct. 




Al44iiman PuClltning HfiUl* 

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